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Eskadrila br. 40 (RAF) tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata
Zrakoplovi - lokacija - grupa i dužnosti - knjige
Eskadrila broj 40 započela je rat kao dio naprednih zračnih udarnih snaga, što ju je učinilo jednom od prvih eskadrila poslanih u Francusku. Bitka za Fairey pretrpjela je vrlo velike gubitke tijekom bitke za Francusku, ali do tada se eskadrila broj 40 vratila u Britaniju kako bi se ponovno opremila Blenheimom.
Kad je njemački napad na zapadu počeo 10. svibnja 1940., u bitku su ubačeni Blenheimi br. 40 eskadrile, napadajući njemačke trupe do pada Francuske. Eskadrila je tada sudjelovala u napadima na njemačke invazijske teglenice u razdoblju u kojem se ta invazija očekivala u bilo kojem trenutku.
U studenom 1940. eskadrila se preusmjerila u Wellington, a iduću je godinu provela djelujući kao eskadrila noćnih bombardera sa Zapovjedništvom bombardera. U listopadu 1941. zrakoplovi eskadrile odvezeni su na Maltu, gdje su djelovali protiv ciljeva u Italiji i sjevernoj Africi do svibnja 1942., kada su preživjeli zrakoplovi prebačeni u Egipat. Oni dijelovi eskadrile koji su ostali u Velikoj Britaniji postali su eskadrila broj 156 14. veljače 1942. godine
Nakon što se eskadrila oporavila od napada na Malti, počela je letjeti operacijama protiv snaga Osovine u sjevernoj Africi, krećući se prema zapadu dok su saveznici napredovali u Tunis i Cirenaiku, da bi napokon prešla u Italiju u prosincu 1943. Odatle je jedinica izvela napada na mete u sjevernoj Italiji i na Balkanu.
Srpanj 1938.-prosinac 1939 .: Fairey bitka
Prosinca 1939.-studenog 1940 .: Bristol Blenheim IV
Studeni 1940.-svibanj 1942: IC Vickers Wellington IC
Svibanj 1942.-srpanj 1943.: Vickers Wellington III
Svibanj 1943.-ožujak 1945.: Vickers Wellington X
Ožujak 1945.-siječanj 1945.: Konsolidirani osloboditelj VI
8. listopada 1932.-2. rujna 1939 .: Abingdon
2. rujna-2. prosinca 1939 .: Betheniville (Francuska)
2. prosinca 1939.-2. veljače 1941 .: Wyton
2-14. Veljače 1941 .: Alconbury
31. listopada 1941.-svibnja 1942 .: Luqa
1. svibnja-23. lipnja 1942.: Abu Sueir
23. lipnja-20. kolovoza 1942 .: Shallufa
20. kolovoza-7. studenog 1942 .: Kabrit
7-12. Studenog 1942 .: LG.222A
12-25 studenog 1942: LG.104
25. studenog 1942.-20. siječnja 1943 .: Luqa
20. siječnja-15. veljače 1943 .: LG. 237
15. veljače-13. ožujka 1943 .: Gardabia East
13. ožujka-26. svibnja 1943.: Gardabia jug
26. svibnja-25. lipnja 1943 .: Kairouan/ Cheria
25. lipnja-18. studenog 1943 .: Hani West
18. studenog 1943-4. Prosinca 1943: Oudna 1
16.-30. prosinca 1943.: Cerignola (Italija)
30. prosinca 1943.-21. listopada 1945.: Foggia Main
Grupa i dužnost
26. rujna 1939.-prosinac 1939 .: Bombarderska eskadrila s grupom br. 1, 71 krilo, napredne zračne udarne snage
Prosinca 1939.-studenog 1940 .: eskadrila bombardera Blenheim
Studeni 1940.-listopad 1941.: Eskadrila noćnih bombardera Wellingtona, Velika Britanija
Listopad 1941.-svibanj 1942: Bombarderska eskadrila, Malta
Svibanj 1942.-prosinac 1943.: Bombarderska eskadrila, Sjeverna Afrika
Prosinca 1943.-kraj rata: Bombarderska eskadrila, Italija
Datoteka: Bristol Blenheim Mk IV od 40. eskadrile RAF, srpanj 1940. CH787.jpg
HMSO je objavio da se istek Krunskih autorskih prava primjenjuje na cijeli svijet (ref: HMSO Email Reply)
Ova je oznaka osmišljena za uporabu u slučajevima kada postoji potreba za tvrdnjom da su sva poboljšanja (npr. Svjetlina, kontrast, usklađivanje boja, izoštravanje) sama po sebi nedovoljno kreativna za stvaranje novih autorskih prava. Može se koristiti tamo gdje nije poznato jesu li napravljena poboljšanja, kao i kada su poboljšanja jasna, ali nedovoljna. Za poznata neobrađena neobrađena skeniranja možete upotrijebiti odgovarajući <
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40 eskadrila (RAF): Drugi svjetski rat - povijest
Pregled muškaraca s Kariba koji su letjeli za RAF i njihova iskustva koja je zarobio kapetan Mark Johnson. Lijepo dizajnirana prezentacija isporučena u RAF muzeju i za Mjesec povijesti crnaca. Različiti aspekti ovog često zaboravljenog dijela britanske povijesti istaknuti su iskustvima pojedinačnih muškaraca.
Prvi crni pilot Britanije#8217
Karipski dobrovoljci u ratu sada su dostupni
Sada je dostupno u obliku e-knjiga Za K.ing & amp Country - Služba i žrtva britanske zapadnoindijske vojske
Domovina zove - Britanski crni vojnici i žene amp 1939.-1945
2006. časopis RAF Spirit of the Air objavio je članak pod naslovom ‘The Caribbean Connection ’ koji je napisao Val Simpson. Članak sadrži neke zanimljive slike i spominje karijere vođe eskadrile Ulric Crossa i poručnika leta Arthura Winta, Vincenta Buntinga i Johna Ebanksa. Link do članka
Pod jednom zastavom
Također su letjeli
Heroji Kariba (dokumentarni film o 2. svjetskom ratu) | Vremenska Crta
Film Channel 4 o zapadnoindijskim bivšim vojnicima i ženama koji su služili u britanskim snagama u oba svjetska rata. Osobine uključuju vojnika koji se borio za englesku pukovniju u Drugom svjetskom ratu, pilota koji se pridružio ATS -u, kao i druge pojedince koji su bili u kopnenoj posadi RAF -a. Film prati priču o tim pojedincima od onih ranih godina do doba Enocha Powella 1968. godine, kada je zatražio od ovih vojnika da se vrate u svoju domovinu.
Crni RAF Marka Johnsona
Mark Johnson govori o svom ujaku Johnu Jellicoe Blairu, jednom od gotovo 500 zrakoplovnih posada Crnih Kariba u RAF-u tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata
Piloti br. 132 Grad Bombay Eskadrila (Detling, 1943.-1944.) S tri pilota karipske Spitfire:
Zapovjednik James Joseph Hyde (s Trinidada) – prvi red, treći slijeva.
F/Narednik Arthur O. Tjedni (ili Weekes, s Barbadosa) – zadnji red, četvrti slijeva.
Zapovjednik Collins Alwyin Joseph (iz Trinidada) – zadnji red, šesti s desne strane.
Drugi identificirani piloti su:
Zapovjednik časnik S/Ldr grof Franz Ferdinand Colloredo-Mansfeld DFC (1910.-1944., Rođen u Italiji od oca Austrijanca i majke Amerikanke) – prvi red, u sredini.
F/poručnik Harold Edward ‘Harry ’ Walmsley (Britanac) – prvi red, osam slijeva.
F/O John Jeremy Caulton (s Novog Zelanda) – prvi red, peti zdesna.
Henry Lacey Smith (Australac) – prvi red, četvrti zdesna.
Kenneth Langley Charney (Argentinac) i#8211 u zadnjem redu, sjedi na desnom krilu pored kokpita
(kliknite na fotografiju za povećanje)
[slika: autorsko pravo John Caulton, unuk F/O J.J. Caulton]
[Autorsko pravo Imperial War Museum ljubaznošću Johna Caultona]
Plava plaketa u spomen na veterana RAF-a Cy Granta
11. studenog, na Dan sjećanja 2017., u bivšoj kući Highgatea otkrivena je plava ploča inicijatora ove arhive, glumca, pjevača i književnika Cy Granta. Više o tome pročitajte ovdje.
Zapadnoindijska posada u Istočnom Yorkshireu tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata
Istraživačica - i vrlo cijenjena suradnica ove arhive - gospođa Audrey Dewjee objavila je članak o Zapadnim Indijancima koji su tijekom rata služili kao posada u RAF -u na području Istočnog Yorkshira. U članku se ističu poznati jamajčani Billy Strachan, Lincoln Lynch, Arthur Wint, John Blair, Godfrey Petgrave, kao i Vivian Florent, čiji je otac bio iz Svete Lucije. Objavljeno je na web stranici projekta Afrikanci u Yorkshireu.
Web stranica također se sjeća 4.000 karipskih zemaljskih posada koji su trenirali na tom području u RAF -u Hunmanby Moor, Filey. Za više informacija o njima kliknite ovdje.
E. R. Braithwaite, bivši pilot RAF -a i autor knjige To Sir, With Love, umire u 104
Edward Ricardo Braithwaite rođen je od visokoobrazovanih roditelja u Georgetownu, Britanska Gvajana 1912. Bio je jedan od prvih Kariba koji su se pridružili RAF-u tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. Nakon rata doktorirao je fiziku na Sveučilištu Cambridge, ali nije uspio pronaći posao inženjera u poslijeratnoj Britaniji. Umjesto toga, zaposlio se kao učitelj u London ’s East End. Njegova hvaljena knjiga ‘To Sir, With Love ’ (1959) temelji se na njegovim tamošnjim iskustvima. Nakon objavljivanja knjige radio je za Svjetsku organizaciju veterana, Unesco i kao diplomat za svoju rodnu Gvajanu. Preminuo je 12. prosinca 2016.
Pročitajte njegovu osmrtnicu u Guardianu i više o njegovu životu i karijeri.
Projekt digitalne arhive - Međunarodni zapovjedni centar za bombardere: Tražim preživjelu veteransku posadu s Kariba koja je letjela za zapovjedništvo bombardera
Projekt digitalne arhive Međunarodne komande bombardera okuplja resurse iz cijelog svijeta kako bi formirao konačan središnji izvor informacija o zapovjedništvu bombardera. Sadrži usmene povijesti i videografije, nikada prije digitalizirane dokumente u posjedu muzeja i ustanova širom svijeta i onih u privatnom vlasništvu. To će uključivati knjige dnevnika, fotografije, pisma i citate o uslugama, sve zajedno sakupljeno u indeksiranu arhivu za pretraživanje prije nego se priča zauvijek izgubi. Stoga je očuvanje bogate baštine Zapovjedništva i osiguravanje sjećanja na one koji su služili dostupno generacijama koje dolaze.
Za odjeljak usmene povijesti digitalne arhive kustosi bi htjeli intervjuirati sve veterane iz Zapadne Indije koji su letjeli u Zapovjedništvo bombardera koji su još uvijek s nama. Molimo kontaktirajte g. Peter Jones projekta ili administratora ove web stranice.
Ovdje je veza na web stranicu Međunarodnog zapovjednog centra za bombardere: http://internationalbcc.co.uk/ I digitalnu arhivu: http://internationalbcc.co.uk/lbcm-database
"Piloti Kariba" sada na mreži
Mrežna verzija izložbe ‘Piloti Kariba’: dobrovoljci afričke baštine u Kraljevskim zračnim snagama sada je dostupna na http://www.rafmuseum.org.uk/research/online-exhibitions.aspx. Originalnu izložbu kurirao je Muzej RAF -a u partnerstvu s Crnom kulturnom arhivom. Bio je izložen na različitim mjestima diljem Velike Britanije i dobio je veliko priznanje (vidi dolje). U subotu 31. listopada 2015. u Muzeju RAF -a održat će se Mjesec mjeseca crne povijesti. Bit će govora o volonterima afričko-karipskog RAF-a i nastupima pripovjedača Winstona Nzinge. Također će biti izloženi dokumenti i artefakti koji se odnose na osoblje crnaca. Pročitajte više: http://www.rafmuseum.org.uk/london/whats-going-on/events/pilots-of-the-caribbean-black-volunteers-in-the-r/
Izložba ‘Piloti Kariba ’ nagrađena za izvrsnost
Piloti Kariba: Volonteri afričke baštine u RAF -u dobio je visoko pohvalnu nagradu u kategoriji ‘Best Temporary Exhibition ’ na dodjeli nagrada Museums and Heritage Awards 2015. održanoj u Londonu 29. travnja. Izložba je ušla u uži izbor za ovogodišnje nagrade Museums and Heritage Awards for Excellence. Izložba o doprinosu dobrovoljaca afričke baštine Kraljevskim zračnim snagama nominirana je u kategoriji ‘Privremene ili obilaske izložbe ’. Omaž zapadnoindijskim letcima na turneji pokrenuo je RAF-muzej London u suradnji s Black Cultural Archives. Saopćenje za javnost RAF-muzeja pročitajte ovdje.
Flt. Natporučnik Clifton Norman Rhys Pinks (1923.-2014.)
Njegova obitelj nas je obavijestila da je podpovjednik Clifton Norman Rhys Pinks preminuo 7. rujna 2014. 1941. dobrovoljno se prijavio za obuku za časnika u Kraljevskim zračnim snagama sa sjedištem u Kanadi, a 1943. je došao u Englesku kao zračni topnik signalista. Nakon rata otišao je na sveučilište Aberdeen studirati medicinu i bavio se vrhunskom atletikom. Tisak je Cliftona aludirao na 'Tamni bljesak'. 1950. vratio se u RAF i služio s odlikom do 1978. Do 1988. radio je u Ministarstvu obrane. Više pročitajte ovdje
Otvorena izložba ‘Piloti Kariba ’ u Cosfordu
Izložba 'Piloti s Kariba: Dobrovoljci afričke baštine u Kraljevskim zračnim snagama ’ bit će otvorena u Muzeju kraljevskih zračnih snaga Cosford 6. listopada 2014. Otvaranje izložbe poklopit će se s Mjesecom crne povijesti, nacionalnim događajem koji slavi postignuća crnci i muškarci kroz povijest. Izložena u partnerstvu s Crnom kulturnom arhivom, izložba će ispričati inspirativnu priču o ovim dobrovoljcima, obilježavajući i slaveći njihov vitalni doprinos u obrani Britanije, njezina Carstva i Commonwealtha. Popratni video zapisi i artefakti oživjet će priče ovih hrabrih volontera. Više pročitajte ovdje.
Izložba ‘RAF i Commonwealth – Priče iz Afrike, Azije i Kariba ’ otvorena u Glasgowu 21. srpnja 2014.
Izložba će ispričati priču o važnoj ulozi koju su afrički, azijski i karipski zrakoplovci i žene imali u povijesti RAF -a, od njegovog početka 1918. do danas. Povijest Drugog svjetskog rata 602 eskadrile (Grad Glasgow) - 'Glasgow's Own' također će biti dio prezentacije koja naglašava kritičnu ulogu koju su dobrovoljci iz cijelog Carstva, Dominija, Commonwealtha i savezničkih naroda imali u pobjedi nad pošasti fašizma . Izložba također pruža informacije o važnosti jednakosti i različitosti kao temeljnih vrijednosti današnjeg RAF -a. U izložbenom prostoru knjižnice Mitchell, 22. srpnja – 27. rujna 2014., ulaz je besplatan. Plakat preuzmite ovdje. TV reportažu s otvorenja pogledajte ovdje.
Prolazak vođe eskadrile Phillip Louis Ulric Cross, DSO, DFC
Dobili smo tužnu vijest da je Phillip Louis Ulric Cross preminuo u španjolskoj luci, Trinidad, u 96. godini, 4. listopada 2013. Cross je bio najviši veteran Zapadnoindijskog Drugog svjetskog rata koji je još živ i jedan od rijetkih časnika legendarna 139 eskadrila Pathfinder zapovjedništva bombardera RAF -a. Cross je kasnije postao državni odvjetnik Kameruna i cijenjeni sudac u Gani i Tanzaniji. Nakon povratka u Trinidad služio je kao sudac Višeg suda, a od 1979. kao član Apelacijskog suda. 1990. postao je visoki povjerenik za Trinidad i Tobago u Velikoj Britaniji te veleposlanik u Njemačkoj i Francuskoj. Pogledajte video “On Target – A Tribute to RAF Squadron Leader Phillip Louis Cross, DSO, DFC ” na YouTubeu [Proklamacije Etiopskog krunskog vijeća i Opće skupštine Marylanda kliknite na sliku za lakšu verziju] Pročitajte osmrtnicu u Vijesti o Trinidadu i Tobagu ovdje. Više: Trinidad Guardian, Trinidad Express [Ljubaznošću Jerome Lee]
Piloti Kariba: Dobrovoljci afričke baštine u Kraljevskim zračnim snagama
Muzej RAF London, a potom i Muzej RAF Cosford slavit će afro-karipski doprinos RAF-u-prvoj službi koja je pokrenula politiku jednakih operacija. Počevši od Prvog svjetskog rata pa sve do Drugoga svjetskog rata i Hladnog rata do trenutačno na usluzi članovima, izložba će uključivati osobna sjećanja, fotografije i još mnogo toga. Izložba će biti otvorena u Londonu 1. studenog 2013. i trajat će šest mjeseci, nakon čega će se prenijeti u Cosford na daljnjih šest mjeseci. U tisku: The Times, Jamaica Gleaner, Blacknet, RAF-MOD,
Zapadni Indijanci u Britaniji (1944)
U ovom filmu, koji je tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata snimilo Ministarstvo informacija, grupa Zapadnih Indijanaca, predvođena Unom Marson i Learie Constantine, okuplja se u Broadcasting Houseu u Londonu. Oni opisuju slušateljima popularne radijske serije BBC -a, ‘Calling the West Indies ’, kako ljudi s Kariba podržavaju ratne napore. Constantine govori o tvorničkim radnicima i predstavlja neke ratne radnike, uključujući Ulric Crossa, navigatora bombardera s Trinidada. Cross govori o zapadnoindijskim dobrovoljcima u oružanim snagama, a pilot Spitfirea James Hyde (ubijen u akciji kasnije u ratu) prikazan je ukratko.
[Adaptacija izvornog naslova Stephen Bourne You-tube link ljubaznošću Peter Devitt, RAF Museum London]
Moto: “Fortis nocte ” (“Snažno noću ”).
Bedž: Potkova i bljesak munje isprepleli su se. Potkova je pokazatelj sreće u Prvom svjetskom ratu kada je eskadrila izvela opsežne operacije uz gubitak samo jednog pilota i promatrača. Daljnji razlog za potkovu je to što je veliki dio eskadrile radio u vezi s konjicom. Bljesak munje simbol je brzine kojom je posao obavljen tijekom relativno kratke povijesti.
Ovlaštenje: Kralj George VI, veljača 1938.
149 eskadrila, RFC, osnovana je 3. ožujka 1918. u Yaptonu u Sussexu kao jedinica noćnih bombardera, a tri mjeseca kasnije otišla je u Francusku opremljena FE2b ’. Angažiran u bombardiranju neprijateljskih komunikacija, uzletišta itd., Kao i na izvidničkim zadaćama na Drugom frontu armije, bacio je više od 80 tona bombi i izvršio 161 izviđanje.
Dva zanimljiva detalja vrijedna spomena tiču se opreme eskadrile. Svi FE -i bili su opremljeni reduktorom “plamena ” koji je dizajnirao časnik eskadrile – kapetan CES RusseIl. Ovo je uspješno prigušilo sav ispušni plamen, važan uvjet za letjelice noću. Svi zrakoplovi bili su opremljeni posebnim stalcima koje je projektirao jedan od mehaničara eskadrile i koji su mogli prenijeti ili Michelin rakete ili bombe bez modifikacija. FE su tako trenutno bili prilagodljivi za bombardiranje ili izviđanje. Od 18 originalnih FE eskadrile koje su letjele u Francusku u lipnju 1918., sedam ih je još bilo u službi na Dan primirja.
Nakon primirja br. 149, bila je jedina eskadrila FE odabrana za pratnju okupacijske vojske u Njemačku. Vratio se u Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo u ožujku 1919., a raspušten je u Tallaght, Co. Dublin, sljedećeg kolovoza.
Eskadrila je ponovno formirana 1937. u Mildenhallu – ponovno kao jedinica noćnih bombardera – i sada opremljena zrakoplovima Heyford. Wellingtoni su primljeni početkom 1939., a 4. rujna iste godine broj 149 podijelio je eskadrili broj 9 razliku u tome što su RAF -ovi drugi bombardiranje u Drugom svjetskom ratu bili meta njemačkih ratnih brodova u Brunsbüttelu.
Eskadrila je odigrala istaknutu ulogu u ranoj ofenzivi protiv Njemačke, Italije i teritorija koje su okupirali neprijatelji, a nakon što se ponovno opremila Stirlings, sudjelovala je u prvim napadima 1.000 bombardera. 1943. dala je značajan doprinos bitci za Ruhr, a također je sudjelovala u bitci za Hamburg i poznatom napadu na njemačku eksperimentalnu stanicu s V-oružjem u Peenemundeu. Između veljače i srpnja 1944. –, a osim što je na neprijatelja bacilo eksplozive, eskadrila je pomogla opskrbu francuskih Makija zalihama, oružjem i streljivom padobranom.
Krajem 1944. Stirlingove su zamijenili Lancasteri i s njima je eskadrila nastavila ofenzivu do kraja travnja 1945. Potom je hranu prepustila izgladnjelom Nizozemskom, a kasnije je, nakon njemačke predaje, prevezla mnoge bivše zarobljenike u Englesku s kontinenta.
Tijekom prosinca 1943. eskadrila je bila odgovorna za uvođenje nove tehnike miniranja na visokoj razini. Među brojnim odlikovanjima koje su osvojili njezini članovi bio je i križ Victoria koji je posmrtno dodijeljen naredniku leta RH Middletonu, RAAF -u, za njegovu ulogu u naletu na Torino u noći 28. na 29. studenog 1942. godine.
Zapovjedništvo bombardera Drugog svjetskog rata:
- Mildenhall: travanj 1937.-travanj 1942. godine
- Odred u južnoj Francuskoj (Salon) u lipnju 1940.
- Odred u Lakenheathu u siječnju/veljači 1942.
- Lakenheath: travanj 1942.-svibanj 1944
- Odred u Tempsfordu u siječnju/veljači 1944.
- Methwold: od svibnja 1944. nadalje
Zapovjedništvo bombardera Drugoga svjetskog zrakoplova:
- Vickers Wellington I, IC i II: siječanj 1939.-prosinac 1941
- Kratki Stirling I i III: studeni 1941-rujan 1944
- Avro Lancaster B.I i B.III: kolovoz 1944.-studeni 1949. godine
Drugi svjetski svjetski klima uređaj bio je kodiran “OJ ” ili, u slučaju određenih Lancastera i možda Stirlings, “TK ”.
Prva operativna misija u Drugom svjetskom ratu:
Prva bombaška misija u Drugom svjetskom ratu:
Brunsbüttel. 1 je tvrdio da je ispalio bombe iznad ciljnog područja, a bombe u zraku ispalio na drugim mjestima.
Posljednja operativna misija u Drugom svjetskom ratu:
Posljednja misija prije Dana VE:
John Johnson (Autor knjige Air Britain – 149 Squadron. Ovo je Methwold)
RAF METHWOLD – 149 EKVADRON – 6.2.1945
Eskadrila br.149 “Istočne Indije bila je oslonac Zapovjedništva bombardera, koji je sudjelovao u kampanji strateškog bombardiranja od njezinih početaka u svibnju 1940. do samog kraja rata.
Kao i mnoge eskadrile Zapovjedništva bombardera, br.149 započeo je rat napadom na njemačku flotu u rujnu 1939. godine, prije nego što je počeo lažni rat. Jednom kad je započela noćna kampanja bombardiranja, eskadrila je došla tek do prekida kada je prešla iz Wellingtona u Stirling, a zatim od Stirlinga do Lancastera.
Siječanj 1939.-prosinac 1941.: Vickers Wellington I, IA, IC
Studeni 1941.-lipanj 1943.: Kratki Stirling I
Veljača 1943.-rujan 1944.: Kratki Stirling III
Kolovoz 1944.-studeni 1949.: Avro Lancaster I i III
12. travnja 1937.-6. travnja 1942 .: Mildenhall
6. travnja 1942.-15. svibnja 1944.: Lakenheath
15. svibnja 1944.-29. travnja 1946.: Methwold
Formirana u Debdenu, Essex, Engleska 15. studenoga 1941., kao 14. eskadrila RCAF -a, koja je formirana samo u inozemstvu, jedinica je letjela zrakoplovima Boston i Mosquito u danju i noću protiv uljeza duboko u neprijateljsko područje. Tvrdnja da je uništeno 178 neprijateljskih zrakoplova i 79½ letećih bombi V-1 učinila ga je jedinicom s najvećim brojem bodova RCAF-a. Najbolji pojedinačni rezultat bio je S/L R. Bannock, s 11 zrakoplova i 18½ V-l ’. Dana 21. studenoga 1944. bilo je
premješten na poslove bliske potpore (1) s Drugim taktičkim zračnim snagama u niskim zemljama. Eskadrila je raspuštena u Volkelu u Nizozemskoj 7. rujna 1945. godine.
Kratka kronologija: Formirano kao br. 418 (I) Sqn, Debden, Essex, eng. 15. studenoga 41. Rasformirano u Volkelu, Neth. 7. rujna 45.
Titula ili nadimak: “Grad Edmonton ”
Posvajanje: Grad Edmonton, Alta (ožujak 1944.)
- W/C G.H. Gatheral (RAF) 22. studenog 41. -14. Svibnja 42.
- W/C A.E, Saunders (RAF) 15. svibnja 42. -11. Prosinca 42. (RAF), DFC 12. prosinca 42. -13. Lipnja 43. KIA.
- W/C P.Y. Davoud, DFC 15. lipnja 43. -7. Siječnja 44.
- W/C D.C.S. MacDonald, DFC 8. siječnja 44. -24. veljače 44., DFC 25. veljače 44. -9. ožujka 44 KIA.
- W/C A. Barker 30. ožujka 44. -9. Listopada 44., DFC i Bar 10. listopada 44. -22. Br. 44.
- W/C J.C. Wickett 23. studenog 44. -22. veljače 45 VOJSKI.
- W/C D.B. Annan 23. veljače 45. -23. Svibnja 45 OTE.
- W/C H.D. Cleveland, DFC 24. svibnja 45. -7. Rujna 45.
Više formacije i položaj eskadrile
Zapovjedništvo lovaca preimenovano u PZO Velika Britanija (15. studenog 43.)
- Debden, Essex 15. studenog 41. -14. Travnja 42.
- Bradwell Bay, Essex 15. travnja 42. -14. Ožujka 43.
- Ford, Sussex 15. ožujka 43. -7. Travnja 44.
- Holmsley South, Hants. 8. travnja 44. -13. Srpnja 44.
- Sranje, Hants. 14. srpnja 44. -28. Srpnja 44.
- Srednji Wallop, Hants. 29. srpnja 44. -26. Kolovoza 44.
- Hunsdon, Herts. 28. kolovoza 44. -20. Studenog 44.
Drugo taktičko zrakoplovstvo:
- Hartford Bridge, Hants. 21. studenog 44. -14. Ožujka 45.
- B. (Baza) 71 Coxyde, Bel. 15. ožujka 45. -25. Travnja 45.
- B.80 Volkel, Neth. 26. travnja 45. -7 rujna 45.
Reprezentativni zrakoplovi (Šifra jedinice TH)
Douglas Boston Mk.III (41. studenog -srpnja 43)
de Havilland Mosquito Mk.II (43. ožujka -No 44.)
de Havilland Mosquito F.B.Mk.VI (44. studenog -45. rujna) (2)
- HR148 B HR184 Z HR324 N HR358 K HX953 X NS823 W NS857 L NS930 V NT115 J NT153 Y PZ219 E PZ235 M PZ414 P PZ454 Y RS454 F RS560 G RS561 F RS569 V RS594 L SZ962 U SZ964 X SZ9 S S965
Operativna povijest: Prva misija, bombardiranje 27. ožujka 1942., 8 Fordovih Bostona poslano je bombardirati rafinerije nafte i tenkove u Ertveldeu, blizu Ghenta u Belgiji, 7 bombardiralo je primarni cilj, 1 je imao vezu s bombom “.
Prva misija, Uljez: 28. ožujka 1942., 6 Bostona iz Forda i#8211 noćne ophodnje neprijateljskih aerodroma u Francuskoj (Lille, Vendeville, Rennes, Le Touquet i Abbeville) i Nizozemskoj (Gilze-Rijen) u suradnji s eskadrom br. 23 RAF-a.
Prva pobjeda: 26. travnja 1942., narednici. G.W.C. Harding (RAF), R.P. Shannon (promatrač) i H.J.H. Irving (zračni topnik) u Bostonu s Holmsleyja South – noćni uljez iznad aerodroma Evreux u Francuskoj, pripisuje se oštećen 1 neidentificirani neprijateljski zrakoplov. 7. svibnja 1942., P/O A. Lucas (RAF), narednici W.S. Randolph (promatrač) i H. Haskell (zračni topnik) u Bostonu s Holmsleyja na jugu i noćni uljez#8211 iznad aerodroma Gilze-Rijen u Nizozemskoj, zajednički sa zrakoplovom uragana iz 3. odreda RAF 1 uništen je neidentificirani neprijateljski zrakoplov.
Posljednja misija: 3. svibnja 1945., Mosquito VI iz Volkel – izviđanje bojnog područja.
Sažetak sortiranja: 3492 (uključujući 402 u ophodnjama protiv letećih bombi).
- Radni/neradni sati letenja: 11,248112,255.
- Zrakoplovi: 178 uništeno (73 na zemlji), 9 vjerojatno uništeno, 103 oštećeno. V-1: 76 uništeno nad vodom, 7 nad Engleskom. (3)
- Zemlja: bačeno 56 tona bombi pripisanih 17 uništenih lokomotiva i 59 oštećenih, 52 teretna i putnička automobila uništena ili iskliznuta, 200 motornih vozila uništeno.
- Operativno: 59 zrakoplova, 143 zrakoplovne posade, od kojih je 94 poginulih ili se pretpostavlja da su mrtvi, 27 nestalih, 14 zarobljenika, 8 je izbjeglo hvatanje.
- Neispravan: 13 zrakoplova 31 osoba poginulo, 2 ozlijeđena.
Asovi eskadrile: W/C R. Bannock, DFC i Bar 25½-7-0-1-18½. (4) S/L R. Siva, DFC 12-10-0-12-2. F/O S.P. Reid, DFC 11½-8-0-7-3½. S/L H.D. Cleveland, DFC 10-10-0-1-0. F/L C.M. Jasper, DFC 9-6-1-1-3. F/L C.J. Evans 9-l 1/2-0-7 1/2. F/L S.H.R. Cotteril, DFC 8-4-0-1-4 F/L D.E. Forsyth 8-4-0-0-4. S/L J.B. Kerr 6-5-0-3-1. F/L H.E. Miller 5-2-0-0-3. F/L P.S. Nogavica 5-0-0-0-5.
Nagrade i priznanja: 3 DSO ’s, 1 sekunda na DFC, 9 taktova na DFC, 42 DFC ’s, 5 DFM ’s, 1 DFC (SAD), 1 zračna medalja (SAD).
- Obrana Britanije 1944.
- Tvrđava Europa 1942-1944. Dieppe.
- Francuska i Njemačka 1944-1945. Normandija 1944, Rajna.
(1) U ulozi uljeza zamijenjen je eskadrilom broj 406.
(2) Zrakoplovi su dobili ime i ukrašeni prema likovima iz stripa “Li ’l Abner. ”
(3) V-1 uništen nad Engleskom računao se kao samo pola pobjede.
(4) Pet kategorija označava, za ovu eskadrilu: ukupno potvrđeno vjerojatno oštećenje i uništavanje V-l ’.
40 eskadrila (RAF): Drugi svjetski rat - povijest
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Eskadrile ratnog kraljevskog ratnog zrakoplovstva
Tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata britansko kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo (RAF) postalo je jedna od najjedinstvenijih borbenih snaga u povijesti. Srce koje je kucalo bile su njegove eskadrile.
No, što je eskadrila ako ne šifra koja slijedi tajnovitu vojnu logiku? Entitet stvoren i njegovan da živi u svijetu nasilja? Svako zrakoplovstvo na svijetu ima eskadrile, svaka poput nekog razuzdanog kluba koji posjeduje dječake, posebno u prvim danima zrakoplovstva, a posebno tijekom rata.
Eskadrila je najosnovnija kvazi-autonomna, borbena komponenta borbenog zrakoplovstva. Općenito ima od devet do 15 zrakoplova, a u njemu radi stotinjak ljudi. To je konglomerat različitih, pokretnih dijelova: avijatičari oklopnicima, kuhari daktilografima, mehaničari strojarima, perači prozora administratorima. Njihov raison d & rsquoetre je letjeti pred vatrom. Njihovi zrakoplovi simboliziraju grubu snagu ili okretnost. Nema ništa ohrabrujuće u vezi s ovim strojevima iako mogu biti graciozni.
Njihovi su piloti usvojili bezobrazne ambleme, pune projiciranog mačizma, često maloljetničkog, što nije iznenađujuće s obzirom na to da su barem tijekom Drugog svijeta, kada je većina tih amblema isječena iz zraka, da je većina pilota tek izašla iz škole ili fakulteta.
To su bili sitni detalji strojeva podešenih da izazovu pustoš i uništenje, a tijekom Drugoga svjetskog rata Kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo imalo ih je 553. No, gdje se britansko iskustvo razlikuje od drugih, način je na koji su Englezi odlučili strukturirati svoje zračne snage - također najstarije na svijetu - formirane u loncu Prvog svjetskog rata.
Bio je to kulturno najrazličitiji od svih zračnih snaga rata, naseljen mnoštvom ljudi iz cijelog carstva: od Jamajke do Fidžija, od Kanade do Južne Afrike, od Argentine do Novog Zelanda.
Također je imala čitavu legiju & ldquoforeign & rdquo od 130 eskadrila sastavljenih od slobodnih Poljaka, slobodnih Francuza, slobodnih Čeha, slobodnih Belgijanaca, slobodnih Norvežana, slobodnih Danaca, slobodnih Grka, slobodnih Nizozemaca, pa čak i slobodnih Jugoslavena koji su pobjegli iz svojih podjarmljenih domovina kako bi se ponovno borili. Konačno, bilo je i Amerikanaca koji su uložili svoje uloge s Britancima ili Kanađanima, neki nakon što su odbačeni kao piloti u svojoj zemlji. Unutar pojedinačne povijesti ovih eskadrila mogu se pronaći vinjete ključnih događaja u većim bitkama i kampanjama.
Na primjer, bilo je ljudi iz eskadrile koji su nepovratno promijenili tijek rata pucajući u osobni automobil slavnog njemačkog feldmaršala dok se on slučajno zatekao. Ljudi iz druge eskadrile samostalno su odgodili uvođenje bojni brod glavnog njemačkog grada u borbena djelovanja. S druge strane, letači iz još jedne eskadrile spasili su živote brojnim borcima otpora miniranjem otvaranja sjedišta Gestapa u okupiranoj Europi. Na Dalekom istoku, šačica avijatičara iz borbene eskadrile spriječila je bombardiranje gusto naseljenog grada. U najvećoj mjeri, međutim, eskadrile su održale ukupni zamah savezničke zračne ofenzive protiv sila Osovine kroz uobičajenu svakodnevicu: neglamurozne, smrtonosne racije, svakodnevne, ali ponekad i adrenalinske ophodnje, dostavljanje pisama i priopćenja , prijevoz vojnika, agenata i zaliha, zacrtavanje vremena i snimanje filmova neprijateljskih snaga i krajolika koji su držali. Bez njih rat ne bi mogao biti dobiven.
Da budemo pošteni, eskadrila sama po sebi nije ništa, jer je to broj s rotacijom pilota i osoblja. U ratnim zračnim snagama vojske Sjedinjenih Država (USAAF) i u njemačkoj Luftwaffeu, oni su bili nešto više zupčanici unutar ukupne zapovjedne strukture leteće skupine ili borbenog krila koja je očitovala esprit d & rsquocorps. U tim drugim zračnim snagama eskadrila je bila zamjenjiva tako da je bila gotovo naknadna organizacija.
U Kraljevskim zračnim snagama eskadrile Drugog svjetskog rata udahnule su život. Bila su puna lica i imena, s poviješću koja seže u vjerojatno elegantnije doba ranog stoljeća. Nisu dopušteni nikakvi jalovi amblemi & ndash, sve oznake je morao odobriti vladajući monarh i svakom je dodano vjerovanje. Većina je isklesana iz latinskog, a drugi na jeziku regija koje su eskadrile zvale svojim domom. Udahnuli su kulturu i sofisticiranost. No, to nije značilo da ne mogu biti ludi.
Na suhom otoku Malti, gdje je 185 eskadrila podignuto, na primjer u vrtlogu 1941., nova eskadrila uzela je rečenicu na malteškom kao svoj moto & mdash Ara Fejn Hu (Pogledajte gdje se nalazi). Što se tiče moto eskadrile, ovo je bilo razumno mlako. Za usporedbu: 34 eskadrila & mdash Lupus vult, lupus volant (Vukove želje, vučje muhe), 139 & mdash Si placet necamus (Uništavamo po volji), 157 & mdash Naš top govori naše misli, 179 & mdash Delentem deleo (uništavam razarač), 261 & mdash Semper contendo (ja se uvijek borim) ili francuski moto bez premca kanadske 425 eskadrile & mdash Je te plumerai (iščupat ću te).
& quot Iako je svaki rat simptom čovjekova neuspjeha kao misleće životinje, ipak je u ovim ratovima sjećanja bilo neke galantnosti, nešto hrabrosti, malo ljubaznosti & quot; John Steinbeck
In addition to the front-line squadrons, the RAF also had 80 training and miscellaneous units during the war, including Operational Conversion units (OCUs), Operational Training Units (OTUs), Heavy Operational Conversion Units (HOCUs), Maintenance Units (MUs). Also, there existed 20 other establishments and camps, devoted to tactic development, advanced training, aircraft testing and other special tasks.
Every RAF squadron raised since 1918 has been disbanded at least once during its career. This was particularly true after the First World War ended in November 1918. RAF strength plummeted from the original wartime strength of 190 combat-ready squadrons to less than 45 by 1925. By mid-1934, however, many of these disbanded squadrons had been resurrected to deal with the rising complexities of international relations in the years approaching the Second World War.
By the beginning of World War II on 3 September 1939, RAF strength had reached 150 combat squadrons, of which 29 were with Bomber Command, 50 with Fighter Command, 19 with Coastal Command, 18 with Army-Cooperation Command, 19 with RAF Middle East, six in India and lastly the last five on Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Malaya (now Malaysia) and Singapore.
By 1942, RAF strength had roughly tripled, and included new squadrons incorporated pilots from all over the world. Squadrons from the independent RAAF (Royal Australian Air Force), the RCAF (Royal Canadian Air Force) and the RNZAF (Royal New Zealand Air Force), serving in Western Europe (and in some cases the Mediterranean and the Far East) came under the overall operational control of the RAF.
After World War II, the RAF again wound-down as the British government focused on cutting costs. In this time of demobilization, roughly 75 percent of the RAF&rsquos wartime squadrons disbanded within the first ten years of peace, although some reformed in the 1960&rsquos to face the Soviet threat during the Cold War. From the late &lsquo70&rsquos through to the &lsquo90s, the RAF&rsquos numbers reduced even further. Those that remain today are the inheritors of a rich history that dates back to more than a hundred years, through war and peace.
Official Lineages, Volume 4: Operational Flying Squadrons
Except for the abortive Canadian Aviation Corps established at the beginning of the First World War Canadian airmen fought in that conflict as individual members of the British flying services. Two Canadian squadrons, perpetuated by 2 Squadron and 401 Squadron, were organized into a Canadian wing and authorized in 1918 as part of the newly-formed Canadian Air Force, but were not formed until after the Armistice and were disbanded just over a year later. The Royal Canadian Naval Air Service, established near the end of the war to patrol the Atlantic Coast off Nova Scotia, never reached operational status.
The postwar Air Board, and its successor the Canadian Air Force, was initially visualized as a non permanent reserve of individual airmen. This idea proved ineffectual and although a few squadrons were formed in the mid-1920s, they were transferred to civil government air operations shortly thereafter in response to the latter's dominant demands. Strong military requirements did not emerge again until rearmament started in the mid-1930s. The squadrons slowly formed thereafter were designed primarily for home defence, and, with only one exception, squadrons numbered from 1 to 170 fought the Second World War from North American territory. (The one exception, 162 Squadron, was temporarily assigned to Royal Air Force (RAF ) Coastal Command in Iceland and Scotland. A few other squadrons patrolled against the Japanese in Alaska, but this was considered part of the North American defence task.
The most recent title for each flying squadron is given as the official title. Until the mid- to late- 1970s the official titles for flying squadrons were in English only. The authorization of French-language titles has been noted in the lineage section of the charts. In one case (430 Squadron), the squadron was reformed as a French-language unit and was later granted an English-language title. Some units never received French-language titles and, so, these charts reflect the official unilingual titles accorded those squadrons.
The official badge
A badge is a distinctive sign, symbol or emblem used to visually identify a military organization and foster the pride and cohesiveness necessary for operational effectiveness. All active squadrons established as a separate entity under a Ministerial Organization Order and a Canadian Forces Organization Order, may be granted one official, primary badge. These are recorded where approved.
Each badge is unique, yet enclosed in a common frame which indicates its an operational flying squadron. Air force flying squadron badges follow a special military custom. Prior to unification, these were all designed as if "hollow", with no field. Thus their distinctive devices are still painted on a white (blank) field to reflect that heritage, except for squadrons originally organized in the Royal Canadian Navy. (One exception - 448 Squadron's badge - was created in the period of administrative uncertainty after unification. The badge of the squadron, is now regarded as a special case.)
The English word "squadron" was originally translated poorly because of organizational differences among air forces. This problem was corrected after Unification, but the correction was not consistently applied. As a result, organizational orders used the term ' escadron ,' while badge frames used ' escadrille .' The organizationally correct term is 'escadron' and all active and 400-Block badge frames were converted some years ago. The badge frames of the remainder of the squadrons reflect the frame authorized at the time of their disbandment. Older patterns may only be used as historical illustrations.
Each chart includes an heraldic description and the significance of the badge. With respect to the latter item, changes have only been made to correct the tense or outdated terminology within the description.
Mottoes are words, phrases or short sentences expressing a maxim, sentiment, or rule of conduct to rally sentiment or to mark matters of significance. Mottoes originated as battle cries or guiding principles. They were associated with the individuals or units who created them, and, thus, became part of family custom and identity.
A motto always forms part of an approved squadron badge, although a motto may be approved by itself without reference to other symbology.
Ex-naval squadrons have officially-authorized "livery" colours normally derived from the principal heraldic metal and colour in their badges.
Air force battle honours include both major and subsidiary battle honours. Major battle honours are essentially theatre honours awarded for operations which extended over a protracted period. These are shown in orders by upper case type (e.g., FORTRESS EUROPE). Subsidiary honours apply to specific geographical locations for which accurate and restricted dates can be applied, and are printed in lower case type (e.g., Dieppe). All battle honours are considered equal and are listed in the order detailed in the Official List. A battle honour in bold type indicates one authorized to be emblazoned on a squadron's Standard (to a maximum of eight honours for the Second World War). All new Standards are now issued with bilingual battle honour scrolls.
For an explanation of the unique case of naval battle honours, see the note on the 880 Squadron lineage chart.
Full "unit" status as an independent entity - which includes the right to a badge, Standard, and battle honours - begins with an organization as an operational "squadron". Thus flights, detachments, schools and similar units are mentioned as predecessors where applicable in this volume, but the existence of these smaller organizations does not extend formal squadron lineage. All lineage dates shown are 'official' as they emanate from government orders. In some cases, squadrons were authorized to be formed long before they were actually established and in other instances squadrons ceased operations before official orders were issued. An example of this would be 450 Squadron which ceased operations in 1996 but was not officially disbanded until 1998.
In accordance with naval and air force tradition, disbandment does not end a squadron's life-line, which is considered to be the sum of all its previous incarnations.
As squadrons were formed and redesignated during and after the Second World War, little attention was paid to lineages. Uncertainty resulted later when issues such as qualifications for battle honours and squadron Standards were being determined. Practice and precedent, however, lead to the following squadron lineage rules:
- Normal perpetuation and family "life" is through the squadron number.
- Unit identity is continuous after a redesignation with no break in service, even if the number is changed e.g., 400 Squadron was previously numbered as 10 Squadron and 110 Squadron, and counts that service as part of its own.
- If a number is re-used after such a redesignation, it indicates a new and separate unit that cannot claim the old number's honours or service time, which are considered redesignated along with the original unit. Four squadrons formed during the Second World War are affected in this way: Numbers 1, 2, 10, and 11. (Three other numbers re-used during the war - 12, 13, and 14 - are absorbed by de facto amalgamation as noted below.) A current example is 103 Search and Rescue Squadron which has no lineal connection with the 103 Rescue Unit of 1947-68 which was redesignated 413 Squadron.
- Two numbers which come together by the redesignation of a squadron with no break in service constitute a de facto amalgamation of the redesignated unit and the family "life-line" of the new number e.g. 12 Squadron and 412 Squadron are amalgamated as a result of the redesignation of the former unit. In these cases the honours of both partners are maintained (less naval battle honours from the common Commonwealth list, which are lost in accordance with naval custom).
Within each lineage chart specific parameters have been established:
- The 'verb' terminology within each chart has been limited to the terms: authorize, disband, reform, redesignate and amalgamate. Terms such as form, activate, reactivate or convert have not been used as they are of an operational, as opposed to lineage, nature. For example, redesignation of a squadron's title often meant a conversion of its operational role or equipment.
- Entries (such as authorizations and redesignations) have been included in this section whether the squadron was operational at the time or not.
- The use of the prefix "No." (for number) has been used in an inconsistent manner historically. In general, the prefix was consistently used in squadron titles until the end of the Second World War. Since Unification the prefix has rarely been used. Within the charts the use of the prefix has been determined entirely by the text of the documentation cited in the footnote.
The notes in the lineage charts give only a brief overview of the operational history of each squadron. For this purpose, "operational" is considered to apply to activity during war. Peacetime service is not summarized, including overseas service with the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation or continental defence as part of the North American Aerospace Defence Command. For further information on the operational history of a squadron please consult the relevant volume of the official RCAF history.
The battle honours noted on the charts serve as a record of a squadron's participation in campaigns, and it is not considered necessary to repeat this detail in each chart's history note.
Operational squadrons which have been amalgamated may not count service time twice when calculating their twenty-five years of cumulative service.
Within the footnotes of the lineage charts it should be noted the following abbreviations are used:
All unpublished documentation has been taken from the collection of the Directorate of History and Heritage or the National Archives of Canada. The latter documentation is cited as being taken from a particular section of the NAC . All Directorate of History and Heritage documentation taken from Document Collection, Kardex or Permanent Reference files is cited as such. All other documentation is from the Heritage Section's own squadron files.
The Passion and the Fury: Mick Mannock
Captain Edward "Mick" Mannock prepares to depart London Colney for France with No. 74 Squadron in his S.E.5a D276 "A" on March 31, 1918.
RAF flight leader Edward ‘Mick’ Mannock devoted his meteoric combat career to teaching squadron mates how to survive in the Western Front’s deadly skies
On a pleasant April afternoon high above northwestern France in 1918, S.E.5as of A Flight, No. 74 Squadron, Royal Air Force, were on their second patrol. It was the unit’s first day of combat, and all the pilots except their leader, Captain Edward “Mick” Mannock, were novices. As his men watched wide-eyed, Mannock suddenly wagged his wings, alerting them that the enemy was nearby, then dropped down like a hawk on a formation of German Albatros fighters. Mannock centered a black-and-yellow Albatros D.V in his Aldis sight, sucked in a breath and gently squeezed the firing button, loosing a lethal stream of silky white tracers. The Albatros broke up in the air. Back on the ground, pilots congratulated their captain on his second victory of the day, but what left them full of undying admiration for him was Mannock’s combat report, in which he wrote, “The whole flight should share in the credit for the EA [enemy aircraft], as they all contributed to its destruction.”
That disclaimer was indicative of the unselfish and intense devotion to his comrades that characterized the life of Edward Mannock, one of Britain’s all-time greatest combat pilots and leaders of men. By any measure, he was a man of extraordinary gifts, a man who surely would have made as great an impact on the postwar world as he did on those who knew and loved him during his brilliant career as a fighter pilot.
Mannock was born in Cork, Ireland, on May 24, 1887, son of a soldier in the Royal Scots Guards who fought in Britain’s imperial wars. A rough man, he beat Edward and his siblings and drank heavily. While his father was posted to India, Mannock contracted an amoebic infestation that weakened his left eye. That misfortune would be subsequently transformed into the oft-repeated myth of Mannock’s being the “ace with one eye.” Despite early hardships, young Edward possessed a sharp analytical mind. He hated inequality and later became a fervent socialist.
When Mannock was in his early teens, his father abandoned the family, and Edward had to work to support them. He left home and boarded with the Eyles family. Jim Eyles later wrote that Mannock was a person “with high ideals and with a great love for his fellow mortals. He hated cruelty and poverty….A kinder, more thoughtful man you could never meet.” It seems likely that Mannock could have risen in the Labour Party, for he was an excellent speaker. But the coming global conflagration would soon shatter his high ambitions.
When war was declared in August 1914, Mannock was working for a British company in Constantinople. Since the Ottoman empire sided with Germany, he and other British citizens were thrown into prison camps, where they endured appalling conditions. Mannock quickly developed a hatred for the Turks and the Germans. In April 1915, with the assistance of Jim Eyles, he was repatriated. Shortly afterward, Mannock joined the Royal Army Medical Corps and then the Royal Engineers, where he was commissioned a second lieutenant. But he immediately transferred to the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) in August 1916, so he could be more involved in the fighting.
Despite his weak left eye, Mannock passed the medical exam. He was apparently a natural pilot with an excellent feel for his machine. One of his instructors, just returned from combat flying in France, was ace Captain James McCudden. The two got along well, and McCudden made a great impact on his pupil. “Mannock,” McCudden wrote, “was a typical example of the impetuous young Irishman, and I always thought he was the type to do or die.” He would do both in France.
With his flight training completed, on April 6, 1917, Mannock was posted to C Flight in No. 40 Squadron, which was flying the highly maneuverable French-built Nieuport 17 fighter armed with one Lewis machine gun mounted above the upper wing. A new phase in Mannock’s life had commenced, and as always for him it was filled with challenges. He made an awful first impression at his new home and rubbed just about everybody the wrong way, failing to appreciate the clubby public school atmosphere of an RFC squadron. Lieutenant Lionel A. Blaxland, a squadron mate, recalled that Mannock “seemed too cocky for his experience, which was nil….New men usually took their time and listened to the more experienced hands Mannock was the complete opposite. He offered ideas about everything: how the war was going, how it should be fought, the role of scout pilots.” He also broke several unwritten rules of pilot etiquette, asking comrades how many “Huns” they had shot down and—a terrible faux pas—sitting in the seat previously occupied by a pilot who had just been killed.
Mannock sits in the cockpit of his Nieuport 17 of No. 40 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps, which sported a spinner painted yellow to thumb his nose at squadron mates who considered him timid in combat. (Courtesy of O'Brien Browne)
To make matters worse, Mannock spent hours at target practice but appeared hesitant when confronting enemy planes over the lines. He recorded his emotions on his first combat patrol in his diary on April 13, 1917: “I went over the lines for the first time, escorting FEs [Farman Experimental F.E.2b reconnaissance planes]. Heavily ‘Archied.’ My feelings very funny.” In fact, the novice pilot who had talked so big in the mess had been very afraid. On subsequent flights Mannock was seen as timid in the face of the enemy—“windy” or “having the wind up,” in pilot’s slang. Some of his squadron mates began to shun him and talk about him behind his back. The squadron was soon divided into his supporters and detractors.
His detractors could only be silenced by deeds. They got a taste of Mannock’s mettle on April 19 when, while practice diving at a ground target from 2,000 feet, the lower right wing of his Nieuport snapped off and the plane plunged downward. Mannock somehow managed to land the crippled craft safely. After that display of sang-froid and flying skill, the other pilots began to reconsider their opinions of him.
They were further impressed on May 7 when Mannock joined a flight of five others for a strike on German observation balloons. Mannock destroyed a balloon for his first victory that day. But he wrote in his diary: “My fuselage had bullet holes in it, one very near my head, and the wings were more or less riddled. I don’t want to go through such an experience again.”
Still, fired with new confidence, Mannock became more aggressive in the air and was now accepted in the squadron men who had formerly given him the cold shoulder now bought him drinks in the mess. He sometimes led combat patrols, and on at least two occasions believed he had brought down a German aircraft but did not claim it, as there were no witnesses. His great desire at that point was to gain a “real” victory over an enemy airplane, but this eluded him.
His persistence eventually paid off. On June 7, flying Nieuport B1552 north of Lille, Mannock went after an Albatros D.III at 13,000 feet. He had been flying escort for a squadron of F.E.2b bombers. Coming in from behind, Mannock pumped 60 rounds into the German fighter at 10 yards, and it went down out of control, an action he jubilantly reported back at the base.
Shortly afterward, Mannock suffered an eye injury, and was sent home on a two-week leave. He used his time at home to think about combat tactics, and when he rejoined his unit, he was convinced of his fighting abilities. On July 12, Mannock shot down a DFW C.V two-seater that crashed inside British lines. Delighted with the opportunity to examine his “work” up close, Mannock drove out to the crash site. The observer had survived, but the pilot was dead. Upon returning to base, he spoke about this to his friend Lieutenant William Maclanachan. “It sickened me,” Mannock told him, “but I wanted to see where my shots had gone. Do you know, there were three neat little bullet holes right here”—Mannock indicated the side of his head. In his diary, Mannock added a further detail, a “little black-and-tan terrier—dead—in the observer’s seat. I felt exactly like a murderer.” Nevertheless, he sent another DFW down out of control the next day.
July 1917 would be important for Mannock in many ways. Not only did he score his first concrete kill, but a squadron mate, Captain George L. “Zulu” Lloyd, spoke privately with him, telling him that a few men still doubted his fighting spirit.
“Of course, I’ve been frightened against my will—nervous reaction,” Mannock forthrightly explained. “I’ve now conquered this physical defect and, having conquered myself, I will now conquer the Hun. Air fighting is a science. I have been studying it and have not been unduly worried at not getting Huns at the expense of being reckless.” Lloyd was more than satisfied with this answer. When some men still questioned Mannock’s abilities, it was put down to jealousy.
Mannock's piercing gaze hints at the complex and contradictory personality that lay beneath the surface of the World War I ace. (Courtesy of O'Brien Browne)
Another event that same month was to have a profound effect on Mannock. On the 21st he watched in horror as 2nd Lt. F.W. Rook, a well-liked squadron member, plummeted to earth in flames after being attacked by 1st Lt. Adolf Ritter von Tutschek of Jasta 12. Maclanachan remembered that Mannock later came into his hut, speaking about what was to become an obsession with him. “That’s the way they’re going to get me in the end—flames and finish,” Mannock said with tears in his eyes. Then he explained why he had started to carry his service revolver with him on flights: “to finish myself as soon as I see the first sign of flames.”
The next day Mannock was awarded the Military Cross for his “very fine offensive spirit and great fearlessness attacking the enemy at close range and low altitudes under heavy fire from the ground.” Major General Hugh M. Trenchard, commander of the RFC, even sent his personal congratulations. Soon after that Mannock was made leader of A Flight.
Although taking responsibility did not come easily to Mannock, his score now rose dramatically. He had sharp eyesight and was a magnificent shot. In August alone he was credited with four Albatros D.Vs and one DFW. By the end of 1917, he had 15 confirmed victories under his belt and had received a Bar to his MC. He was becoming an excellent flight leader, fighting with tactics rather than sheer audacity. He also had a sense of humor he once used a pair of women’s silk stockings on his struts for leader’s streamers.
Mannock looked after the men who flew with him with fatherly compassion and patience, helping them develop into successful combat pilots. If a man was killed, Mannock took it very hard, often retiring to his hut, sobbing and “keening”—mourning by rocking back and forth, as was done in ancient Ireland. Although combat intensified his hatred for the Germans, he was revolted on September 4 when he flamed a DFW. “It was a horrible sight,” Mannock wrote in his diary, “and made me feel sick.”
But that same flight illustrated Mannock’s superb tactics. As noted in his diary, he had had trouble recognizing the two-seater’s national markings at first. “So I turned my tail towards him,” Mannock related, “and went in the same direction, thinking that if he were British he wouldn’t take notice of me, and if a Hun I felt sure he would put his nose down and have a shot (thinking I hadn’t seen him). The ruse worked beautifully. His nose went (pointing at me), and I immediately whipped round, dived and ‘zoomed’ up behind him before you could say ‘knife.’ He tried to turn but he was much too slow for the Nieuport. I got in about 50 rounds in short bursts whilst on the turn and he went down in flames.”
On October 17, 1917, the squadron was delighted to receive the RFC’s new British-made fighter, the Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5a. This was a powerful aircraft, faster and tougher than the nimble Nieuport. The pilots loved them at first, especially their double armament—a synchronized Vickers machine gun and an over-wing Lewis—which at long last put them on a par with the Germans. They soon found out that this machine was having teething troubles, however, including gun jams and engine failures. The squadron suffered more than 20 such incidents in a two-week period.
By December, after 10 months of continuous air fighting, Mannock was worn out. Maclanachan described him as tense and noted that he often “brought up the subject of catching fire in the air.” On January 1, 1918, Mannock shot down another DFW and was informed that he was being sent back to England to serve as a flight trainer. That night at his farewell party, Lieutenant W. Douglas remembered, Mannock rose and “entertained us to one of his marvelous speeches,” full of giving the Hun hell and injecting “jokes about one or other of his comrades going down in flames or crashing in some other horrible way.” The commander of No. 40 Squadron, Major L.A. Tilney, wrote in the unit’s diary, “His leadership and general ability will never be forgotten by those who had the good fortune to serve under him.”
Back in England, Mannock was posted on February 2 to London Colney as a flight commander at No. 74 Squadron, which was in training. The unit was suffering from low morale, apparently due to unmotivated instructors. Mannock electrified the disheartened pilots. He was a natural teacher and a powerful speaker, and his lectures on aerial combat were always fully attended. “Gentlemen,” he told his men, “always above seldom on the same level never underneath.” His practical advice was priceless and would save lives at the front. “Don’t ever attempt to dog-fight a triplane on anything like equal terms as regards height,” he warned, “otherwise he will get on your tail and stay there until he shoots you down.” He also told his pilots never to follow a victim too close to the ground, because they might be hit by fire from the trenches.
To motivate his men, Mannock—much like a football coach—affected a “kill-all-the-bloody-Huns” persona that later gave birth to another hoary myth about his being a “Hun-hater,” which would have appalled him. In fact his diary reveals his respect for his opponents. Concerning a two-seater that escaped him in early September 1917, Mannock wrote, “He deserved to get away really, as he must have been a brave Hun.” In an earlier dogfight in which the British outnumbered the Germans 2-to-1 but could not bring one down, Mannock noted, “I shall always maintain an unsullied admiration for those Huns.” Major Keith L. “Grid” Caldwell, No. 74 Squadron’s New Zealand–born commanding officer, recalled that “Mick was a very human, sensitive sort of chap he did not hate people or things at all….I believe that this hatred was calculated or assumed to boost his own morale and that of the squadron in general.”
In April 1918, Mannock and No. 74 Squadron landed their S.E.5as at their new aerodrome in France, Clairmarais North. Mannock was eager to fight. Leading A Flight on April 12, he scored a double kill over Albatros D.Vs, the unit’s first victories. In the next three months or so, he would increase his victory list by an amazing 33, not counting those he did not claim or gave away to fellow pilots to pump up their self-confidence—a habit with him. Under his leadership, No. 74 came to be known as the “Tiger Squadron,” and his men reverently called him the “Iron Man.”
Mannock took it as his responsibility to protect the members of his flight and often guided them over the lines. “It was wonderful to be in his Flight” remembered one young pilot, “to him his Flight was everything and he lived for it. Every member had his special thought and care.” Mannock gave them vital advice on how best to deal with the enemy. “He placed gunnery before flying,” recalled Lieutenant Ira “Taffy” Jones, a close friend. “Good flying has never killed a Hun yet,” Mannock pointed out. Moreover, he would set up kills for inexperienced pilots. Lieutenant Henry E. Dolan related how Mannock had shot up a German two-seater and then “nodded at me to get it. I went down on the Hun’s tail and saw that Mick had killed the gunner, and I could attack safely.”
With his piercing blue eyes and his trademark affectations, a long-stemmed pipe and a cane, Mannock was famous along the front. He had, recalled Jones, “an intriguingly complex nature. It fluctuated so,” for Mannock could be ruthless as a fighter, boyish in the mess, harsh with his pilots’ mistakes, gentle and complimentary for good work, morbid when depressed. Once Mannock dived repeatedly on a crashed German two-seater, firing at the crew. Asked about this later, he growled, “The swines are better dead—no prisoners for me.”
On May 21, Mannock brought down four German planes—three Pfalz D.IIIs and a Hannover two-seater—and the next day was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. Before the month was out, he flamed eight new victims. After such victories, he would burst into the mess shouting, “Sizzle, sizzle, sizzle, wonk woof!” to boost morale. But privately he expressed darker thoughts. By the middle of June, Jones noticed that Mannock’s nerves were “noticeably fraying. He was now continually talking about being shot down in flames.” Writing to his sister, Mannock said, “I am supposed to be going on leave, (if I live long enough)….” He was fighting depression and plagued by dreams of burning aircraft.
On June 18, Mannock sailed home for leave in England. Upon his arrival he was informed that he had been promoted to major and given command of No. 85 Squadron, previously led by Canadian ace Major William A. “Billy” Bishop, and that he also had been awarded a Bar to his DSO. He reacted with indifference to the news.
After spending a brief but painful time with his mother, an alcoholic, Mannock went to stay with his friend Jim Eyles, who saw that he “had changed dramatically. Gone was the old sparkle we knew so well gone was the incessant wit. I could see him wring his hands together to conceal the shaking and twitching.” One day, as the time approached for Mannock to return to the war, “he started to tremble violently. This grew into a convulsive straining. He cried uncontrollably….His face, when he lifted it, was a terrible sight. Saliva and tears were running down his face he couldn’t stop it.” Given his condition, 31-year-old Mannock should never have been sent back to the front. But back he went.
Back in France again, Mannock took command of No. 85 Squadron on July 5, 1918, and his arrival was seen as a godsend. He immediately set to work teaching his new men about aerial tactics. Two days after his arrival he got two Fokker D.VIIs as his new squadron mates, infected by his enthusiasm, brought down an additional three. Within a matter of days, Mannock’s personality had completely transformed the unit. He threw himself into his work and even enjoyed a respite from the nightmares and depression. It would not last long.
Members of No. 85 Squadron who Mannock mentored to greater exploits included New Zealander Malcolm C. McGregor (11 victories, fifth from left) and Americans Lawrence K. Callahan (5 victories, seventh) and Elliott White Springs (12 victories, eighth). New Zealander Donald C. Inglis (sixth from right), the last man to see Mannock alive, afterward lamented, “The bastards killed my major.” (IWM Q 12050)
On July 10, Mannock heard that his friend James McCudden had been killed in a flying accident, news that hurled Mannock back into depression but also spurred him to a furious killing spree. He shot down six aircraft between July 14 and 26. But he was also taking risks and ignoring his own teachings. Often he followed a victim down to spray the wreckage with bullets. He led his flights with rage and flew solo patrols in his hunt for Germans. Premonitions of death haunted him. In his last letter to his sister he wrote, “I feel that life is not worth hanging on to.” And Ira Jones found him unstable, noting: “One minute, he’s full out. The next he gives the impression of being morbid and keeps bringing up his pet subject of being shot down in flames.”
Early in the morning of July 26, 1918, Lieutenant Donald Inglis walked into the mess where Mannock was smoking his pipe and playing “Londonderry Air” on the gramophone. The two were to fly a morning patrol together. Earlier, Mannock had asked the rookie pilot, “Have you got a Hun yet, Inglis?” and to his negative answer replied, “Well come on out and we will get one.” Mannock told Inglis that they would hunt for a two-seater. Once it was located, Mannock would attack first, with Inglis coming in behind to finish the enemy off and thus get his first kill.
At 5:30 a.m. over Merville, Mannock dived on a two-seater at about 5,000 feet. He knocked out the observer and pulled away, letting Inglis come from underneath, firing into the gas tank. The German plane burst into flame, with the two S.E.5as very low over the ground. Violating his own teaching, Mannock circled the burning wreck twice. Then, as Inglis later wrote in his combat report, “I saw Mick start to kick his rudder and realized we were fairly low, then I saw a flame come out of the side of his machine it grew bigger and bigger. Mick was no longer kicking his rudder his nose dropped slightly, and he went into a slow right-hand turn round, about twice, and hit the ground in a burst of flame.” Mannock’s S.E.5a had been brought down by groundfire. Inglis’ plane was shot up, too, and he crash-landed in the British lines, sputtering: “The bastards killed my major. They killed Mick.”
It is impossible to know if Mannock shot himself as he had always threatened to do. Most likely, given the way his plane flew after he was hit, he was either wounded, unconscious or dead. In any event, some unknown German soldier buried the ace after first retrieving Mannock’s ID discs, pistol, notebook and other personal effects, which were returned to his family after the war. These items had all been on Mannock’s body, and they showed no signs of fire.
Back at the airfield, the awful news spread quickly. Jones scribbled in his diary: “26th July—Mick is dead. Everyone stunned. No one can believe it. I can write no more today. It is too terrible.”
In the years after the war, Eyles and others attempted to locate Mannock’s grave, which had been obliterated by shelling. Some researchers believe he lies in the grave of an unknown British aviator near La Pierre-au-Beure. In addition, his friends campaigned for him to be awarded Britain’s highest decoration, the Victoria Cross, which was conferred on July 18, 1919.
A final apocrypha is Mannock’s victory score, which most books give as 73—a number dreamed up by his admirers (above all Jones), many of whom disliked Billy Bishop, who finished the war with 72 kills. According to the most reliable estimates, Mannock brought down 61 enemy aircraft—not counting, of course, the many victories he gave away or did not claim—which makes him Britain’s second-highest scoring ace of the war.
Mannock’s deeply felt emotions, the immense fears and obstacles he faced and the manner in which he overcame them, his achievements, his unconventionality and his great promise all make him vividly human and bring home the tragedy of the lives lost in World War I. The way Mannock touched people was extraordinary. “I was awed by his personality,” wrote Maclanachan after first meeting Mannock. “He was idolized by all who came into intimate contact with him,” recalled another pilot. “He was a man among men,” added a third, while long after the war another remembered Mannock as “a warm, lovable individual of many moods and characteristics. I shall always salute his memory.”
O’Brien Browne writes from Heidelberg, Germany. Daljnje čitanje: Mick: The Story of Major Edward Mannock, by James M. Dudgeon or Victoria Cross: WWI Airmen and Their Aircraft, by Alex Revell.
This article by O’Brien Browne was originally published in the July 2007 issue of Aviation History. For more great articles, subscribe to Aviation History časopis danas!
Royal Air Force Bentwaters is a former Royal Air Force station about 80 miles northeast of London and 10 miles east-northeast of Ipswich in England. Its name was taken from ‘Bentwaters Cottages’ that had stood on the site of the main runway during its construction in 1943.
It was used by the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the Second World War, and by the United States Air Force (USAF) during the Cold War, being the primary home for the 81st Fighter Wing under various designations from 1951 to 1993. For many years the 81st Fighter Wing also operated RAF Woodbridge, with Bentwaters and Woodbridge airfields being known by the Americans as the “Twin Bases”.
The site is now known as Bentwaters Parks. The Bentwaters Cold War Museum is located on the site, there are offices and warehouses, and the site is also used for television and film making.
Drugi svjetski rat
Bentwaters airfield’s origin dates to 1942 when construction began on a Royal Air Force station called Royal Air Force Butley for use by RAF Bomber Command. On 28 January 1943 the station was renamed Royal Air Force Bentwaters. It was opened for operational use in April 1944. In December it was transferred to No. 11 Group, RAF Fighter Command.
In addition to its RAF use, United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) fighters flew escort missions for RAF Bomber Command from Bentwaters beginning on 4 May 1945. The USAAF designation for Bentwaters was AAF Station 151.
During the postwar years, the RAF retained Bentwaters for flying various aircraft, including first-generation jet aircraft. before finally closing the facility on 26 August 1949 when it was placed into ‘care and maintenance’ status.
Control of Bentwaters was transferred to the United States Air Force on 16 March 1951 by the Ministry of Defence, and the United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) designated it a primary installation of HQ USAFE on 7 September 1951. Bentwaters was to play a key role in the defence of Western Europe during the Cold War when large numbers of USAF aircraft were assigned as part of the air arm of NATO.
The 81st Fighter-Interceptor Wing became the new host unit at Bentwaters in September 1951. The 81st, in various designations, remained at RAF Bentwaters for over 40 years during the Cold War era. The 81st FIW was a North American F-86A “Sabre” equipped unit, being activated at Moses Lake AFB, Washington in May 1950. In August 1951 the 81st flew initially into RAF Shepherds Grove, then in September transferred its headquarters to RAF Bentwaters.
Post Cold War
With the end of the Cold War, the USAF presence at Bentwaters was gradually phased down. It was announced that the station would be closed and the 81st TFW would be deactivated.
The last A-10 aircraft departed Bentwaters on 23 March 1993, and the 81st Tactical Fighter Wing was inactivated on 1 July 1993. With the inactivation, the USAF returned control of Bentwaters to the Ministry of Defence.
Currently, Bentwaters airfield is inactive as a military facility.
Bentwaters Cold War Museum
With the handover of Bentwaters back to the UK Ministry of Defense in 1993, the facility was closed. It is now known as “Bentwaters Parks”.
In 2003, work commenced on the Bentwaters Cold War Museum (BCWM). The museum opened on Sunday 27 May 2007. The museum is located in the former USAF hardened command post. The main “war operations room” and “Battle cabin” have been restored to their original condition the BT telephone exchange room, decontamination showers, and airlock have been similarly restored. Other rooms within the building have been turned into exhibition rooms, covering the history of RAF Bentwaters from the Second World War until the station closed in 1993.
Included in this are histories of the units that operated from the airfield, particularly the 81 TFW. Another room is dedicated to the history of the other airfield which was part of the “twin base” complex, RAF Woodbridge, again covering the period from the Second World War until the present day. Ostale izložbene sobe s podacima o “Specijalnim operacijama/eskadrilama za spašavanje ” koje su bile smještene u RAF Woodbridgeu, te “Aggressor ” eskadrili sa sjedištem u Bentwatersu.
Muzej vode volonteri iz zrakoplovnog društva Bentwaters.
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