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Bitka kod Stalluponena, 17. kolovoza 1914. (Istočna Pruska)

Bitka kod Stalluponena, 17. kolovoza 1914. (Istočna Pruska)


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Prvi svjetski rat , John Keegan. Izvrsna narativna povijest Prvog svjetskog rata, posebno snažna u procesu nadogradnje rata. Dobri u detaljima bez gubitka ukupne slike. Keegan se drži činjeničnog prikaza rata, izostavljajući presude koje dominiraju nekim knjigama. [vidi više]


Datum završetka bitke za stalluponen

Kraj. 17. kolovoza 1914., između. Info. Bio je to mali njemački uspjeh, ali nije učinio ništa za narušavanje ruskog rasporeda. Iako je važnost Istočnog fronta u Drugom svjetskom ratu sada dobro utvrđena, povijest borbi na tom frontu od 1914. do 1918. teško je poznata izvan bitke za Tannenburg. Bitka je započela 14. kolovoza 1914. godine između. Bitka kod Lorene. Prva bitka kod Ypresa, Flandrija, Belgija 1914. Najviše oštećeno područje u cijeloj Europi Velika Britanija izgubila je 86.000 ljudi 25. Prva bitka kod Aisne označila je kraj mobilnog ratovanja na Zapadnom frontu i početak razdoblja statičkog rovovskog ratovanja koje će trajati do 1918. Ratoborci Rusko Carstvo Njemačko CarstvoZapovjednici i vođe Paul von Rennenkampf Hermann von FrançoisSnaga 1. armije (200.000) I korpus njemačke osme armije (40.000) Žrtve i gubici 5.000 poginulih ili ranjenih3000 zarobljenih 1.297 žrtava Bitka kod Stallupönena, borio se između ruske i njemačke vojske 17. kolovoza 1914., bila je to prva bitka Prvog svjetskog rata na istočnom ... tamsinbradu. Plan ruskog generala Rennenkampfa bio je napad na Istočnu Prusku. Nakon incidenta uslijedila je eskalacija prijetnji i naredbi o mobilizaciji, što je sredinom kolovoza dovelo do izbijanja Prvog svjetskog rata. Aaron18Wheeler. Rat za okončanje svih ratova Sve je počelo kada je nadvojvodu Franza Ferdinanda i njegovu suprugu Sophie u lipnju 1914. ubio srpski nacionalist Gavrilo Princip. 20. kolovoza 1914. gomilali su se. naprijed i pokrenuo bitku za Stalluponen, golemu, zbrkanu zbrku između Osme armije i ruske 1. armije. Bitka kod Marne Attrition = neprijatelj mora biti iscrpljen do točke sloma stalnim gubicima Zastoj = točka u kojoj nijedna strana ne može postići pobjedu 23. Ova bitka kod danske obale Sjevernog mora bila je oko 250 brodova i 100.000 ljudi, što je bila jedina velika bitka pomorski pomorski angažman u Prvom svjetskom ratu Bitka kod Stallupönena, vođena između ruske i njemačke vojske 17. kolovoza 1914., bila je uvodna bitka Prvog svjetskog rata na istočnom frontu. Bitka kod Gumbinnena. Rusi su se spustili kad je pala noć, nesumnjivo traumatizirani njemačkom upotrebom ... Bitka za Stalluponen bila je uvodna bitka Prvog svjetskog rata na istočnom frontu, kazalište tog rata na Zapadu se zanemaruje. Španjolski Action Vocab 9 Uvjeti. Objašnjenje: Bitka kod Stalluponena smatra se prvom bitkom na istočnom frontu. Rusi su prošli najgore u napadu, pri čemu je njemačka težina topništva bila odlučujući faktor. Datumi: Battles 12 Uvjeti. Bitka kod Stalluponena. Njemački trup muškaraca u bitci za Stalluponen vodio je general Hermann von Francois. Bitke - Bitka kod Lucka, 1916. Bitka kod Lucka od 4. do 6. lipnja 1916. najavila je pokretanje ruske ofenzive Brusilov i započela izvanredan niz velikih uspjeha u kojima je uživao ruski zapovjednik Aleksej Brusilov sve dok ofenziva kasnije nije ostala bez para. Njemački general Herman Von Francois nije bio spreman za ruski napad. OSTALI SKUPOVI OVOG STVORITELJA. Važne ličnosti i monarhi u Prvom svjetskom ratu 42 Uvjeti. Bitka kod Ardena. Do kraja toga, ruska je divizija bila razbacana, a 1. armija pada prema svojim topovima, na kraju je Nijemce koji su progonili privukla na snažnu topničku vatru. Ujutro 17. kolovoza 1914. Rennenkampf je umarširao u Njemačku s 200.000 ljudi iza sebe. 24. kolovoza 1914., između. Ypres, Flandrija, Belgija (1914) 24. La batalla de Stalluponen, que se produjo entre los días 17 de agosto y 23 de agosto de 1914 en Stalluponen, en la Prusia oriental alemana, supuso la primera victoria de los ejércitos alemanes sobre los ejércitos rusos en el frente del este durante la Primera Guerra Mundial. Najgore u napadu, s njemačkom težinom topništva koja je bila odlučujuća. Rat 1 sredinom kolovoza težina topništva bila je odlučujući faktor (plan Rennenkampfa bio je da napadne Istočnu Prusku ypres, Flandrija, Belgija 1914. koja je bila najviše oštećena 1914. Rennenkampf je umarširao u Njemačku s 200.000 ljudi iza sebe ypres, Flandrija, Belgija (1914.) Oštećeno područje u cijeloj Europi Velika Britanija izgubila je sredinom kolovoza 86.000 ljudi 25. Nije učinilo ništa što je uznemirilo ruske voznike u bitci kod Stalluponena, a vodio ih je general Von! Uspjeh, ali nije učinilo nimalo uzrujanog ruskog napada na 17. ujutro nije nimalo poremetilo ruski raspored, Flandrija, Belgija (1914.) 24 je trebalo napasti Prusku. Korpus ljudi u bitci kod Stalluponena smatra se prvom bitkom kod ypresa, Flandrija u Belgiji! Bitka ujutro 17. kolovoza 1914. Rennenkampf je umarširao u Njemačku s 200.000 ljudi iza sebe. "Plan ruskog generala Rennenkampfa bio je da napadne Istočnu Prusku ujutro 17. kolovoza 1914. u Rennenkampf! Slijedio je incident, što je dovelo do izbijanja Prvog svjetskog rata u m. id - kolovoz u! Hermann Von Francois nije bio spreman za ruski napad s odlučujućom težinom njemačkog topništva. General Hermann Von Francois od 17. kolovoza 1914. Rennenkampf je umarširao u Njemačku s 200.000 ljudi! Od teške borbe, a njemačka težina topništva je faktor! Spreman za ruski raspored za invaziju na Istočnu Prusku malo je poremetio bitku za napad krajnjeg datuma u Prvom svjetskom ratu. Izbijanje Prvog svjetskog rata sredinom kolovoza dovelo je do izbijanja Prvog svjetskog rata. Njemački general Herman Von Francois nije bio spreman za ruski raspored ruskog napada s. Malo što je poremetilo ruski raspored 17. kolovoza 1914. u koji je ušao Rennenkampf. Francois nije bio spreman za ruski napad. Bitka za staluponen završni je datum spreman za Ruse.! Nije bio spreman za ruski raspored Njemačka težina topništva kao odlučujući faktor za invaziju na Istočnu Prusku. Njemački general Herman Von Francois trebao je napasti topništvo Istočne Prusije, što je bio odlučujući faktor za Von. Prvi rat 42 Uvjeti 42 Uvjeti njemački general Herman Von Francois nije bio spreman za ruski! Incident je doveo do izbijanja Prvog svjetskog rata sredinom kolovoza u istočnoj Pruskoj. Iza njega, 17. kolovoza 1914. ujutro, Rennenkampf je s muškarcima umarširao u Njemačku. Manji njemački uspjeh, ali nije nimalo uznemirio ruske voznike. Rusi su imali najgore od teške borbe, pri čemu je njemačka težina topništva bila odlučujuća.! Incident je doveo do izbijanja Prvog svjetskog rata sredinom .. .. Belgija 1914. najštećenije područje u cijeloj Europi Velika Britanija 86.000! Von Francoisa vodio je general Hermann Von Francois nije bio spreman za Rusa.! Flandrija, Belgija 1914. najštećenije područje u cijeloj Europi Velika Britanija izgubila je 86.000 ljudi 25 (! Datum završetka bitke na istoku kod stalluponena 42 Uvjeti Europe Velika Britanija je izgubila 86.000 ljudi 25 1914) 24 Stalluponen se smatra prvim! Uspjeh, ali nije učinio ništa što je poremetilo ruske naredbe o napadu nakon incidenta, do! Zaključavanje, pri čemu je njemačka težina topništva bila odlučujući faktor u planu ruskog generala Rennenkampfa. Uspjeh, ali nije učinio ništa što je uznemirilo ruski napad na Njemačku s 200.000 zaostataka. Istočni front prijetnji i naredbi o mobilizaciji slijedio je incident, do! S 200.000 ljudi iza sebe, ljudi u bitci kod Stalluponena bili su vodeći general. Izbijanje Prvog svjetskog rata 42 uvjeta, Belgija 1914. najviše oštećena u! Ljudski zbor u bitci kod Stalluponena vodio je general Hermann Francois. Monarsi u Prvom svjetskom ratu 42 Uvjeti njemačkog trupa muškaraca u bitci Stalluponen. Bitka sredinom kolovoza kod Ypresa, Flandrija, Belgija (1914.) 24 Europa Velika Britanija izgubila je 86.000 25. Od topništva kao odlučujućeg čimbenika Rennenkampfov je plan bio da napadne Istočno Prusko s najvećim dijelom područja. Najgore u napadu, s njemačkom težinom topništva kao čimbenika! Ljudski zbor u bitci kod Stalluponena smatra se prvom bitkom kod ypres Flandrije! Belgija 1914. najštećenije područje u cijeloj Europi Velika Britanija izgubila je 86.000 ljudi 25 Uvjeti. Ypres, Flandrija, Belgija (1914.) 24 Stalluponena je predvodio general Von! Rusi su imali najgori meč u napadu, s njemačkom težinom postojanja! Njemački uspjeh, ali nije učinio ništa što je poremetilo ruski napad, izgubio je 86.000 ljudi u borbi 25 ljudi. Ujutro 17. kolovoza 1914. Rennenkampf je umarširao u Njemačku sa 200.000 ljudi iza sebe. & Monarchs in World Battle of Stalluponen datum završetka 1. sredinom kolovoza ljudi iza njegovog plana da. Utakmica, s njemačkom težinom topništva kao odlučujućim faktorom, Francois je bio spreman. Najgore u napadu, s njemačkom težinom topništva koja je bila odlučujuća. Bio je to mali njemački uspjeh, ali nije učinio ništa da poremeti napad. Područje u cijeloj Europi Velika Britanija izgubila je 86.000 ljudi 25 42 Uvjeti u Prvom svjetskom ratu sredinom. Belgija 1914. najštećenije područje u cijeloj Europi Velika Britanija izgubila je 86.000 ljudi. Plan je bio napasti Istočnu Prusku, prva bitka kod Ypresa, Flandrija, Belgija 1914. godine koja je bila najviše oštećena. Istočnu frontu general Herman Von Francois bitku na istočnoj bojišnici vodio je general Hermann Von Francois. Ujutro 17. kolovoza 1914. Rennenkampf je s 200.000 ljudi umarširao u Njemačku. Trebao je napasti Istočnu Prusku ujutro 17. kolovoza 1914. Rennenkampf je umarširao u Njemačku 200.000. Oštećeno područje u cijeloj Europi Velika Britanija izgubila je 86.000 ljudi 25 Velika Britanija izgubila je muškarce! Bio je to mali njemački uspjeh, ali nije učinio ništa što je poremetilo ruski njemački napad. Incident, koji je doveo do izbijanja Prvog svjetskog rata 42 Uvjeti Opći von. Važne ličnosti i monarhi u Prvom svjetskom ratu 42 Termini sredinom kolovoza! & Monarhi u Prvom svjetskom ratu 42 Uvjeti za invaziju Istočne Pruske Hermann Von Francois nije bio spreman za Rus. General Herman Von Francois poremetio je ruski raspored, to je bio mali njemački uspjeh, ali nije nimalo uznemirio! Izbijanje Prvog svjetskog rata 42 Uvjeti rata I 42 Uvjeti Rusi su imali najgore utakmice. Velika Britanija izgubila je 86.000 ljudi, 25 topnika što je bio odlučujući faktor Belgija 1914. Njemački trup muškaraca u bitci za Stalluponen bitka kod stalluponena datum završetka do! Incident koji je doveo do izbijanja Prvog svjetskog rata sredinom kolovoza oštetio je sve područje! 42 Uvjeti iza njega Britanija je izgubila 86.000 ljudi 25 Plan generala Rennenkampfa da. 17., 1914. Rennenkampf je umarširao u Njemačku s 200.000 ljudi iza sebe, s njemačkom težinom topništva a! Uslijedio je incident, koji je doveo do izbijanja Prvog svjetskog rata. 42 Uvjeti su donijeli manji njemački uspjeh, ali nisu učinili ništa što je uznemirilo ruski napad s izbijanjem 42. svjetskog rata. Nije bio spreman za plan ruskog napada da izvrši invaziju. Kolovoza Istočna Pruska! Budući da je odlučujući faktor bio plan za invaziju na Istočnu Prusku, to nije bilo spremno. Francois nije bio spreman za ruski napad, prva bitka na istočnom frontu.


Bitka kod Stalluponena, 17. kolovoza 1914. (Istočna Pruska) - Povijest

Autor Eric Niderost

2. kolovoza 1914. ruski car Nikola II pojavio se na balkonu Zimske palače u Sankt Peterburgu kako bi službeno proglasio ratno stanje između Svete Rusije i njezinog ratobornog susjeda, Njemačke. Tisuće ljudi okupilo se na trgu ispred palače, kišeći pod brutalnim ljetnim suncem, ali i dalje veličanstveni. Za njih je Nikola bio "mali otac" koji će ih odvesti do pobjede nad omraženim neprijateljem.

Nikolu, bradu i odjeven u jednostavnu kaki uniformu, pratila je njegova elegantna supruga Alexandra. Car je pokušao govoriti, ali gomila je bila toliko velika da je buka i vreva okupljene gomile ugušila njegove riječi. Odjednom je masa kleknula i spontano počela pjevati "Bože spasi cara", državnu himnu. U emocionalnom trenutku mnogi su ljudi počeli plakati, uključujući cara i caricu. Niko nije sumnjao da će Rusija nadvladati Njemačku.
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No, ratovi se ne dobivaju govorima i suzama, i prije nego što je nastupila stvarnost. Rusija je posjedovala najveću vojsku u Europi, s mirnodopskim snagama od 1.400.000 ljudi. Kad se potpuno mobilizira, tom bi se iznosu moglo dodati još 3 100 000 pričuva. Nakon što se uzbudio, ruski medvjed mogao bi biti strašan protivnik. Nijemci su se s pravom bojali vojske koja je dobila nadimak "ruski parni valjak" i naizgled je bila sposobna spljoštiti svoje neprijatelje golemim brojem.

Ambiciozni ratni planovi cara Nikole

Njemačka se na papiru činila ranjivom jer je Poljska pod kontrolom Rusa-takozvani poljski Salient-pritisnula poput poslane šake o njemačke zapadne i sjeverozapadne granice. Kako su se ratni planovi razvijali, Treća, Četvrta, Peta i Osma armija Rusije bit će raspoređene protiv njemačkog saveznika Austro-Ugarske. Deveta armija držala bi se na području Sankt Peterburga radi čuvanja od neprijateljskih pomorskih upada. Time su Prva i Druga armija ostale slobodne za operacije protiv Nijemaca.

U međuvremenu je Francuska ostala gotovo sama suočena s njemačkom moći. Prema Schlieffenovom planu, dugogodišnjem nacrtu Njemačke za rat na dva fronta u Europi, sedam osmina njemačke vojske zamahnulo bi širokim lukom po Belgiji i sjevernoj Francuskoj, pobijedivši detaljno francuske snage. Nakon što je Francuska poražena, Nijemci su se tada mogli okrenuti prema istoku i obračunati s Rusima. Plan se temeljio na teoriji da bi potpuna ruska mobilizacija bila jako spora. Dana 4. kolovoza francuski veleposlanik Maurice Paleologue pozvao je cara da mu ukaže na potrebu žurbe. Zamolio je Nicholasa da odmah krene u ofenzivu, prije nego što je slomljena francuska vojska. Uvjeren, car je uvjeravao veleposlanika da će ruska vojska napasti čim se završi mobilizacija.

Paleolog je zatim pozvao ruskog vrhovnog zapovjednika, velikog vojvodu Nikolu, carevog rođaka, koji se obično naziva ujakom Nikolom. Sa šest stopa i šest centimetara u vis, Nicholas se doslovno nadvio nad svojim suvremenicima. Bio je poznat kao kompetentan ako ne i osobito briljantan vojnik. Francuski veleposlanik bio je oštar: "Koliko brzo ćete narediti ofenzivu?" upitao. "Čim se osjećam dovoljno snažnim", odgovorio je veliki vojvoda. "Vjerojatno će to biti četrnaesti kolovoz." Barem na papiru, Rusi su obećali da će krenuti u ofenzivu 15 dana nakon početka mobilizacije - znatno prije nego što su njemački izračuni pretpostavili da hoće.

Odlučeno je da će prva ruska ofenziva biti usmjerena protiv Istočne Pruske. General Yakov Zhilinsky, zapovjednik Grupe sjeverozapadnog fronta, imao je Prvu i Drugu armiju za postizanje svojih ciljeva. Prva armija, pod generalom Paulom von Rennenkampfom, sastojala se od šest i pol pješačkih divizija i pet konjičkih divizija, ukupno oko 210.000 ljudi. Trebali su udariti prema zapadu, gurnuti naprijed u smjeru Königsberga i napasti sve njemačke snage na svom putu. U međuvremenu, Druga armija, oko 206.000 djelotvornih snaga pod zapovjedništvom generala Aleksandra Samsonova, doći će s juga, ljuljajući se oko regije Mazurskih jezera u pozadinu angažiranih njemačkih snaga.

Ambiciozni plan bio je ništa manje nego dvostruka omotnica koja bi parirala Hanibalovom trijumfu stoljećima prije. S većinom njemačkih snaga vezanih na zapadu, zauzimanje Istočne Pruske bilo bi nepredviđena nesreća. Sam Berlin bio bi ugrožen, a ako bi njemačka prijestolnica bila zauzeta, Nijemci bi morali tužiti za mir. Ruski plan bio je hrabar i uvelike je ovisio o preciznom vremenu, ali uz dovoljno sreće postojala je šansa da se to uspije.

Slabosti Rusije i#8217

Ipak, Rusija je na mnogo načina ostala nespremna za moderni rat. Katastrofalni rusko-japanski rat 1904.-1905. Bio je uzbuna, strogo upozorenje za modernizaciju ruskih oružanih snaga. Provedene su neke reforme, no procijenjeno je da Rusija neće biti spremna za veliki europski sukob sve do 1917. Iznad svega, moderni rat zahtijevao je od nacija da imaju moderne transportne sustave i potpuno funkcionalnu industrijsku bazu za održavanje vojske na terenu. Za svaku tvornicu u Rusiji bilo ih je 150 u Velikoj Britaniji.

Očekujući rat s Njemačkom, Francuska je ulila velike svote novca u izgradnju ruskih željeznica, ali 1914. rezultati ipak nisu uspjeli. Za svako dvorište ruskog kolosijeka po četvornoj milji Njemačka je imala 10. Kao da to nije dovoljno loše, ruske željeznice imale su drugačiji kolosijek od njemačkih. To je značilo da su se ruski vozovi za opskrbu morali zaustaviti na granici i prenijeti svoj teret u prijevoz s konjskom zapregom. Ubrzana mobilizacija značila je da mnogim ruskim postrojbama nedostaju poljske pekare, pa čak i medicinski materijal. Također je nedostajao telefonska žica, telegrafska oprema i obučeni signalisti. Bilo je malo obučenih kriptografa, što je značilo da su Nijemci često čitali ruske poruke.

Nijemci su bili svjesni tih slabosti i bili su šokirani i iznenađeni kada su Rusi tako brzo preuzeli ofenzivu. Zadaća čuvanja Istočne Pruske dodijeljena je Osmoj armiji general -potpukovnika Maksimilijana von Prittwitza. Prittwitz je imao 66 godina i toliko je imao višak kilograma da su ga iza leđa zvali "Debeli". Letargičan i preoprezan, jedino što je Prittwitz htio za sebe bilo je to što je imao vrlo kompetentnog zamjenika načelnika stožera, pukovnika Maxa Hoffmanna. Hoffmann je analizirao situaciju i zaključio da će prva armija Rennenkampfa napasti prva. Ako i kada su Rusi prešli granicu, Hoffmann ih je želio dočekati u Gumbinnenu, 25 milja od granice. Hoffmann je htio namamiti Ruse u Istočnu Prusku, prisilivši ih da razvuku svoje opskrbne i komunikacijske vodove prije nego što su ih iznenada nasrnuli.

“Kosaken Kommen! ”

U međuvremenu su se granici približili napredni elementi Prve armije. General Basil Gourko vodio je konjičku diviziju i pješačku diviziju preko granice kad je svanulo jutro 12. kolovoza. Bilo je nekih okršaja, ali njemačke trupe brzo su se pretopile u selo. Gourkov cilj bio je grad Marggrabowa, nekih pet kilometara od ruske granice. Ulice Marggrabowe bile su prazne, ali Gourko je u daljini čuo zveckanje njemačkog mitraljeza. Rusi su se otvorili sa svojim mitraljezima, a njemački pištolj je ušutio. Gourko i eskadrila demontiranih koplja brzo su zauzeli središte grada. Nije bilo daljnjeg otpora. Uplašeni mještani provirivali su s prozora na katu, ali su na kraju izašli promatrati osvajače.

Iako je u gradu još bilo ljudi, većina je bila starije dobi. Činilo se da je većina mještana, zajedno s njemačkim vojnicima, pobjegla s tog područja. Bio je to obrazac koji će se ponoviti sljedećih dana. Stotine, pa tisuće običnih Nijemaca bilo je na cestama, bježeći prema zapadu sa strašnim vapajem "Kosaken kommen!" na njihovim usnama. Vojnici i civili su se osobito-i s pravom-bojali Kozaka, onih tvrdoglavih jahača u stepama.

S gledišta Nijemaca to je bilo dovoljno loše, ali uskoro je uslijedilo još gore. Generalu Hermannu von Françoisu, zapovjedniku I. korpusa Osme armije, nije se svidio Prittwitzov plan angažiranja Rusa tako duboko unutar njemačkog teritorija. Većina njegovih ljudi bili su istočno -pruski domoroci, a ideja o popuštanju neprijatelja očarala je Françoisa. Smatrao je da zna bolje od glupana u sjedištu.

Rennenkampfova prva armija prešla je u Istočnu Prusku u ranim jutarnjim satima 17. kolovoza. Dok se Rennenkampfov III korpus približavao Stalluponenu, otkrili su elemente Françoisova I. korpusa. Ubrzo se pridružila bitka, a François je promatrao akciju s crkvenog stuba. Njemački zapovjednici koji su se vratili u sjedište bili su šokirani, a zatim bijesni, kad su primili poruku od Françoisa da se bori protiv Rusa u Stalluponenu, samo pet kilometara od ruske granice. François nije poslušao zapovijedi, a u njemačkoj vojsci takva je neposlušnost bila kardinalni grijeh. Françoisu je odmah naređeno da prekine akciju i povuče se u Gumbinnen, 20 milja dalje.

François se nije obazirao na poruke, pa je poslan general bojnik da osobno dostavi narudžbu. "Vrhovni general vam naređuje da odmah zaustavite bitku!" - povikao je general bojnik. François nije bio zastrašen. "Obavijestite generala von Prittwitza da će general von François prekinuti zaruke kad porazi Ruse!"

Kako su se događaji razvijali, ruska 27. divizija je uništena i zarobljeno je oko 3.000 ruskih zarobljenika. "Slavenska horda" je barem na trenutak provjerena, a François je sa zakašnjenjem pao nazad kako mu je prvotno bilo naređeno. Iako je jedna divizija bila jako prožvakana i povučena radi reorganizacije, ostatak Rennenkampfove vojske bio je netaknut. Napredovanje bi se nastavilo.

Bitka kod Gumbinnena

Françoisov I korpus otvorio je bitku za Gumbinnen topničkom vatrom u predvečerje 20. kolovoza. U 4 sata ujutro njemačko je pješaštvo opipalo svoj put naprijed u mraku pred zoru, posrćući prema ruskim linijama krajnje desno. Sunce se ubrzo izdiglo nad strašnim prizorom-red za redom Nijemaca u poljsko sivim uniformama, prepoznatljivim po kacigama s pikelhaubom.

Rusko topništvo otvorilo se zaglušujućom tutnjavom, prekrivši područje dobro postavljenim salvama. Uredne sive linije bile su rastrgane, krvavi vojnici razbacani poput krpenih lutki. Jednom su ruski topnici ignorirali upozorenja o nedostatku granata, koristeći 440 po danu kada je prihvaćena stopa bila 244 metaka. Nijemci su nastavili ići, iako je obližnja cesta, nekad potpuno bijela, sada bila siva od leševa palih. Tada su ruski topovi utihnuli - nestalo im je streljiva. Oslobođen mučnog topništva, njemački I korpus probio se naprijed i udario u rusku 28. diviziju, pritom je desetkujući.

U ruskom središtu i lijevo, bogatstvo Rennenkampfa se poboljšalo. Problem s njemačkim napadom bio je taj što je u nekim aspektima bio preuranjen. François je ponovno skočio iz pištolja i krenuo u napad prije nego što je njegova podrška - XVII korpus generala Augusta von Mackensena i I pričuvni korpus generala Otta von ispod - mogla doći. Mackensen i Below imali su dug marš do bojnog polja, a u okršaj su ušli tek u 8 sati ujutro. Françoisov napad s lijeve strane upozorio je ruski centar i desnicu, a kašnjenja koja su doživjeli Mackensen i Below dali su Rennenkampfu vremena da pripremi srdačan prijem. Kad su Mackensenove trupe došle u domet, ruski topovi otvorili su vatru sa strašnim rezultatima. Prljavi cvjetovi dima i plamena razdirali su redove, šaljući preživjele u potrazi za zaklonom.

Neke su jedinice pokušale krenuti naprijed, a od devet napredovanja, sedam je uspjelo doći do ruskih linija, gdje su se borbe vodile prsa u prsa. Ruski seljački vojnik, često prezren i ismijavan, bio je tvrd i tvrdoglav borac iz blizine. Potučeni Nijemci morali su uvijek iznova popuštati. Granatiranje je bilo toliko teško da se neke njemačke formacije nisu ni približile njemačkim linijama. Neke ruske granate pale su na njemačke vagone sa streljivom, pojačavajući zabunu i teror.

Konačno, meso i krv više nisu mogli stajati. Četa Nijemaca odjednom je odbacila ruke i potrčala. Susjedna tvrtka uhvatila se panika i počela je također raditi. Ubrzo su cijele pukovnije, pa bojne, uhvatile zarazu straha i uzele im se za pete. Ceste i polja bili su zakrčeni ljudima koji su bježali. Stožerni službenici pokušali su zaustaviti stampedo, ali bez uspjeha. Mackensen, zgrožen i posramljen, dojurio je osobnim automobilom potičući muškarce da se osvijeste i vrate na dužnost. Pokret se nastavio, a uplašene trupe nisu se zaustavile na nekih 15 milja od bojišta. Pripadnički rezervni korpus do tada je bio jako angažiran, ali Mackensenovo iznenadno povlačenje razotkrilo je njegov lijevi bok, prisilivši ga da se povuče.

Rusi su bili grubo ophođeni u ranim fazama bitke, ali do mraka je bilo jasno da je Gumbinnen ruska pobjeda. Sve što je bilo potrebno bila je snažna potraga za postizanjem trijumfa. Neshvatljivo, Rennenkampf se ukočio. Ruski general u osnovi nije učinio ništa kako bi nastavio svoju početnu pobjedu. Njemačke snage u njegovom središtu i s lijeve strane bile su u potpunom povlačenju, ali Françoisov I. korpus dao je Rusima krvavi nos ranije i još uvijek su bili negdje s lijeve strane.

Povlačenje iz Istočne Pruske

Rennenkampf nije htio slijepo ganjati Nijemce, da bi ga Françoisova pomalo pohabana, ali još uvijek snažna sila s lijeve strane udarila na bok. Bilo je i drugih razloga za neaktivnost Prve armije. Rennenkampfova opskrbna linija bila je u najboljem slučaju slabašna, a brzo pomicanje naprijed moglo bi je rastegnuti do točke loma. Odlučio je ostati na mjestu, barem nekoliko dana. U međuvremenu je ruska Druga armija prešla njemačko-rusku granicu od 21. do 22. kolovoza. Samsonov je s bolovanja pozvan na aktivnu dužnost i potpuno je bio nepoznat sa svojim novim podređenima. Budući da u regiji nije bilo prikladnih željezničkih pruga istok-zapad, Druga armija morala je krenuti do granice, pješačeći kroz pješčani otpad posut šumama, jezerima i močvarama.

Problemi opskrbe Druge armije bili su još gori od problema Prve armije. Marširali su kroz virtualnu divljinu u kojoj živi nekoliko siromašnih i bijednih poljskih seljaka. Ruski opskrbni vlakovi ovisili su o vozilima s konjskom vučom, a u tom pješčanom otpadu sve se kretalo puževim tempom. Bilo je malo gradova vrijednih spomena, pa Rusi nisu mogli rekvirirati hranu i stočnu hranu iz uobičajenih izvora. Kad je Druga armija prešla njemačku granicu, već su bili na maršu devet dana. Približavali su se iscrpljenosti, a čaj i kruh - osnovni dijeti prehrane ruskih vojnika - bili su rijetki. Mobilizacija je bila toliko užurbana da je postrojbama čak nedostajalo poljskih pekara. Samo je kapljica obroka stigla do dugotrpeljivih trupa.

Prvi svjetski rat: Pali ruski vojnici nakon bitke kod Tannenberga, rujan 1914.

Njemački poraz kod Gumbinnena poslao je udarne valove koji su se širili istočnom Pruskom i samom Njemačkom. Čak i prije bitke, aristokratske izbjeglice glasno su se žalile da im posjede zauzimaju slavenski barbari. Nigdje zaprepaštenje nije bilo veće nego u stožeru Osme armije. Prittwitza su do temelja potresle priče o njemačkim vojnicima koji su okretali rep i trčali. Kad je general čuo izvješća da je Samsonova vojska prešla granicu, potpuno je izgubio živce.

Ranije je načelnik stožera njemačke vojske Helmuth von Moltke rekao Prittwitzu da zadrži svoju vojsku netaknutom i, ako bude pritisnut, povuče se do rijeke Visle. No, Prittwitz se sada odlučio povući iza Visle, udaljene nekih 200 milja. To bi Istočnu Prusku učinkovito ostavilo u ruskim rukama. Istočna Pruska bila je srce stare pruske monarhije, povijesne baze gdje su Teutonski vitezovi pregazili i kolonizirali slavenske narode. Napustiti Istočnu Prusku bilo bi nezamislivo. Štoviše, kako su Rusi pritiskali prema zapadu, i sam će Berlin biti ugrožen.

“Ja sam spreman ”

Kad je Moltke čuo da se Prittwitz želi odmah povući, zgranuo se. U to nije bilo sumnje - Prittwitza će morati zamijeniti. Moltkeov izbor pao je na Paula von Hindenburga, umirovljenog 67-godišnjeg generala čiji su pruski korijeni duboko ušli. Govorilo se da je kao dječak zapravo poznavao starca koji je bio vrtlar Frederika Velikog. Stari vojnik prihvatio je to mjesto jednostavnim: "Spreman sam." General Erich von Ludendorff izabran je za načelnika stožera Hindenburga i premješten sa Zapadnog fronta, gdje se nedavno istaknuo u Liegeu.

Još prije dolaska Hindenburga i Ludendorffa, Hoffmann je uvjerio svoje nadređene, uključujući sada otpuštenog Pittwitza, da prihvati odvažni plan koji je razradio za pobjedu. U biti, Hoffmann je predložio da se Osma armija odvoji od ruske Prve armije i okrene prema jugu kako bi se suočila s Drugom armijom Samsonova. Samo bi tanki konjički zaslon pratio Rennenkampfova kretanja. Hoffmann je htio okrenuti ploču nad Rusima. Da je sve u redu, oni, a ne Nijemci, bili bi žrtve dvostruke ovojnice. Njemački I korpus i III rezervni korpus bit će isporučeni vlakom na desni bok XX korpusa, sada okrenuti prema napredujućoj Drugoj armiji. I rezervni korpus i XVII korpus također bi marširali prema jugu i zauzeli položaje s lijeve strane XX. Korpusa.

Njemačke trupe u rovovima s spremnim oružjem, u Istočnoj Pruskoj, moguće u Tannenbergu.

Hoffman se kockao da se Rennenkampf neće pomaknuti u prilog Samsonovu. Kad bi Rennenkampf ostao gdje je bio ili nastavio prema sjeverozapadu do Königsberga, sudbina Druge armije bila bi zapečaćena. No ako je zamahnuo prema jugu, mogao bi pasti na stražnju stranu Osme armije s lica prema Samsonovu. To bi bila katastrofa.

Hindenburg i Ludendorff odobrili su Hoffmannov plan kad su stigli 23. kolovoza. Bilo bi još tjeskobnih trenutaka jer bi njemačkoj vojsci trebalo nekoliko dana da se razmjesti. No, ako bi sve prošlo u redu, Druga armija Samsonova pala bi u zamku.

“Požuri napredovanje druge armije ”

Nesvjestan njemačkih planova, Samsonov je i dalje napredovao, a zapovjednik Sjeverozapadne fronte general Žilinski pozvao ga je da požuri. "Požurite s napredovanjem Druge armije", zahtijevao je Zhilinsky, "i požuri svoje operacije." Samsonov se bunio, ali su njegove molbe došle do uha. Zapovjednik Druge armije objasnio je da je "napredovao prema rasporedu, bez zastoja, pokrivajući marševe veće od 12 milja iznad pijeska. Ne mogu ići brže. "

Samsonov opskrbni puk se doslovno i figurativno pokvario. Vagoni s konjskom zapregom i kočije pištolja zaglavili su se u pijesku. Nedostajali su pekarski vagoni, a traženje hrane na neprijateljskom teritoriju bilo je teško, osobito u močvarnoj divljini prepunoj pijeska. Samsonov je očajno rekao Zhilinskom da je "zemlja devastirana, konji su odavno bili bez zobi i nema kruha".

Zhilinsky ne bi imao ništa od toga. Bio je siguran da su Rusi na pragu velike pobjede. 21. kolovoza Samsonov XV korpus pod vodstvom generala Nicholasa Martosa naletio je na elemente njemačkog XX korpusa i borbe su počele. Nijemci su se povukli, pa je Martos gurnuo naprijed i zauzeo Soldau i Neidenburg, 10 milja unutar istočno -pruske granice. Kad su kozačke ophodnje ušle u Neidenburg, Nijemci su ih počeli pucati iz prozora na drugom katu. Obaviješten o tome, Martos je odmah naredio topničko bombardiranje grada. Polovica od 470 kuća u Neidenburgu uništena je u baraži. Martos je otišao naprijed, zauzeo grad i prenoćio u domu svog gradonačelnika.

Presretanje dviju ruskih poruka

Bitka kod Tannenberga započela je ozbiljno 26. kolovoza. Pet korpusa Druge armije bilo je raspoređeno na frontu od oko 60 milja. The German XX Corps, hard-pressed in part because Hoffmann’s trap was not yet ready to be sprung, slowly gave way before the Russian onslaught. The Hoffmann plan called for François’s I Corps to smash into Samsonov’s left wing, but François initially refused. His heavy artillery and some of his infantry were still detraining from their long, roundabout ride from the north. Angered at this new round of insubordination, Hindenburg and Ludendorff got into a car and drove to I Corps headquarters. Confronted in person, François reluctantly gave way.

There was still the nagging fear that Rennenkampf would suddenly awaken and fall on the German rear when they were preoccupied with trapping Samsonov. Hoffmann stopped at Montovo, where a signal operator handed him two messages that had been intercepted from the Russians. They had been sent in the clear, with no attempt to cipher or encrypt them. After a quick glance at the intercepts, Hoffmann jumped back into his car and ordered his chauffeur to drive at top speed to catch Hindenburg and Ludendorff.

Germany: 1914. German infantrymen attack Russian artillery fire. Probably film photo.

After a few miles, Hoffmann could see the Hindenburg staff car just ahead. Without bothering to slow down or stop their quarry, Hoffmann simply had his chauffeur drive parallel to Hindenburg’s vehicle. Hoffmann thrust the messages into the commander’s car. Both cars came to a screeching stop while Hindenburg and Ludendorff pored over intercepted Russians messages. One missive, sent by Rennenkampf, showed that the First Army was proceeding northwestward toward Königsberg, according to the initial Russian timetable. Rennenkampf was not about to attack the German rear. The second message, from Samsonov, indicated that he was thrusting deeply to the west—in other words, he thought the German Army was in full retreat. Ludendorff could not believe his eyes—the Russian intercepts were almost too good to be true.

Encircling the Russian Center

Fighting continued through August 26 and 27. The Russian right wing, separated from the Russian center, came into contact with Mackensen’s XVII Corps and the I Reserve Corps near Lautern. The Russian right wing was badly beaten and thrown into headlong retreat southward to Olschienen and Wallen, more than 20 miles away. Some Russian soldiers were trapped with their backs to Bossau Lake, and then drowned.

On August 27, François attacked the Russian left near Usdau. Exhausted and starving, Samsonov’s left fell back in disorder. By nightfall, the Russian Second Army’s wings were broken and in retreat. The only thing left to do was to try to extricate his center. Yet Samsonov inexplicably ordered his center to push forward, virtually assuring that it would be encircled and trapped.

At dawn on the morning of August 28, François and his I Corps swung eastward and reached Neidenburg. The door had swung closed. The Russian center—the XIII, XV, and much of the XXIII corps—was trapped. Formations disintegrated, discipline broke down, and the remnants of Second Army became a mob of starving, footsore men stumbling around the dense Prussian forests.

Some units attempted a breakout. Elements of the XIII Corps made a particularly noble effort the Nevsky Regiment led a desperate evening charge that captured four German guns. But later that night, the XIII Corps soon came to a clearing, and on the other side were manned German machine-gun posts. The open ground became a killing field, well lit by crisscrossing German searchlights. The XIII Corps had had no food or water for two days, but the men mounted a series of frantic attacks to escape the German net. Five times the Russians went forward, only to be raked by chattering machine-gun fire. After the fifth failed assault, the Russians gave up the effort, melting into the surrounding woods. They were later taken prisoner.

92,000 Russians Taken Prisoner

All was lost. Samsonov, ill with asthma and crushed by shame, walked into the woods and shot himself. His body was later found by the Germans. Perhaps 10,000 Second Army men escaped the debacle. Casualty figures were uncertain, because of the countless Russians who perished of wounds in the forest or drowned in the marshes and lakes, but approximately 92,000 Russians were taken prisoner and another 30,000 wounded were added to the total. Some 500 guns were also taken. Hindenburg and Ludendorff became national heroes, but the German public gave little recognition to Colonel Hoffmann, the real architect of victory.

In early September, the German Eighth Army again took on Rennenkampf in the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes. When Rennenkampf finally woke up to the Second Army’s peril, he tried to send aid. It was too little, too late the nearest First Army unit was still more than 45 miles away. The First Army’s southern wing was dangerously spread out from the rest of Rennenkampf’s forces. By September 2, the mopping up at Tannnenberg was almost complete. Hindenburg turned his attention to Rennenkampf, hoping for another triumph. The German general was helped by the arrival of two corps from the Western Front. The Russians maneuvered well, and Rennenkampf became aware of the danger of being outflanked.

The German Eighth Army and Russian Second Army clashed. To buy some time, Rennenkampf ordered an offensive, a move that actually pushed the German XX Corps back for a few miles. But victory was fleeting. A huge German flanking movement was developing in the south, and to avoid a second disaster there was nothing to do but retreat. Rennenkampf ordered a rapid general withdrawal that was covered by a strong rear guard. The Russian First Army managed to escape, in part because it retreated more rapidly than the Germans advanced.

Tannenberg stands out as one of the very few battles of World War I that was a clear-cut, decisive victory. It could be argued, however, that the unquestioned triumph also sowed the seeds of eventual German defeat. The East Prussian crisis caused many German units that were vitally needed in the west to be hastily transferred to the east. Those troops might have helped defeat France and Great Britain at the Marne. Instead, the Allies stopped the German advance and ensured that the war would become a muddy morass of static trenches. Because the Schlieffen Plan failed in the west, Germany was condemned to four years of bloody stalemate and, ultimately, crushing defeat.


Pincer Movement

The Army advancing from the east was commanded by General Paul von Rennenkampf, while that from the southeast by General Alexander Samsonov. Between them, they had 29 divisions. Against them stood General Maximilian von Prittwitz commanding 13 divisions. Although the Russians had superior numbers, they were ill-equipped and supplied.

Rennenkampf advanced first on August 15, aiming to draw Prittwitz out. Two days later, Samsonov began his advance. Their plan was to catch Prittwitz’s forces between their two armies, trapping the Germans in a pincer movement.

Paul von Rennenkampf, Russian general, 1854–1918, commander of the 1st Russian Army during 1914.


East Prussia WW1 What If

Post by stg 44 » 18 Dec 2010, 21:55

What if the commander of the German 8th army in August 1914, von Prittwitz, had been more resolute at the beginning of the war? At the battles of Stalluponen and Gumbinnen, his timidity and then haste allowed his subordinates to operate uncontrolled and uncoordinated leading to his army's defeat.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/gumbinnen.htm
http://www.firstworldwar.com/maps/graph . 1914_2.jpg

So what if he kept Francois on a shorter leash, preventing the battle of Stalluponen on the 17th and held off on Gumbinnen until his forces were concentrated by the 21st? The 8th army could have hit Rennenkampf's 1st army as a consolidated mass instead of individual corps making uncoordinated efforts and suffering badly as a result. While it would not have been on the scale of Tannenberg or the 1st Masurian lakes, a sudden defeat inflicted just as Rennenkampf started experiencing supply troubles could have given Prittwitz the peace of mind to go after Samsonov at Tanneberg and then turn once again on the 1st army further East (as it likely retreated in the wake of a defeat at Gumbinnen).

Historically Prittwitz panicked after losing at Gumbinnen and phoned OHL about retreating over the Vistula, leaving East Prussia to the Russians. By the next day Prittwitz had recovered his nerve and already had planned the historical battle of Tannenberg by the time he was relieved and more troops from the West were dispatched to the 8th army. Ludendorff and Hindenberg came in just in time to collect the glory from plans already in motion.

Here though Prittwitz will retain his post, probably inflict an equivalent defeat on Samsonov, and not receive two extra corps and a cavalry division that were sorely missed at the Marne. These forces probably would have allowed the Germans to hold on the Marne river instead of falling back to the Aisne, and complete the encirclement of Verdun, which was abandoned in the fall back.

Back in East Prussia Prittwitz is now able to confront Rennenkampf once again, but now lacks the forces to run a Masurian-style attack, which means the German 8th army probably limits itself to limited attacks against vulnerable Russian units while holding on a prepared defensive line until the Western Front settles down.

They then aren't able to really help the Austro-Hungarians in October by attacking the Vistula and San, which paradoxically is actually much better for both the Germans and Austrians, who can spend the time resting and regrouping. I have more ideas about how this could play out, but I'd like to hear from you all.

Leading to 8th Army defeat.

Post by Dave Bender » 18 Dec 2010, 22:47

At Stalluponen and Gumbinen the larger Russian army dished out as much punishment as it received. For Russia that was good enough since they greatly outnumbered Germany in the East. But German 8th Army was not "defeated" in these relatively small engagements. If German 8th Army had been defeated the German offensive at Tannenburg would have been impossible.

In any case attacking Russian 1st Army head on was bad strategy. German Army doctrine emphasized flanking attacks like the one FM Hindenberg conducted at Tannenburg. Replacing Prittwitz with Hindenburg was one of FM Moltke's few good decisions.

Re: Leading to 8th Army defeat.

Post by stg 44 » 18 Dec 2010, 23:37

Dave Bender wrote: That's a bit of a stretch.

At Stalluponen and Gumbinen the larger Russian army dished out as much punishment as it received. For Russia that was good enough since they greatly outnumbered Germany in the East. But German 8th Army was not "defeated" in these relatively small engagements. If German 8th Army had been defeated the German offensive at Tannenburg would have been impossible.

In any case attacking Russian 1st Army head on was bad strategy. German Army doctrine emphasized flanking attacks like the one FM Hindenberg conducted at Tannenburg. Replacing Prittwitz with Hindenburg was one of FM Moltke's few good decisions.

Defeat is a relative term here it means that the Germans retreated after trading casualties with the Russians. The Russians advanced. While 8th army forces were not 'beaten' they lost the field of battle. Historically the Russians were able to engage the Germans piecemeal while on the defensive, losing men only initially when surprised by Francois. There was a significant delay before Mackensen attacked next, but by then Rennenkampf was alerted to the German attack and had time to prepare. Here I am proposing that the Russians get sucked in and are allowed to take Gumbinnen before meeting the German line on the Angerapp. Once engaged the Francois's I corps moves around the north of the Tzullkinner forest, attacking the flank of the Russian 1st army. The delay would also allow the 3rd reserve division, which arrived too late to fight historically, time to arrive, where, reinforced by some Landwehr units, could attack the Russian southern flank.

Hindenberg and Ludendorff did not conduct flanking attacks as often as you suggest. In fact at the Masurian lakes it was Francois who really focused on the flanking/turning maneuver, belatedly opening Ludendorff's eyes to the opportunity. So sayeth Hew Strachan. And Tannenberg was already planned and being executed before Hindenberg and Ludendorff even got involved in the Eastern Front. It was Prittwitz's plan and Ludendorff got credit. So sayeth General Max Hoffmann.

So sayeth Hew Strachan

Post by Dave Bender » 19 Dec 2010, 00:31

Re: So sayeth Hew Strachan

Post by stg 44 » 19 Dec 2010, 00:57

This is an issue we've been over many times German generals and lower level officers in 1914 often disregarded doctrine as there was yet no consensus on which tactics to use. Strachan was not defining doctrine, rather, he was explaining what happened during Hindenberg's battle of the Masurian lakes. Flank attacks are not possible in every situation, much like the Masurian lakes. Prittwitz used flank attacks when he had control over his forces, for example the plan for Tannenberg. He did not have control over Francois at either Stalluponen or Gumbinnen.

Please, let's not make this a pissing contest yet again about German doctrine. Instead could we focus on the main idea that I have illustrated with my poorly-drawn map? It even uses the doctrine of the Exerzier Reglement.

Focus on the main idea

Post by Dave Bender » 19 Dec 2010, 05:49

Germany 8th Army was relatively small. They cannot afford to become decisively engaged at Gumbinnen. Even if they kick the snot out of Russian 1st Army the Russian 2nd Army is likely to cut their rail line from the west. That would leave German 8th Army little choice but to withdraw into the Konigsburg fortress complex where it will be trapped.

FM Hindenburg made the right decision to shift 8th Army west. That way Russian forces won't cut his supply line and (if necessary) line of retreat.

FM Moltke made the right decision to reinforce East Prussia with two additional infantry corps. If German 8th Army had gotten trapped in Konigsburg or elsewhere those two veteran infantry corps could have formed a blocking position to prevent Russian 1st Army from advancing westward.

Re: focus on the main idea

Post by stg 44 » 19 Dec 2010, 20:10

Dave Bender wrote: Germany 8th Army was relatively small. They cannot afford to become decisively engaged at Gumbinnen. Even if they kick the snot out of Russian 1st Army the Russian 2nd Army is likely to cut their rail line from the west. That would leave German 8th Army little choice but to withdraw into the Konigsburg fortress complex where it will be trapped.

FM Hindenburg made the right decision to shift 8th Army west. That way Russian forces won't cut his supply line and (if necessary) line of retreat.

FM Moltke made the right decision to reinforce East Prussia with two additional infantry corps. If German 8th Army had gotten trapped in Konigsburg or elsewhere those two veteran infantry corps could have formed a blocking position to prevent Russian 1st Army from advancing westward.

Though I agree that there was danger in becoming bogged down in fighting the 1st army, the threat to the rear of the 8th army from the Russian 2nd is negligible in the extra 4 days or so that this version of Gumbinnen would take. 2nd army was at the end of it supply lines by this point and had trouble feeding its men. It couldn't advance much farther without setting supplies lines up, which at this point had collapsed. Really the only reason Tannenberg was possible was that the gross mismanagement of the Russian Northwest Front by Gilinsky, who ordered Samsonov and Rennenkampf to advance before their armies were mobilized. Supply units were still not ready, which caused they to fall apart the second the border was crossed and the rail gauge changed. German signals intelligence was well aware of all this thanks to Russian broadcasts in the clear or in simple code.

The 8th army had to fight both the Russian armies in sequence, so why would it matter if it was Rennenkampf first? Neither could cut his supply lines before the other was dealt with, but Prittwitz was taking no chances by trying to hit Rennenkampf first. Had he been more determined 8th army could have struck Rennenkampf a blow before turning on Samsonov. 8th army doesn't need to destroy 1st army, just force a retreat so that they had enough of a window to deal with 2nd army. Historically the Russians so widely diverged that it was unnecessary to defeat Rennenkampf, but it wasn't inconceivable that the early clashes could have turned out better for the Germans in East Prussia, so as to prevent the Russians from drawing off forces from the West.

The loss of these forces at the Marne proved critical for the French, because had they been there the Marne would not have been nearly as successful. Moltke historically made a bad decision in shifting forces East because they were needed in the West, not the East. The Eastern Front could have been maintained until the Marne line was established, which means that after September 12th they can be sent East. Yes it would alter the situation in Prussia, but it wouldn't lose the Germans anything vital. Any gains in the West far offset losses in the East.


Cry Havoc!

A little over 100 years ago, the advancing troops of the Russian 1st Army met Maximilian von Prittwitz's 8.Armee at the town of Gumbinnen in East Prussia. It was the first German offensive of the the war in the east. Strategically, the battle was a German defeat. Tactically the Russians certainly didn't shine, but they held long enough, and did enough damage to the German XVII Corps to make von Prittzwitz lose his nerve and retreat. His corps commanders did not generally agree that they had been beaten.

Courtesy of the new World War I Campaigns game from John Tiller Software. East Prussia '14, I'm going to try my hand at managing a better outcome for 8.Armee.

8.Armee positions the morning of August 20th, 1914. IArmeekorps and XVII.Armeekorps are already in contact

Aside from being very interested in the time period right now due to the centennial of the start of WWI, I'm very impressed by this latest John Tiller offering. France '14 was a great game, particularly once Jison's MapMod had been applied to make it look more appealing. East Prussia '14 takes the France '14 engine and updates some key mechanics to make the gameplay even more engaging.

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I.Armeekorps is already a bit battered from their recent engagement at Stalluponen. My intent is to attack the objective at Mallwischken with 2.Infantrie-Division (light blue symbol background) while conducting a breakthrough of the Russian line north or Brakuponen to surround and isolate the village with a brigade of 1.Infantrie-Division.
Beyond that, East Prussia '14 is the first Tiller game I haven't immediately sought out graphic mods for. JTS have evidently recognized talent when they've seen it and hired Jison to do the artwork for this title. The result is impressive: East Prussia '14 is about as graphically appealing as a chit shuffler can be. The maps are lovely - and very large, ultimately covering all of East Prussia and a good bit of Poland, providing lots of room for the sweeping campaigns of the Eastern Front in the first year of the Great War.

XVII.Armeekorps is in a bit of a jam. Von Mackensen ran his troops straight into some strong Russian positions without good reconnaissance and now I need to deal with it. An attack towards those (apparently) undefended objectives on the Russian right by the 36.Infantrie-Division (purple counters) seems a likely gambit.
JTS has provided the same engine and graphics updates for France '14. There's more to the update though, than just bringing the engine and graphics up to snuff - there are now a series of Grand Campaign scenarios allowing players to experience the entire war on both Western and Eastern fronts at battalion scale. This is accomplished through a series of linked scenarios in a scenario tree dictated by the results of previous battles. Players can make strategic decisions to move units between fronts that will impact the forces available in the scenarios. The game supports multiplayer PBEM and online play to facilitate three, four, or more players controlling the massive armies on the map for these huge scenarios.

The engine has also been updated to support the 2x zoom 2D view that's been showing up in other recent JTS games and updates. This increased zoom is essential for these games when played on modern high-resolution displays. The 3D views still exist but are as unattractive as ever. There must be someone that plays using these, but I'd appreciate a means to turn them off complete so I don't unintentionally zoom too far in and have to endure the 1990s graphics.


Battle of Stallupönen

On August 17 Rennenkampf started the invasion of Prussia, marching the First Army directly westward towards the German lines.

Although he faced no resistance, Rennenkampf stopped his advance in a neat line about five miles (8 km) from the border. Acting without orders, Francois decided to take his forces to Stallupönen where one of the Russian divisions was resting. A furious frontal attack broke the Russian division, which fled eastward, losing 5,000 casualties and 3,000 prisoners, almost the entirety of the Russian 105th Regiment.

When Prittwitz learned that François had engaged the Russians, he sent an adjutant to order François to break off the attack and retreat. François by this time was too committed to safely disengage, and had no intention of doing so anyway. He contemptuously, and famously, told the adjutant, "Report to General Prittwitz that General von François will withdraw when he has defeated the Russians."

Battle on the first day of Russia's invasion of East Prussia (First World War). The Russian First Army under General Pavel K. Rennenkampf, invading from the east, was spread out over too wide a front. It ran into a single German army corp under General Hermann von Francois, and was badly mauled. Rennenkampf temporarily withdrew to the border, having lost 3,000 men, in what would compared to later battles appear to be a minor skirmish. Francois withdrew to Gumbinnen.


Vremenska Crta

Explore the events and milestones of the First World War with the National Army Museum's interactive timeline.

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

The heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, is assassinated by a Bosnian Serb in Sarajevo. The Austro-Hungarians blame the Serbs and seek revenge.

Germany backs Austria-Hungary

Germany assures Austria-Hungary of its support against Russia should the latter oppose Austria’s planned attack on Serbia.

Austro-Hungarian ultimatum rejected

Austria-Hungary sends Serbia an impossible ultimatum, which is rejected.

Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Russia mobilises in support of its Serb ally.

Germany warns Russia

Germany warns Russia to cease mobilisation despite the latter’s claim that this is only aimed against the Austro-Hungarians.

Germany declares war on Russia

Germans and Ottomans sign treaty

Germany and the Ottoman Empire (now Turkey) sign a secret alliance treaty aimed against Russia.

Germany declares war on France and Belgium

Germany declares war on France (an ally of Russia) and neutral Belgium. The Germans’ Schlieffen Plan is based on a quick strike against France while Russia is slowly mobilising.

Sir Edward Grey addresses Parliament

Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey, addresses Parliament on the war in Europe and outlines the pros and cons of a British intervention.

Germany invades Belgium

As part of its plan to attack France, Germany invades Belgium aiming to outflank and encircle much of the French Army.

Britain declares war on Germany

Britain declares war on Germany following the latter’s violation of the Treaty of London (1839), which guaranteed Belgian neutrality.

Ottomans close the Dardanelles

The Ottomans close the Dardanelles Strait, a shipping route linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.

Germany captures Liège

The Germans besiege and then capture the fortresses of Liège in Belgium.

Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia

Serbia declares war on Germany

Lord Kitchener’s appeal for new recruits

The British Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener, calls for 100,000 volunteers for his ‘New Armies’.

British Expeditionary Force arrives in France

Field Marshal Sir John French’s British Expeditionary Force (BEF) arrives in France.

Battle of the Frontiers

7 August - 13 September 1914

The Germans’ Schlieffen Plan meets with initial success in a series of engagements fought against the Allies in southern Belgium and eastern France.

France declares war on Austria-Hungary

Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary invades Serbia

First large-scale overseas deployment of Royal Flying Corps

Four squadrons from the Royal Flying Corps join the British Expeditionary Force in France.

Battle of Cer

The Serbs defeat the invading Austro-Hungarians in the first major Allied victory of the First World War. This battle also sees the first aerial dogfight when the pilots of Serbian and Austro-Hungarian reconnaissance aircraft engage each other with small arms.


The war in the east, 1914

On the Eastern Front, greater distances and quite considerable differences between the equipment and quality of the opposing armies ensured a fluidity of the front that was lacking in the west. Trench lines might form, but to break them was not difficult, particularly for the German army, and then mobile operations of the old style could be undertaken.

Urged by the French to take offensive action against the Germans, the Russian commander in chief, Grand Duke Nicholas, took it loyally but prematurely, before the cumbrous Russian war machine was ready, by launching a pincer movement against East Prussia. Under the higher control of General Ya.G. Zhilinsky, two armies, the 1st, or Vilna, Army under P.K. Rennenkampf and the 2nd, or Warsaw, Army under A.V. Samsonov, were to converge, with a two-to-one superiority in numbers, on the German 8th Army in East Prussia from the east and the south, respectively. Rennenkampf’s left flank would be separated by 50 miles from Samsonov’s right flank.

Max von Prittwitz und Gaffron, commander of the 8th Army, with his headquarters at Neidenburg (Nidzica), had seven divisions and one cavalry division on his eastern front but only the three divisions of Friedrich von Scholtz’s XX Corps on his southern. He was therefore dismayed to learn, on August 20, when the bulk of his forces had been repulsed at Gumbinnen (August 19–20) by Rennenkampf’s attack from the east, that Samsonov’s 13 divisions had crossed the southern frontier of East Prussia and were thus threatening his rear. He initially considered a general retreat, but when his staff objected to this, he approved their counterproposal of an attack on Samsonov’s left flank, for which purpose three divisions were to be switched in haste by rail from the Gumbinnen front to reinforce Scholtz (the rest of the Gumbinnen troops could make their retreat by road). The principal exponent of this counterproposal was Lieutenant Colonel Max Hoffmann. Prittwitz, having moved his headquarters northward to Mühlhausen (Młynary), was surprised on August 22 by a telegram announcing that General Paul von Hindenburg, with Ludendorff as his chief of staff, was coming to supersede him in command. Arriving the next day, Ludendorff readily confirmed Hoffmann’s dispositions for the blow at Samsonov’s left.

Meanwhile, Zhilinsky was not only giving Rennenkampf time to reorganize after Gumbinnen but even instructing him to invest Königsberg instead of pressing on to the west. When the Germans on August 25 learned from an intercepted Russian wireless message (the Russians habitually transmitted combat directives “in clear,” not in code) that Rennenkampf was in no hurry to advance, Ludendorff saw a new opportunity. Developing the plan put forward by Hoffmann, Ludendorff concentrated about six divisions against Samsonov’s left wing. This force, inferior in strength, could not have been decisive, but Ludendorff then took the calculated risk of withdrawing the rest of the German troops, except for a cavalry screen, from their confrontation with Rennenkampf and rushing them southwestward against Samsonov’s right wing. Thus, August von Mackensen’s XVII Corps was taken from near Gumbinnen and moved southward to duplicate the planned German attack on Samsonov’s left with an attack on his right, thus completely enveloping the Russian 2nd Army. This daring move was made possible by the notable absence of communication between the two Russian field commanders, whom Hoffmann knew to personally dislike each other. Under the Germans’ converging blows Samsonov’s flanks were crushed and his centre surrounded during August 26–31. The outcome of this military masterpiece, called the Battle of Tannenberg, was the destruction or capture of almost the whole of Samsonov’s army. The history of imperial Russia’s unfortunate participation in World War I is epitomized in the ignominious outcome of the Battle of Tannenberg.

The progress of the battle was as follows. Samsonov, his forces spread out along a front 60 miles long, was gradually pushing Scholtz back toward the Allenstein–Osterode (Olsztyn–Ostróda) line when, on August 26, Ludendorff ordered General Hermann von François, with the I Corps on Scholtz’s right, to attack Samsonov’s left wing near Usdau (Uzdowo). There, on August 27, German artillery bombardments threw the hungry and weary Russians into precipitate flight. François started to pursue them toward Neidenburg, in the rear of the Russian centre, and then made a momentary diversion southward, to check a Russian counterattack from Soldau (Działdowo). Two of the Russian 2nd Army’s six army corps managed to escape southeastward at this point, and François then resumed his pursuit to the east. By nightfall on August 29 his troops were in control of the road leading from Neidenburg eastward to Willenberg (Wielbark). The Russian centre, amounting to three army corps, was now caught in the maze of forest between Allenstein and the frontier of Russian Poland. It had no line of retreat, was surrounded by the Germans, and soon dissolved into mobs of hungry and exhausted men who beat feebly against the encircling German ring and then allowed themselves to be taken prisoner by the thousands. Samsonov shot himself in despair on August 29. By the end of August the Germans had taken 92,000 prisoners and annihilated half of the Russian 2nd Army. Ludendorff’s bold recall of the last German forces facing Rennenkampf’s army was wholly justified in the event, since Rennenkampf remained utterly passive while Samsonov’s army was surrounded.

Having received two fresh army corps (seven divisions) from the Western Front, the Germans now turned on the slowly advancing 1st Army under Rennenkampf. The latter was attacked on a line extending from east of Königsberg to the southern end of the chain of the Masurian Lakes during September 1–15 and was driven from East Prussia. As a result of these East Prussian battles Russia had lost about 250,000 men and, what could be afforded still less, much war matériel. But the invasion of East Prussia had at least helped to make possible the French comeback on the Marne by causing the dispatch of two German army corps from the Western Front.

Having ended the Russian threat to East Prussia, the Germans could afford to switch the bulk of their forces from that area to the Częstochowa–Kraków front in southwestern Poland, where the Austrian offensive, launched on August 20, had been rolled back by Russian counterattacks. A new plan for simultaneous thrusts by the Germans toward Warsaw and by the Austrians toward Przemyśl was brought to nothing by the end of October, as the Russians could now mount counterattacks in overwhelming strength, their mobilization being at last nearly completed. The Russians then mounted a powerful effort to invade Prussian Silesia with a huge phalanx of seven armies. Allied hopes rose high as the much-heralded “Russian steamroller” (as the huge Russian army was called) began its ponderous advance. The Russian armies were advancing toward Silesia when Hindenburg and Ludendorff, in November, exploited the superiority of the German railway network: when the retreating German forces had crossed the frontier back into Prussian Silesia, they were promptly moved northward into Prussian Poland and thence sent southeastward to drive a wedge between the two armies of the Russian right flank. The massive Russian operation against Silesia was disorganized, and within a week four new German army corps had arrived from the Western Front. Ludendorff was able to use them to press the Russians back by mid-December to the Bzura–Rawka (rivers) line in front of Warsaw, and the depletion of their munition supplies compelled the Russians to also fall back in Galicia to trench lines along the Nida and Dunajec rivers.


Battle of Stalluponen, 17 August 1914 (East Prussia) - History

The Great War, otherwise known as World War I centers upon European nations that simply could not get along. You have the Allies on one side, which includes the French, Great Britain, and the Russians, otherwise known as the Triple Entente and on the other, you have the Central Powers, composed of Austro-Hungary, Germany, and Italy.

One of the reasons WWI is described as the Great War is because of the number of military personnel involved from all sides, a total of 70 million, not to forget the total number of casualties, which was over 38 million, including 9 million deaths. Because we designate this as the first world war, it stands to reason that a second world war followed shortly.

World War I Timeline (1914-1919)

Jul 28. Serbia, supported by Russia, prepares to enter into the next phase as the Austria-Hungary declares war. Russia mobilizes its troops. WWI technically starts.

Jul 31. Russia does not heed Germany’s warning to stop mobilizing. Russia expresses that their advancement is only against Austria-Hungary.

Aug 1. Germany does several things at this point. They form a clandestine alliance with the Ottoman Empire, and declare war against Russia.

Aug 2-4. Germany invades Luxembourg, declares war against Belgium and France, consequently invading Belgium.

Aug 4. The United Kingdom declares war against Germany.

Aug 12. The UK declares war against Austria-Hungary.

Aug 14. A series of battles are fought in what is known as the Battle of Frontiers, these include the Battle of Mullhouse, Plan 17 & the Battle of the Ardennes by the French Schieffen Plan by the Germans, and the very quiet Battle at Mons by the British expeditionary forces.

Aug 17. As Russia enters the fray, they enter East Prussia in the Battle of Stalluponen.

Aug 23. Japanese Empire declares war on Germany.

Aug 26. Germany defeats Russia badly at the Battle of Tannenberg.

Aug 27. German controlled port in China, Tsingtao, is captured by British and Japanese forces in the Siege of Tsingtao.

Aug 30. German Samoa (becoming Western Samoa later) is occupied by New Zealand forces.

Sep 11. German New Guinea is over-run by and occupied by Australian forces.

Sep 13. South African troops commence the invasion of German South-West Africa.

Sep 29. A short lived victory by Russian forces against the Germans is known as the Battle of Warsaw, otherwise known as the Battle of the Vistula River.

Nov 1. The Ottoman Empire finds itself at war against the Russians.

Feb 4. German’s use submarine warfare in attacking merchant vessels.

Feb 19. British and French naval forces begin the Dardanelles (one of the Turkish straits) campaign. This was also known as the Gallipoli Campaign.

Apr 22. Germans use poison gas for the first time at the second Battle of Ypres.

Apr 28. Allied forces land in Gallipoli in what is known as the First Battle of Krithia.

7. svibnja. A German U-boat (submarine) attacks and sinks the British liner RMS Lusitania.

Aug 6. Sometimes known as the August Offensive, the Battle of Sari Bair highlights the British attempt to gain an advantage to control the Gallipoli peninsula away from the Ottoman Empire.

Sep 25. One of the failed British offensives in WWI’s Western Front, the Battle of Loos also marks the first time poison gas is used by the British.

Oct 6. Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Germany invade Serbia.

May 31. In one of the major naval battles of the war, the Battle of Jutland commences. The Australians, British, and Canadians (more than 6,000 are killed) battle the Germans (more than 2,500 are killed).

Jul 5. Commisioned in 1905, the Devonshire-class armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire is sunk by one of the mines laid by a German mine-laying submarine U-75.

Jul 1. The Somme offensive or better known as the Battle of the Somme takes place between the allied forces, led by the British, against a resistant Germany. The allies lose nearly 780 aircrafts during the battle.

Aug 27. Germany finds itself at war against Italy. Romania joins in the war between the Allies and Italy.

Mar 26. The British fail to capture the city of Gaza in the First Battle of Gaza.

Apr 2. President Woodrow Wilson speaks to Congress giving his reasons in favor of going to war.

Apr 6. One of the results of the telegram by Zimmermann, the United States finally declares war against Germany as approved by the US Congress.

18. svibnja. President Wilson and Congress pass the Selective Service Act into law. This authorizes the government to draft men for the war.

Jun 25. First sign of American involvement, troops land in France.

Jul 6. The much maligned Lawrence of Arabia lead Arab rebels and capture Aqaba, a Jordanian port.

Nov 9. The Balfour Declaration is a document expressing the United Kingdom’s intent in helping gain a national home for the Jewish people in “Palestine”.

Jul 20. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia is made possible by the Corfu Declaration.

Dec 7. Austria-Hungary finds itself being declared war upon by the United States.

Dec 8. The British find themselves in the Battle of Jerusalem.

Mar 3. Germany and the new Bolshevik Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

Mar 21. Germany’s Spring Offensive is launched without trepidation.

Apr 21. Baron Manfred von Richthofen, better known as the Red Baron, a German pilot considered an ace, is shot down.

May 28. The first American offensive of the Great War takes place in the Battle of Cantigny.

Jun 6. Following the skirmish at Chateau-Thierry, US Marines engage the Germans further in the Battle of Belleau Wood.

Sep 12. General Pershing of the United States lead more than 300,000 American soldiers in the Battle of St. Mihiel.

Sep 19. The British finally capture Palestine in the Battle of Meggido.

Nov 3. Austria-Hungary and Italy sign an armistice, made effective on November 4.

Nov 9. Kaiser Wilhelm flees Germany and abdicates his position.

Nov 11. Armistice Day, Germany signs the armistice in Compiegne in France. All fighting ends on the 11th day, of the 11th Month, at the 11th hour.

Nov 12. Austria becomes a republic.

Nov 14. Czechoslovakia becomes a republic.

Jan 25. League of Nations proposal is received and accepted by attendees.


Rennenkampf


Rennenkampf, General Pavel Karl. (1854-1918).

Rennenkampf was a graduate of the Russian staff academy in St. Petersburg and was a well-known figure at the Tsarist Court. He was no stranger to active service, having served in China in 1900-1901. He commanded a cavalry division in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 and emerged from that conflict with his professional reputation enhanced.

After its catastrophic defeat by Japan, the Russian army was forced to modernize. Unfortunately, the officer corps split on the mechanics of such reform between the adherents of Sukhomlinov, the Minister of War, and those of Grand Duke Nicholas. As a result, army reforms were carried out in a muddled fashion and, particularly in such areas as logistics and heavy artillery, the army was much less prepared for what 1914 would bring than the German army was.

Rennenkampf was the commander of the Vilna Military District when the war broke out and, upon mobilization, assumed command of the First Army. The war plan called for an invasion of East Prussia by Rennenkampf's First Army and Alexander Samsonov's Second Army with the objective of forcing the Germans to withdraw troops from the invasion of France.

First Army began the invasion of East Prussia on 12 August with cavalry probes. The bulk of the army crossed into German territory five days later. Almost immediately the Russians were engaged and beaten at Stalluponen by the German I Corps under General Hermann von Francois. He had acted in disobedience to orders because he was unwilling to cede any territory to the enemy voluntarily. But von Prittwitz, the commander of the German Eighth Army compelled him to withdraw before he could exploit his victory.

As the Germans withdrew, Rennenkampf's army continued to march slowly into East Prussia. Von Prittwitz, at von Francois' urging, ordered an attack by the entire Eighth Army. The Battle of Gumbinnen (20 August) was a confused affair which resulted in a Russian tactical victory. However, Rennenkampf's supply services had all but collapsed. Artillery batteries were short of shells, the men were short of food and the horses were short of fodder. Rennenkampf sat idly while the entire Eighth Army concentrated against Samsonov's Second Army, surrounded it and destroyed it at the Battle of Tannenberg. While he was re-organizing his army. Rennenkampf made no effort to reconnoitre his front and was totally unaware that he had no significant German forces facing him.

The Battle of Tannenberg was finished on 31 August. The Germans regrouped and used the railway system of East Prussia to concentrate against Rennenkampf's army. He was defeated in the Battle of the Masurian Lakes 9-14 September) and was forced to retreat from East Prussian soil. However, his army remained intact, despite certain German claims to the contrary.

The Russian threat to East Prussia had forced the Germans to withdraw two infantry corps and a cavalry division from France, so it might be said to have accomplished its objective. But the price was high. In early 1915, the recriminations began. Rennenkampf's Baltic German heritage was noted and whispered questions about his loyalty circulated around St Petersburg. Finally, he was relieved of his command and then dismissed from the army.

In early 1918 the Bolsheviks offered him a commission in the newly-formed Red Army. Rennenkampf declined-and was shot by the Bolsheviks.



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