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Natrona APA -214 - Povijest

Natrona APA -214 - Povijest


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Natrona
(APA-214: dp. 6,873; 1. 455 ', b. 62'; dr. 28'1 ", s. 17 k., Kpl. 536; a. 1 5", 12 40 mm; kl. Haskell; T. VC2-S AP5)

Natrona (APA-211), postavljena je kao trup MC 562 prema ugovoru Pomorske komisije od 30. lipnja 1944. od strane Permanente Metals Corp., Richmond, California, pokrenuta 27. rujna 1944 .; pod pokroviteljstvom gospođe Anna Louise Spigler, koju je mornarica kupila i naručila 8. studenog 1944., zapovijedao je kapetan Eric E. Winquist.

Nakon potresa južne Kalifornije, Natrona je 3. siječnja 1945. otplovila prema Havajima, kao jedinica transportne eskadrile 17. U Pearl Harboru iskrcala je marince, ukrcala ljude i opremu 806. inženjerijske bojne, a 16. je nastavila prolaz prema zapadu. Do 1. veljače stigla je do Saipana, skinula sa puta putnike i teret i otplovila do Ulithija. Tamo je uzela morske noćne lovce i otplovila za Leyte kako bi se pripremila za operaciju "Iceberg", invaziju Slona Ryukyus.

Dana 21. ožujka Natrona je, s noćnim borcima marine i 77. pješačkom divizijom, s ljudstvom i opremom, krenula iz Dulaga u TG 51.1. Rano 26. stigla je iz lKerama Retto i nastavila do područja "Jig". U 0.339 spustila je devet čamaca s vodičima, a zatim se preselila u "Transport Area Fox" gdje je u 0705 imala prvo iskustvo s japanskim kamikazima. Nakon tog zračnog napada preselila se u "Inner Transport Area George" kako bi počela ispuštati svoj GargO goriva i streljiva u male letjelice. Godine 1951. sho je nastavio s pločicama za noćno umirovljenje.

Do 30. Natrona je nastavila sa dnevnim dopunjavanjem malih plovila u području "George", noćnim umirovljenjima. 1. travnja napadnuta je Okinawa, a 2. sidrište Kerama Retto poprište je 13 -satne bitke protiv aviona smerde, plivača i čamaca. Dana 6., sidrište je podvrgnuto najtežem napadu kamikaza, tijekom kojeg je Natrona ubacila svoje prvo ubojstvo bez pomoći.

Dana 7. završila je istovar tereta 77. divizije. Sljedećeg dana prešla je na područje plaže Hagushi na Okinawi kako bi iskrcala noćne borce marinaca, a zatim se vratila u Kerama Retto kako bi na isto mjesto prebacila C.O., generala Brueea i osoblje 77. divizije.

Između 14. travnja i 10. srpnja, Natrona je ostala usidrena u Kerama Retto, služeći kao stanica i prihvatni brod. Djelovala je i kao pošta flote, sjedište ComDesRon 2 i ComRepDesPac, Centar za zamjenu flote, koordinator i distributer ulja za maglu, te centar za život posada oštećenih i potopljenih brodova. Prijevoz je 10. srpnja premješten u zaljev Buckner, a 15. je otputovao u SAD, veteran od 16 tjedana i 208 zračnih napada u vodama Okinave.

Natrona je u San Francisco stigla 5. kolovoza. Obilježavajući tamošnji završetak rata, 20. je ponovno započela s prvim od dva proširena transpacifična trčanja koja su prevozila postrojbe za preusmjeravanje prema područjima, okupacijske postrojbe u Japan i vraćala veterane u Sjedinjene Države. Dana 13. siječnja 1946. završila je svoje drugo krstarenje u San Pedru. Preselivši se na otok Mare, prošla je remont inaktivacije, a 29. srpnja je prestala s radom i ušla u Pacifičku pričuvnu flotu u Stocktonu u Kaliforniji. Ostala je u Stocktonu do brisanja s Popisa mornarice i premještena u Pomorsku upravu 1. listopada 1958. Od tada je ostala vezana u zaljevu Huisun kao jedinica rezervne flote nacionalne obrane MARAD.

Natrona je za službu u Drugom svjetskom ratu dobila jednu bojnu zvijezdu.


Povijest grada Harrisona

Veći dio zemlje u jugozapadnoj Pennsylvaniji bio je "Zemlja amortizacije", tragovi zemljišta prodani su na aukciji i prodani vojnicima krajem 1700 -ih u vrijeme kada je ovo područje bilo divljina na zapadu. Stoga ne čudi što je Harrison Township započeo kao pionirska poljoprivredna zajednica početkom 1800 -ih

Harrison Township osnovan je 1900. godine i imao je nekoliko četvrti gdje je Natrona bila prva, a kako su se ljudi počeli kretati "na brdu", pokrenuli su nove četvrti poput Ducktowna, Birdvillea, Camptona i Pughtowna, koji su na kraju postali Natrona Heights.

Burtnerova kuća, nacionalno povijesno mjesto, bila je jedna od prvih kuća izgrađenih u onome što je na kraju postalo mjesto Harrison. Phillip Burtner i njegova dva brata, George i John, stigli su u dolinu Allegheny 1793. godine kao izviđači na granici i počeli graditi dom 1818. godine. Bio je to dom generacija članova obitelji Burtner i bio je odraz povijesti zajednice. Imanje je nekad bilo poljoprivredno gospodarstvo, a ljudi su zastajali u kući kako bi napojili konje prije nego što su krenuli uz brdo današnje Burtner Road.

Kuća je sada u vlasništvu Općine, a obnovili su je članovi Burtner House Restoration Inc. u zakup s Općinom. U kući se održavaju godišnji događaji i obilasci koje provodi Grupa za restauraciju. Kuća Burtner nalazi se na izlazu s brze ceste prema Natrona Heightsu, pa će svi posjetitelji zajednice vidjeti kuću čim uđu u grad.

Allegheny Steel Company iz Brackenridgea (sada ATI Flat Rolled Products, dio Allegheny Technologies) započela je s radom vrlo rano 1900. godine u sklopu pojavljivanja Pittsburga kao čelične prijestolnice svijeta. Tijekom godina razvila se u lidera u proizvodnji nehrđajućeg i specijalnog čelika, jedna je od rijetkih tvornica čelika koja radi u području Pittsburgha, još uvijek raste i najveći je poslodavac u gradu.

Povijesni album grada Harrisona (PDF) – imajte na umu da će zbog velike veličine datoteke PDF -u možda biti potrebno nekoliko minuta da se potpuno učita.

*ova je publikacija bila za dvjestogodišnji odbor Harrison Township, 1976. godine


Povijest županije Natrona

Wyomingove ravnice povijesni su dom mnogim nomadskim plemenima, uključujući Cheyenne, Arapaho, Shoshone i Sioux. Danas, oko 6000 Shoshonea i Arapaha i dalje boravi na rezervatu Wind River, površine 2,3 milijuna hektara, sjeverozapadno od okruga Natrona.

Godine 1812. John Jacob Astor osnovao je Astoriju na ušću Kolumbije i poslao Roberta Stuarta na istok da započne ono što se nadalo da će postati mreža trgovačkih mjesta. Stuart je pronašao South Pass slijedeći Crow Indian trag i ušao u naše krajeve. U blizini Bessemer Benda, Stuart i njegov mali bend podigli su prvu kolibu bijelaca 1812. Iako su Astorovi planovi propali kada su Britanci zauzeli Astoriju 1812., hvatači i izviđači nastavili su istraživati ​​naše visoke ravnice i razvijati tranzitne rute. Dana 4. srpnja 1824. neki od tih zamki nazvali su Independence Rock.

Godine 1840. otac Jean Pierre DeSmet počeo je širiti evanđelje među indijskim Indijancima. Otac DeSmet prvi je uklesao svoje ime na Steni nezavisnosti i dao mu ime "Registar pustinje". Godine 1843. John C. Fremont (poznat kao "Pathfinder") klesao je svoje ime na Independence Rocku, a kasnije je s Kitom Carsonom kao vodičem nastavio istraživati ​​zemlju uz rijeke Platte i Sweetwater.


Natrona APA -214 - Povijest

USS Natrona bio je jedan od 117 napadačkih transportera klase Haskell izgrađenih prema modificiranom dizajnu broda Victory. Izgrađena u Richmondu u Kaliforniji, naručena je u studenom 1944. Nakon probne obuke na Zapadnoj obali, otplovila je za Ulithi, zaustavivši se u Pearl Harboru i Saipanu kako bi utovarila i isporučila trupe i teret. Dolaskom u Ulithi u veljači 1945. ukrcala se na noćne borce marinaca i preselila se u Leyte kako bi ukrcala dodatne postrojbe i pripremila se za napad na Okinawu. Krajem ožujka Natrona je sudjelovala u prvim iskrcajima u Kerama Retto, čije je sidrište korišteno za podršku iskrcavanja na Okinawi. Tjedan dana nakon napada na Okinawu, tamo je izbacila svoje noćne borce marinaca, a zatim se vratila u Kerama Retto, gdje je u srpnju služila kao postaja i prihvatni brod. Nakon što je u blizini Okinawe izdržala 208 zračnih napada, u kolovozu se vratila u San Francisco.

Nakon predaje Japana, Natrona je izvela dva transpacifička kružna putovanja, prevozeći zamjenske trupe prema naprijed, okupacijske trupe u Japan i vraćajući veterane Pacifičkog rata u Sjedinjene Države u sklopu operacije "Magični tepih". Završila je drugu ova putovanja u San Pedru, Kalifornija, sredinom siječnja 1946., a zatim su se preselili na otok Mare radi inaktivacije. Bila je izvan pogona i stavljena u pričuvu u srpnju 1946. Zadržana na popisu mornarice iduće desetljeće kao mobilizacijsko sredstvo, Natrona je u kolovozu 1958. prebačena u pomorsku upravu na daljnje zadržavanje, a u listopadu izbačena s popisa mornarice. Uprava za pomorstvo prodala ju je za otpatke u ožujku 1975. godine.

Ova stranica prikazuje naš jedini pogled na USS Natrona (APA-214).

Ako želite reprodukcije veće rezolucije od ovdje prikazane digitalne slike, pogledajte: & quotKako dobiti fotografske reprodukcije. & Quot

Kliknite na malu fotografiju da biste ponudili veći prikaz iste slike.

U zaljevu San Francisco u Kaliforniji, krajem 1945. ili početkom 1946. godine.
Nedostatak kade za pištolj na pramcu ukazuje na to da je ova fotografija snimljena nakon što je uklonjeno svo njezino naoružanje, osim dva pištolja kalibra 20 mm, što je učinjeno prije kraja siječnja 1946. godine.

Donacija Boatswainovog Matea prve klase Roberta G. Tippinsa, USN (u mirovini), 2003.


Rječnik američkih pomorskih borbenih brodova

Teror (CM-5) položila je 3. rujna 1940. mornaričko dvorište Philadelphia pokrenuto 6. lipnja 1941. pod pokroviteljstvom gospođe Ralph A. Bard i naručeno 15. srpnja 1942., Comdr. Howard Wesley Fitch zapovijeda.

Nakon opremanja i potresa, Teror-jedini mornarički mornarički sloj izgrađen posebno za postavljanje mina-stigao je u New York 30. listopada 1942. kako bi se pripremio za svoju prvu veliku operaciju. S Radnom skupinom 38.3, nova minopolagačica iskrcala je luku 2. studenog i krenula prema Sjevernoj Africi. Kiša oboruje jak vjetar, a veliko more natjeralo je konvoj da promijeni kurs, ali cilj mu je ostao isti-podrška i pojačanje operacije "Baklja".

U zoru 14. studenog, Teror rastao se s konvojem i u pratnji jednog razarača probio se brzinom od 20 čvorova do novozauzete luke Casablanca. Potonuli brodovi dodali su zakrčenost luke kao Teror na gorivo Miantonomah (CM-10) i opskrbio to plovilo minama. Teror zatim se pripremila za svoju primarnu misiju u Casablanci i zadatak za koji je bila dizajnirana, miniranje. Njezin je odlazak odgođen 16. ujutro zbog nastavka gužvi u luci. Kasnije, kao Terora posada spremna za polazak, otkrili su da veliko, "staromodno" sidro s teškim lancem kvari lanac sidra na desnoj strani broda. Nakon ispravljanja ovog problema, Teror krenuo u društvu s dva minolovca i, u kratkom roku, počeo postavljati minsko polje koje će štititi brodove u luci. Kad je završeno, neposredno prije mraka, istoga dana, minsko polje osiguralo je savezničkim brodovima zaštićeni ulaz u kanal u Casablancu, koji se proteže sedam milja od svjetla El Hank, strašnu prepreku za prodor bilo koje pljačkaške neprijateljske podmornice. Parenje pri 16 čvorova, Teror vratila se u luku upravo kad je pala noć.

Sljedećeg dana, unatoč preprekama koje nameću rudimentarni prihvatni objekti na obali i ekstremnom nedostatku upaljača, Teror iskrcala je svoj teret dubinskih naboja i streljiva, koristeći spašeni upaljač za tenkove i nekoliko drvenih teglenica. Ostvarivši svoju misiju, Teror napustio Casablancu i ponovno se sastao s konvojem za istočnu obalu Sjedinjenih Država. Snažni vjetrovi, jako more i sporost konvoja otežavali su mu Teror da zadrži svoje mjesto. S rtova Virginia, Teror bio je odvojen od konvoja i upućen za skladište mornaričkih mina, Yorktown. Stigla je 30. studenog kako bi započela remont i obuku.

U mjesecima koji su slijedili, Teror djelovao izvan Yorktowna, često putujući u zaljev Chesapeake na vježbe i povremeno se zaustavljajući u Norfolku radi popravaka ili remonta. Često su se studenti iz postrojenja za obuku za razminiranje ukrcavali na obuku. U međuvremenu, članovi Terora posada, kada nije pohađala nastavu na kopnu, sudjelovala je u vježbama, obuci i vježbama u naoružanju, minskom ratovanju i kontroli štete. U veljači je pomoć pružio minolovac Nuthatch (AM-60) dok je to plovilo testiralo Marka 10 "ježa" u blizini Yorktowna. Nakon što je u svibnju primio dodatne protuzračne topove, Teror sudjelovao u taktičkim vježbama u zaljevu Chesapeake tijekom ljeta.

Krajem rujna počela je utovaravati mine u pripremi za odlazak s atlantske obale. U Norfolku se sastala sa Operativnom jedinicom 29.2.6, a 2. listopada krenula je za zonu kanala i luke na Pacifiku. Ujutro 19. listopada prošla je ispod mosta Golden Gate i usidrila se u zaljevu San Francisco. Sljedećeg dana napustila je zapadnu obalu i na pari preko Pearl Harbora stigla do otoka Ellice.

Stigla je u Funafuti 9. studenog, iskrcala pontonske teglenice i uzela svježu vodu. Tijekom gotovo tri tjedna boravila je u Funafutiju, Teror podržao mnoge male letjelice koje su pregledavale i minirale prilaze atolu, opskrbljujući ih namirnicama, vodom, popravcima i medicinskim uslugama. Istodobno je pomogla u pretvaranju pokrivenog upaljača od 1500 tona u vojarnu za građevinski bataljun, šaljući kvalificirano osoblje da ubrza posao i osigurava vodu i nered za bataljun do završetka zadatka. Dana 17., Terora topnici su prvi put pucali na neprijatelja kada su japanski avioni bombardirali pistu na Funafutiju. Japanski napadači bacili su 40 bombi u blizini uzletišta uzrokujući požar koji je gorio sat vremena. U poslijepodnevnim satima uslijedilo je još jedno upozorenje, ali do daljnjih radnji nije došlo. Teror postavio bove za sidrenje u sidrište prije nego što je krenuo na put za Havaje 28. studenog.

Početkom prosinca ukrcala je mine i opremu u Pearl Harbor, a zatim se uputila prema Tarawi, gdje je osigurala tešku opremu i mine za detalje o rudnicima. Noću su reflektori s obale pročešljali mrak uočavajući neprijateljske avione u pokušaju da spriječe uporne japanske napadače.

Na Božić, Teror krenulo. Isporučila je mine i tešku opremu jedinicama u Espiritu Santo i Guadalcanal prije nego što je stigla na otok Makin 18. siječnja 1944. Minopolagač se usidrio u laguni dok su njezini brodovi pregledavali prijelaze u grebenu. Zatim je pripremila samohodnu baržu za miniranje kanala. Krenula je iz Makina 28. i nastavila samostalno do Tarawe gdje je ukrcala rudnički detalj 19. Zadnjeg dana siječnja krenula je prema Pearl Harboru i primila putnike na prijevoz do San Francisca. Nakon trodnevnog boravka, 21. veljače napustila je zapadnu obalu s više od 500 putnika na brodu, smještenih na privremenoj drvenoj palubi izgrađenoj nad prugama na minskoj palubi. Otpustila je svoje putnike u Pearl Harbouru 26. zatim otputovala na Majuro, kamo je stigla 10. ožujka.

Tijekom ostatka ožujka i do travnja vodila je operacije miniranja u Marshallima prije nego što je 22. travnja krenula na put za Havajske otoke. Tamo je obavila popravke, napunila mine i sudjelovala u vježbama naoružanja prije polaska 24. svibnja. Sljedećih je mjeseci nosila streljivo, mine i bombe u Marshalls i Marianas, a jednom se vratila u Pearl Harbor kako bi napunila streljivo. Dana 17. kolovoza napustila je Oahu-ovaj put krenuvši prema zapadnoj obali. Teror stigao je u San Francisco 24. na suho pristanište i remont. Dana 9. rujna krenula je s prevozom tereta streljiva. Nakon što je ukrcala mine i opremu za čišćenje mina u Pearl Harboru, otplovljala je do Ulithija gdje je započela obrambene rudarske operacije.

Dana 16. listopada, Teror prebačen je iz ServRona 6 na Minecraft Pacific Flote. Tijekom listopada i studenog nosila je teret do Marijana, Karolina i Admiraliteta. Dana 25. studenog ušla je u mornaričko dvorište u Pearl Harbor radi popravaka i preinaka za smještaj osoblja zapovjednika Minecraft Pacific Flote. Dana 6. siječnja 1945. Teror preuzeo dužnost kao perjanica kontraadmirala Aleksandra Sharpa.

Za dva tjedna, Teror izveo vježbe izvan Pearl Harbora. Zatim je 22. siječnja krenula i preko Eniwetoka nastavila do Carolinesa. U Ulithiju, Teror isporučivao mine i opremu minecraftu pripremajući se za invaziju na Iwo Jimu. Zatim je stigla do Tiniana kako bi djelovala kao natječaj za minecraft u tom drugom scenskom području. Dana 13. veljače napustila je Marijane i krenula prema Vulkanskim otocima.

U 0717 17. veljače, Teror stigao u područje vatrogasne potpore kod istočne obale Iwo Jime. Bombardiranje prije napada i čišćenje mina bili su u tijeku kad je vatra iz topova s ​​obale obrubljene liticama počela ometati minolovce koji djeluju blizu obale, sjeverno od istočnih plaža. Teror zatvorila obalu na 10.000 metara i, 20 minuta, dodala svoju bombu od pet centimetara u pokušaju da pomogne malom plovilu. Unatoč tome, strahovita baraža koju je neprijatelj ispalio počela je uzimati danak kao prva Pensacola (CA-24), a zatim Leutze (DD-481) pretrpio udarce. Ubrzo nakon podneva, uz natječaj za pomoć počeli su dolaziti i oštećeni desantni brodovi. Teror djelovao je kao brod za evakuaciju unesrećenih za minolovce i male letjelice koji su djelovali kao podrška timovima za podvodno rušenje. Ubrzo su njezine zdravstvene ustanove bile ozbiljno oporezovane. Jedan za drugim, ti mali brodovi su dolazili zajedno kako bi prebacili svoje ranjenike i primili pomoć u popravljanju plovila. Teror nastavila je svoje dužnosti izvan Iwo Jime sve do 1835. godine 19. veljače, kada je krenula prema Marijanama.

Dana 21. veljače prenijela je borbene žrtve u vojnu bolnicu u Saipanu, a zatim je na pari stigla do Ulithija, gdje je stigla 23. kolovoza. U toj je bazi opsluživala i dobavljala minecraft za postavljanje napada na Okinawu. Stigla je s Kerama Retta 24. ožujka kako bi djelovala kao glavni brod i natječaj za minecraft. Teror operirala je Kerama Retto do jutra 29. kada se usidrila u luci tog otoka. Tamo je, unatoč stalnoj opasnosti od napada kamikaza, odigrala svoju dvostruku ulogu nježne i vodeće. Cijeli njezin komplet dugo je radio na održavanju opskrbe vodom, uljem, opremom i streljivom potrebnom za minecraft u tom području. Istodobno, njezini resursi bili su dodatno opterećeni dužnostima koje joj je nametnuo status vodećeg broda.

Ujutro 2. travnja 1945. japanski su zrakoplovi prodrli u luku. Teror uzeo dvojicu napadača pod vatru i bio svjedok pljuskanja jednog aviona udaljenog samo 600 metara. Narednih dana, Teror-reagiranje na upozorenja da se pripreme za napade japanskih zrakoplova, plivača i samoubilačkih čamaca-postavljeni posebni noćni stražari na palubi i u čamcu za presretanje kako bi presreli sve domišljate napadače. Predviđeni masovni zračni napadi ostvarili su se 6. travnja kada su japanske grive četiri sata lupale lukom u Kerama Rettu, ulazeći Teror iz svih krajeva i zaokupljajući njezine topnike. Natječaj se pridružio drugim brodovima u obaranju dva japanska aviona i opremio spasilačke čamce, odjeću i tretmane za preživjele LST-447 i SS Logan Victory.

Tijekom cijelog travnja, Teror ostao u Kerama Retto pružajući logističke usluge i primajući žrtve s brodova pogođenih kamikazima. Borbene zračne ophodnje držale su napadače većinu vremena izvan luke, ali 28. travnja, Pinckney (APH-2)-usidren u blizini-pogodio je avion samoubojica. Teror pucao na neprijateljske zrakoplove, poslao čamce u Pinckneyjeva pomoć, te liječio mnoge žrtve. Tijekom dugog i mukotrpnog mjeseca travnja, Terora posada je 93 puta odlazila u opće odaje, u razdobljima od sedam minuta do šest i pol sati.

Nekoliko minuta prije 0400 1. svibnja 1945., kao Teror ležao na sidru u Kerama Rettu, golubici kamikaze prema brodu. Jureći kroz rupu na dimnoj zavesi i ulazeći Terora lučki snop, napadač je oštro nagnuo po krmi, a zatim ušao s desne strane tako brzo da je samo jedan od krmenih topova minobacača otvorio vatru. Kad se zrakoplov srušio na komunikacijsku platformu broda, eksplodirala je jedna od njegovih bombi. Drugi je probio glavnu palubu prije nego što je i on eksplodirao. Motor zrakoplova probio je brodske pregrade i sletio u garderobu. Požar se odmah rasplamsao u nadgrađu, ali je ubrzo kontroliran i u roku od dva sata ugašen. Poplave časopisa spriječile su moguće eksplozije, a nije došlo do oštećenja inženjeringa, ali je kamikaza povećala svoj danak. Cijena napada Teror 171 žrtva: 41 poginulo, 7 nestalih i 123 ranjena.

Sutradan je pokvareni brod bio privezan za Natrona (APA-214) za hitne popravke. Krenula je 8. na sastanak s konvojem za Saipan. Budući da je pregled plovila pokazao da su njezina oštećenja prevelika da bi se mogla popraviti u prednjem dijelu, Teror na pari preko Eniwetoka i Pearl Harbora do zapadne obale. Stigla je u San Francisco 1. lipnja 1945., iskrcala streljivo, a zatim započela remont.

Popravak joj je dovršen, napustila je zaljev San Francisco 15. kolovoza i putovala za Koreju preko Havajskih otoka, Saipana i Okinawe. Usidrena u zaljevu Buckner 16. rujna, izdržala je bijesni tajfun. Lupanje protiv Patoka (AO-9) umetnite nekoliko rupa Terora strana, ali ubrzo je popravljena. Dana 9. listopada, dok je još bila na Okinawi, izašla je neoštećena iz drugog tajfuna koji je oborio ili razbio više od 100 plovila u uvalama Buckner i Unten Ko.

U prosincu, Panamint (AGC-13) zamijenjen Teror kao perjanica Minecraft Pacific Flote, a veteran mnogih pacifičkih kampanja ponovno je prešao Pacifik kako bi u veljači stigao u San Francisco. Otišla je u ožujku na jedno putovanje do Pearl Harbora, a zatim se vratila na zapadnu obalu. Teror ostala tamo do veljače 1947. kada je napustila San Francisco i plovila Panamskim kanalom kako bi ukrcala zapovjedničku, Minecraft Atlantsku flotu u San Juanu krajem veljače. Nakon vježbi na Karibima, djelovala je izvan luka na istočnoj obali sve do srpnja 1947. godine, kada je stigla u mornaričko dvorište Charleston radi inaktivacije. Tijekom Korejskog rata stavljena je u službu u pričuvu, a 7. veljače 1955. preimenovana je u minobacač flote (MM-5). Njezin simbol oznake promijenjen je u MMF-5 u listopadu 1955., a prestala je s radom 6. kolovoza 1956. Godine 1971. njezin je komad prodan korporaciji Union Minerals and Alloys Corporation iz New Yorka.

Teror dobio četiri bitke za službu u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Prepisao i formatirao za HTML Patrick Clancey, HyperWar Foundation


Natrona APA -214 - Povijest

(CM-5: dp. 5,875 1. 454'10 "b. 60'2" dr. 19'7 ", s. 20,3 k. Cpl. 481 a. 4 5", 16 1,1 ", 14 20 mm. Kl. Teror)

Teror (CM-5) postavilo je 3. rujna 1940. mornaričko dvorište Philadelphia, pokrenuto 6. lipnja 1941. pod pokroviteljstvom gospođe Ralph A. Bard, a pušteno u rad 15. srpnja 1942., Comdr. Howard Wesley Fitch zapovijeda.

Nakon opremanja i potresa, jedini minobacač Terror-mornarice izgrađen posebno za postavljanje mina-stigao je u New York 30. listopada 1942. kako bi se pripremio za svoju prvu veliku operaciju. S Radnom skupinom 38.3, nova minopolagačica iskrcala je luku 2. studenoga i krenula prema Sjevernoj Africi. Kiša oboruje jak vjetar, a veliko more natjeralo je konvoj da promijeni kurs, ali cilj mu je ostao isti-podrška i pojačanje operacije "Baklja".

U zoru 14. studenog, Terror se rastao s konvojem i u pratnji jednog razarača krenuo brzinom od 20 čvorova do novozauzete luke Casablanca. Potopljeni brodovi povećali su gužvu u luci jer je Terror napajao Miantonomah (CM-10) i opskrbio to plovilo minama. Teror se tada pripremio za njezinu primarnu misiju u Casablanci i zadatak za koji je bila dizajnirana, miniranje. Njezin je odlazak odgođen 16. ujutro zbog nastavka gužvi u luci. Kasnije, dok se Terrorova posada pripremala za početak, otkrili su da veliko, "staromodno" sidro s teškim lancem kvari lanac sidra na desnoj strani broda. Nakon što je ispravio ovaj problem, Terror je krenuo u društvu dva minolovca i, u kratkom roku, počeo postavljati minsko polje koje će štititi brodove u luci. Kada je završeno, neposredno prije mraka, istog dana, minsko polje osiguralo je savezničkim brodovima zaštićeni ulaz u kanal u Casablancu, koji se proteže sedam milja od El Hank Light -a, strašnu prepreku za prodor bilo koje pljačkaške neprijateljske podmornice. Parivši pri 16 čvorova, Terror se vratio u luku upravo kad je pala noć.

Sljedećeg dana, unatoč preprekama koje su nametnuli rudimentarni prihvatni objekti na obali i ekstremnom nedostatku upaljača, Terror je iskrcala svoj teret dubinskih naboja i streljiva, koristeći spašeni tenkovski upaljač i nekoliko drvenih teglenica. Pošto je ispunila svoju misiju, Terror je napustila Casablancu i ponovno se sastala s konvojem koji je krenuo prema istočnoj obali Sjedinjenih Država. Snažni vjetrovi, jako more i sporost konvoja otežali su Terroru da zadrži svoju poziciju. Uz rtove Virginia, Terror je odvojen od konvoja i upućen za skladište mornaričkih mina, Yorktown. Stigla je 30. studenog kako bi započela remont i obuku.

U mjesecima koji su slijedili, Terror je djelovao izvan Yorktowna, često putujući u zaljev Chesapeake na vježbe i povremeno se zaustavljajući u Norfolku radi popravaka ili remonta. Često studenti iz Rudnika

Objekt za obuku ratovanja došao je na brodove s uputama. U međuvremenu, članovi posade Terrora, kada nisu pohađali nastavu na kopnu, sudjelovali su u vježbama, obuci i vježbama u naoružanju, minskom ratovanju i kontroli oštećenja. U veljači je minobacač pomogao Nuthatchu (AM-60) dok je to plovilo testiralo "ježa" Mark 10 u blizini Yorktowna. Nakon što je u svibnju primio dodatne protuzračne topove, Terror je tijekom ljeta sudjelovao u taktičkim vježbama u zaljevu Chesapeake.

Krajem rujna počela je utovaravati mine u pripremi za odlazak s atlantske obale. U Norfolku se sastala sa Operativnom jedinicom 29.2.6, a 2. listopada krenula je za zonu kanala i luke na Pacifiku. Ujutro 19. listopada prošla je ispod mosta Golden Gate i usidrila se u zaljevu San Francisco. Sljedećeg dana napustila je zapadnu obalu i na pari preko Pearl Harbora stigla do otoka Ellice.

Stigla je u Funafuti 9. studenog, iskrcala pontonske teglenice i uzela svježu vodu. Tijekom gotovo tri tjedna koliko je boravila u Funafutiju, Terror je podržavao mnoge male letjelice koje su pregledavale i minirale prilaze atolu, opskrbljujući ih namirnicama, vodom, popravcima i medicinskim uslugama. Istodobno je pomogla u pretvaranju pokrivenog upaljača od 1500 tona u vojarnu za građevinski bataljun, šaljući kvalificirano osoblje da ubrza posao i osigurava vodu i nered za bataljun do završetka zadatka. Dana 17. teroristički topnici prvi put su pucali na neprijatelja kada su japanski avioni bombardirali pistu na Funafutiju. Japanski napadači bacili su 40 bombi u blizini uzletišta uzrokujući požar koji je gorio sat vremena. U poslijepodnevnim satima uslijedilo je još jedno upozorenje, ali do daljnjih radnji nije došlo. Teror je postavio privezne bove u sidrište prije nego što je krenuo za Havaje 28. studenog.

Početkom prosinca ukrcala je mine i opremu u Pearl Harbor, a zatim se uputila prema Tarawi, gdje je osigurala tešku opremu i mine za detalje o rudnicima. Noću su reflektori s obale pročešljali mrak uočavajući neprijateljske avione u pokušaju da spriječe uporne japanske napadače.

Na Božić je počeo teror. Isporučila je mine i tešku opremu jedinicama u Espiritu Santo i Guadalcanal prije nego što je stigla na otok Makin 18. siječnja 1944. Minopolagač se usidrio u laguni dok su njezini brodovi pregledavali prijelaze u grebenu. Zatim je pripremila samohodnu baržu za miniranje kanala. Krenula je iz Makina 28. i nastavila samostalno do Tarawe gdje je ukrcala rudnički detalj 19. Zadnjeg dana siječnja krenula je prema Pearl Harboru i primila putnike na prijevoz do San Francisca. Nakon trodnevnog boravka, 21. veljače napustila je zapadnu obalu s više od 500 putnika na brodu, smještenih na privremenoj drvenoj palubi izgrađenoj nad prugama na minskoj palubi. Otpustila je svoje putnike u Pearl Harbouru 26. zatim otputovala na Majuro, kamo je stigla 10. ožujka.

Tijekom ostatka ožujka i do travnja vodila je operacije miniranja u Marshallima prije nego što je 22. travnja krenula na put za Havajske otoke. Tamo je obavila popravke, napunila mine i sudjelovala u vježbama naoružanja prije polaska 24. svibnja. Sljedećih je mjeseci nosila streljivo, mine i bombe u Marshalls i Marianas, a jednom se vratila u Pearl Harbor kako bi napunila streljivo. Dana 17. kolovoza napustila je Oahu-ovaj put krenuvši prema zapadnoj obali. Teror je stigao u San Francisco 24. zbog suhoidanja i remonta. Dana 9. rujna krenula je s prevozom tereta streljiva. Nakon što je ukrcala mine i opremu za čišćenje mina u Pearl Harbour, otplovljala je do Ulithija gdje je započela obrambene rudarske operacije.

Dana 16. listopada, Terror je prebačen sa ServRona 6 na Minecraft Pacific Flote. Tijekom listopada i studenog nosila je teret do Marijana, Karolina i Admiraliteta. Dana 25. studenog ušla je u mornaričko dvorište u Pearl Harbor radi popravaka i preinaka za smještaj osoblja zapovjednika Minecraft Pacific Flote. Dana 6. siječnja 1945., Terror je preuzeo dužnost kao vodeći brod kontraadmirala Aleksandra Sharpa.

Dva tjedna Terror je izvodio vježbe izvan Pearl Harbora. Zatim je 22. siječnja krenula i preko Eniwetoka nastavila do Carolinesa. U Ulithiju je Terror isporučio mine i opremu minecraftima pripremajući se za invaziju na Iwo Jimu. Zatim je stigla do Tiniana kako bi djelovala kao natječaj za minecraft u tom drugom scenskom području. Dana 13. veljače napustila je Marijane i krenula prema Vulkanskim otocima.

U 0717 17. veljače, Terror je stigao u područje vatrogasne potpore kod istočne obale Iwo Jime. Bombardiranje prije početka napada i čišćenje mina bili su u tijeku kad je vatra iz topova s ​​obale obrubljene liticama počela ometati minolovce koji djeluju blizu obale, sjeverno od istočnih plaža. Teror je zatvorio obalu na 10.000 metara i, 20 minuta, dodao bombardovanje svojom pet-inčnom paljbom u pokušaju da pomogne malom letjelici. Unatoč tome, strašna baraža koju je neprijatelj ispalio počela je uzimati danak jer su prvo Pensacola (CA-24), a zatim i Leutze (DD-481) pretrpjeli pogotke. Ubrzo nakon podneva, uz natječaj za pomoć počeli su dolaziti i oštećeni desantni brodovi. Terror je djelovao kao brod za evakuaciju unesrećenih minolovaca i malih letjelica koji je djelovao kao potpora timovima za podvodno rušenje. Ubrzo su njezine zdravstvene ustanove bile ozbiljno oporezovane. Jedan za drugim, ti mali brodovi su dolazili zajedno kako bi prebacili svoje ranjenike i primili pomoć u popravljanju plovila. Teror je nastavio obavljati svoje dužnosti izvan Iwo Jime sve do 1835. godine 19. veljače, kada je krenula prema Marijanama.

Dana 21. veljače prenijela je borbene žrtve u vojnu bolnicu u Saipanu, a zatim je na pari stigla do Ulithija, gdje je stigla 23. kolovoza. At that base, she serviced and supplied minecraft staging for the assault on Okinawa. She arrived off Kerama Retto on 24 March to act as flagship and tender for minecraft. Terror operated off Kerama Retto until the morning of the 29th when she anchored in that island's harbor. There, despite the constant danger of kamikaze attacks, she performed her dual role as tender and flagship. Her entire complement labored long hours to maintain the supply of water, oil, gear, and ammunition required by minecraft in the area. At the same time, her resources were further strained by the duties imposed by her status as flagship.

On the morning of 2 April 1945, Japanese planes penetrated the harbor. Terror took two of the attackers under fire and witnessed the splashing of one plane only 600 yards away. In the following days, Terror— responding to warnings to be prepared for attacks by Japanese planes, swimmers, and suicide boats-stationed special night sentries on deck and in a picket boat to intercept any ingenious attackers. Predicted mass air attacks materialized on 6 April when Japanese manes pounded the harbor at Kerama Retto for four hours, coming in on Terror from all quarters and keeping her gunners busy. The tender joined other ships in downing two Japanese planes and furnished rescue boats, clothing, and treatment for the survivors of LST-447 and SS Logan Victory.

Throughout April, Terror remained at Kerama Retto providing logistic services and receiving casualties from ships hit by kamikazes. Combat air patrols kept raiders outside the harbor most of the time but, on 28 April, Pinckne

g ( APH-2)—anchored nearby-was hit by a suicide plane. Terror fired on the enemy aircraft, sent boats to Pinckney's aid, and treated many casualties. During the long and arduous month of April, Terror's crew went to general quarters 93 times, for periods ranging from seven minutes to six and one-half hours.

Minutes before 0400 on 1 May 1945, as Terror lay at anchor in Kerama Retto, a kamikaze dove toward the ship. Darting through a hole in the smoke screen and coming in on Terror's port beam, the attacker banked sharply around the stern, then came in from the starboard quarter so rapidly that only one of the minelayer's stern guns opened fire. As the plane crashed into the ship's communication platform, one of its bombs exploded. The other penetrated the main deck before it, too, exploded. The aircraft's engine tore through the ship's bulkheads to land in the wardroom. Fire flared immediately in the superstructure but was soon controlled and, within two hours, was extinguished. Flooding of the magazines prevented possible explosions, and no engineering damage occurred, but the kamikaze had exacted its toll. The attack cost Terror 171 casualties: 41 dead, 7 missing, and 123 wounded.

The following day, the battered ship was moored to Natrona (APA-214) for emergency repairs. She got underway on the 8th to rendezvous with a convoy bound for Saipan. Since a survey of the vessel revealed that her damage was too great to be repaired in a forward area, Terror steamed via Eniwetok and Pearl Harbor to the west coast. She reached San Francisco on 1 June 1945, unloaded ammunition, and then began her overhaul.

Her repairs completed, she departed San Francisco Bay on 15 August and steamed for Korea via the Hawaiian Islands, Saipan, and Okinawa. Moored in Buckner Bay on 16 September, she weathered a furious typhoon. Pounding against Patoka (AO-9) put a few holes in Terror's side, but she was soon repaired. On 9 October, while still at Okinawa, she emerged undamaged from another typhoon which beached or wrecked over 100 vessels at Buckner Bay and Unten Ko.

In December, Panamint (AGC-13) replaced Terror as flagship for Minecraft Pacific Fleet, and the veteran of many Pacific campaigns again crossed the Pacific to arrive at San Francisco in February. She made one voyage to Pearl Harbor in March, then returned to the west coast. Terror remained there until February 1947 when she departed San Francisco and steamed through the Panama Canal to embark the Commander, Minecraft Atlantic Fleet at San Juan late in February. Following exercises in the Caribbean, she operated out of east coast ports until July 1947 when she arrived at the Charleston Navy Yard for inactivation. During the Korean War, she was placed in service in reserve and on 7 February 1955, she was redesignated a fleet minelayer (MM-5). Her designation symbol was changed to MMF-5 in October 1955, and she was decommissioned on 6 August 1956. In 1971, her hulk was sold to the Union Minerals and Alloys Corporation, of New York City.


Natrona APA-214 - History

When a relative stumbled across a treasure trove of old postcards from a slew of towns in the Alle-Kiski Valley, Charles "Skip" Culleiton of Lower Burrell was intrigued. A popular form of communication until about the 1930s, the postcards speak a great deal about past places and people: Culleiton has several different postcards featuring just the old YMCA building in Tarentum, now Gatto Cycle Shop along East Seventh Avenue in Tarentum. He has collected 250 historical postcards from Tarentum alone. "I thought they were really nice pictures and after that, I just started to collect them," says the 71-year-old Culleiton.

Word got around that Culleiton, a retired research chemist for Alcoa, had amassed quite a collection and, subsequently, a lot of local history. He was tapped to contribute to a book commemorating the 150th anniversary of Tarentum, which he ended up writing in 1992. And he's been writing about local history ever since. In the past decade, he lent a hand with Brackenridge's 100th anniversary book as well as Lower Burrell's 50th anniversary history, and penned "Greetings from the A-K Valley" published by Creighton Printing in 2003, among others.

Culleiton's latest offering, "Historical Natrona," is a massive collection, by local history standards at 256 pages, covering the town's fabled and prosperous history. Culleiton spent more than two years researching the history of Natrona, interviewing locals and combing through old newspapers. Culleiton shines the light on the high times of the town, in the first half of the 20th century when the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Co. offered not just jobs, but a way of life. The book explores the town's many industries -- salt, oil, coal and steel, even the town's lesser-known role as a stopover for workers who floated rafts of timber down the Allegheny River from Tionesta and Warren to Pittsburgh.

Culleiton explores the roots of the steel giant Allegheny Technologies before it was Allegheny Ludlum, when it was just Allegheny Steel. But residents know the historical star of the town, the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Co., established in 1850. With two salt wells and a few company houses for workers, the company prospered with more workers, more company-owned homes, really company-owned everything: In 1913, there were 113 retail businesses in Natrona, and Penn Salt owned most of them, according to Culleiton's account. In that same year, people and goods poured into the town in 24 passenger and freight trains rolling through the area daily.

What accounted for Natrona's staying power? A combination of factors, according to Culleiton. "Natrona was the first town in the valley to have a large industry," he says. "People from all the neighboring communities worked at Penn Salt." Although Penn Salt closed the Natrona plant in 1959, selling the site to the steel mill, now Allegheny Technologies, the company left a long-lasting footprint in the town. "The salt company took care of its people," Culleiton says. "It provided medical service and housing -- people were proud to work for them. And they did well for over 100 years."

Culleiton adds that the geographic nature of the town, somewhat isolated, with the river on one side and hills on the other, brought everyone together for a long time. "There wasn't room for expansion, the community was close-knit, and it just continued through the years," he says. The strong community bonds were evident in the high number of social and fraternal organizations in the town.

"People were proud of their heritage, and many were religious," he says. A good chunk of Culleiton's book is devoted to the history of Natrona's schools and churches. Culleiton observes: "At one time in the 1900s, there were three different catholic grade schools, a catholic high school, a Lutheran grade school, Natrona high school and then two public grade schools, and today, there are no schools there."

Of course, culling through so much information, Culleiton has favorite historical nuggets about Natrona: During World War II, Penn Salt was manufacturing fluorine gas for Freon and refining high-octane aviation fuel. "But they were making much more fluorine than they needed for those uses," Culleiton says. "It was found out later that there was a building located in Natrona called the House of Secrets, and they were experimenting with developing the atomic bomb." Also in the national-security vein, Natrona made the top of a German list for sites to sabotage in the United States, targeting Penn Salt and Allegheny Steel.

"Historical Natrona" is available from the community group Natrona Comes Together, and the Allegheny-Kiski Valley Historical Society in Tarentum for $25.


Natrona County, Wyoming

Natrona County is a county located in the state of Wyoming. Based on the 2010 census, the population was 75,450, making it the second-most populous county in Wyoming. Its county seat is Casper.

Natrona County comprises the Casper, WY Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Etymology - Origin of Natrona County Name

Named for the natron, or soda deposits in the county.

Demografski podaci:

Natrona County History

Natrona County was initially organized in the year 1888. the first settlement occurred in the Casper area in the late 1800s.

Wyoming's plains are the historical home to many nomadic tribes including the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Shoshone and Sioux. Today, about 6,000 Shoshone and Arapaho continue to reside on the 2.3 million acre Wind River Reservation, northwest of Natrona County.

Natrona county has a vast and varied history, from the Teapot Dome scandal to the oil and gas fields. Wyoming with its natural beauty and the history have attracted movie makers from John Wayne movies to science fiction movies.

In 1812, John Jacob Astor established Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia and sent Robert Stuart east to start what was hoped to become a network of trading posts. Stuart found South Pass by following a Crow Indian trail and entered our region. Near Bessemer Bend, Stuart and his small band erected the first white man's hut in 1812. Although Astor's plans failed when the British captured Astoria in 1812, trappers and scouts continued to explore our high plains and develop transit routes. On July 4, 1824, some of these trappers named Independence Rock.

In 1840, Father Jean Pierre DeSmet began spreading the gospel among area Indians. Father DeSmet was the first to carve his name on Independence Rock and give it the name, "The Register of the Desert."In 1843, John C. Fremont (known as "The Pathfinder") chiseled his name on Independence Rock and later with Kit Carson as his guide, went on to explore the country along the Platte and Sweetwater Rivers.

Zemljopis: Zemlja i vode

As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,376 square miles (13,923 km 2 ), of which, 5,340 square miles (13,830 km 2 ) of it is land and 36 square miles (93 km 2 ) of it (0.67%) is water.

Natrona County is located in the central part of Wyoming and consists of 5,369 square miles, covering 3,436,160 acres with a population of almost 65,000. The county seat is in Casper, which offers a multitude of choices for a wealth of natural and cultural history. Casper is the only place where the Oregon, Mormon, Overland, Pony Express, and Bridger Trails intersect. Cattle and sheep ranching were among the first enterprises, and diverse geological formations fostered the development of an energy industry fueled by oil, gas, coal, and uranium.


Natrona APA-214 - History

Natrona County's long, colorful history is very important in the settlement of the Old West. The North Platte River runs through Carbon, Converse, Goshen, Platte, and Natrona Counties. It starts in northern Colorado and flows north til it makes an eastward bend around Casper, and onward to Nebraska. Indians called it Mini Nebrathka, or spreading outer. The French Malley brothers named it in 1739, "La Platte" each means broad and shallow.

Because pioneers needed a source of water in their travels, several trails ran through the county, and it is difficult to separate the trails from the events that occurred along these trails - as evidenced by the trail landmarks mentioned above. The Mormon Trail, the California Trail, the Oregon Trail and the Pony Express made their east-to-west run through the county. For the most part, these four trails followed the same route through Natrona County. These trails were the reason for many of the forts and small sites for river crossings. Bridger Trail left Fort Caspar, went to northwest to Lysite in Fremont County, up Bridger Creek, through the Big Horn Basin, west of the Big Horn Mountains and joined the Bozeman Trail east of the town of Bozeman , Montana. Jim Bridger used this route to avoid trespassing on Indian hunting grounds.

Of all the western trails used by fur traders, gold seekers, missionaries, and emigrants, the Oregon Trail was most important. Beginning in 1841 and lasting over 20 years, it was the route over which many thousands of emigrants traveled the 2,000 miles from western Missouri to Oregon's Willamette River Valley and to other locations in the Pacific Northwest. This tide of emigration and settlement caused England to relinquish her hold on the Old Oregon Territory in 1846, when it became part of the United States, comprising the present States of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, as well as those parts of Wyoming and Montana west of the Continental Divide. The National Park Service has identified the official 2,170 mile Oregon Trail route, which begins at Independence, Missouri, and extends through the states of Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, and into Oregon, where it ends at Oregon City. It is a single route except for two relatively short branches one alternate route begins at Three Mile Crossing and the other at The Dalles, Oregon. The California Trail split from the Oregon Trail in western Wyoming significant travelers went this way before 1849, but a flood followed the 1849 discovery of gold in California.

A unique story in the westward movement is that of the Mormon Trail. The Mormons, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of latter Day Saints, journeyed west not for gold, but for the chance to build a Zion free from religious persecution. They called their migration to the Great Basin "the gathering". Approximately 70,000 church members, tens of thousands from the British Isles and Scandinavia, followed the trail to Utah between the years 1847 and 1869. Detailed planning, organization, and supervision by the Church Leaders characterize the Mormon migration. Another unique aspect of the gathering was the use of handcarts instead of wagons to carry the belongings of nearly 3,000 poorer "saints" to Utah in the 1850's.

On the Mormon Trail, the Mormon Ferry was built in 1847 at the direction of Brigham Young, to cross the Platte River near present day Casper. It was made of two large cottonwood canoes, fastened together with coarse pieces of rope and covered with slabs. It was large enough that oxen teams did not need to be unhitched from the wagons. Nine Mormons stayed to operate the ferry. It was used until Louis Guinard built a bridge in 1858.

After founding Salt Lake City, the Mormons settled over 300 communities in the West. Most settlements were in Utah, but others ranged from Canada to Mexico. These agricultural settlements were important to the economic development of the west. They provided supplies to western towns specializing in mining and other industries.

The Mormon Pioneer Trail is a component of the National Trails System. The official 1,300 mile route begins at Nauvoo, Illinois, and extends through the states of Iowa, Nebraska, and into Utah, where it ends at Salt Lake City. while nearly two-thirds of the trail is now in private ownership, many of the places and events associated with the trail can be seen or visited. Where wagons once rolled and teams traveled, highways, railroads, and bridges allow for modern-day travel.

This is a brief look at the early days of Natrona County (and some of what it is today).


Natrona County, Wyoming

Natrona County lies at the intersection of the basins, mountains and great plains of Wyoming that remain after billions of years of geological change. Here, water and wind have exposed rock layers, creating a dramatic landscape. Red outcroppings of sandstone vie with white limestone and variegated granites. Distinctive land features include Casper Mountain, Independence Rock, the Red Buttes, Devil’s Gate and Teapot Rock.

Much of the county holds buried treasures of oil and natural gas. More visible are outcrops of coal, remains of primordial swamps. Early-day prospectors also exploited deposits of copper, trona and asbestos.

This is an arid environment averaging ten inches of moisture per year, but few years are average. The mountains, such as Casper Mountain, receive considerably more moisture, usually in late winter snow storms. Run-off in the early summer can lead to flooding of the North Platte and Sweetwater rivers as well as smaller tributaries. Only man-made reservoirs prevent wholesale damage downstream.

Ancient nomads traveled through and lived in the area that would later become the county between 12,000 and 9,000 years ago. These people traveled during the warmer seasons and then settled in sheltered areas for the winter. They hunted big game like bison antiquus aaaaaand columbian and woolly mammoths, as well as smaller animals, and gathered edible plant materials such as berries and seeds.

Archaeologists have excavated a number of areas in Natrona County, mostly bison kill and butchering sites. A dig conducted in 2006 by local archeo-geologist John Albanese at Hell’s Half Acre, west of Casper, Wyo. found spear points and other materials that dated from 3,000 to 1,200 years ago. In 1971, Wyoming State Archaeologist George Frison excavated a bison kill site west of Casper, on the north bank of the North Platte River. The site dated from 10,000 to 9,500 years ago.

More recent Indian groups, including the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow and Shoshone tribes migrated through and occasionally wintered in the county, beginning in the 1700s. Their lives came under increasing pressure after the arrival of Euro Americans. By the late 1800s, the U.S. government required most tribes to settle on reservations. Even so, bands of Lakota and Shoshone traveled through the county into the 1890s.

Many early European explorers came through Wyoming, among them Robert Stuart and his companions, who traveled east from Fort Astoria on the Pacific coast in 1812. History credits Stuart with recording the first European travel west to east on what became known as the Oregon Trail. A later explorer and mapmaker, John C. Frémont, nicknamed ”The Pathfinder,” gave the North Platte’s modern-day Pathfinder Dam and Reservoir their name. Photographer William Henry Jackson, who traveled with mapmaker Ferdinand Hayden, documented his travels through present‑day Natrona County in photographs and paintings.

In the mid-19th century, the North Platte and Sweetwater rivers became the route for numerous travelers moving to Oregon, California or the valley of the Great Salt Lake. The Oregon/California/Mormon Trail followed the river upstream from Nebraska, allowing emigrants to follow a clear path west.

Dangerous river crossings prompted entrepreneurs to construct ferries and bridges from what is now Douglas, Wyoming west into the Sweetwater country. The Archambault brothers and Charles Lajeunesse ran the Sweetwater bridges in the 1850s. First the Mormons ran a ferry just west of Casper, near present-day Mills, and then Louis Guinard established a bridge nearby. John Richard operated a series of bridges, the most notable being the one at what’s now Evansville,Wyo., east of Casper.

Beginning in the 1850s, the U.S. Army posted troops along the river to protect travelers at the crossings and later to defend the new telegraph line connecting the eastern states and California. In 1865, two famous battles between Indians and soldiers occurred in what is now Natrona County near an army post built at Guinard’s bridge. During the Battle of Platte Bridge Station on July 25, 1865, Cheyenne and Lakota warriors killed numerous soldiers including Lieutenant Caspar Collins. On the same day, more Indians attacked Sergeant Amos Custard and his small supply train a few miles to the west. In honor of Collins, the Army designated the post as Fort Casper, misspelling his name in the process. In 1888, the town of Casper, soon to be the county seat of Natrona County, also took Collins’s misspelled name.

Some of the earliest businesses in the county were cattle and sheep operations. Joseph Carey and his brother controlled much of the west side of the county including parts of what later became Casper. Joseph Carey later became a U.S. senator and Wyoming governor. Bryant B. Brooks, another land baron who invested in cattle and sheep, was also elected Wyoming governor. Texas rancher Gilbert Searight established the Goose Egg Ranch near Bessemer, west of Casper. The Goose Egg ranch house was a hotel, restaurant and possibly used as the setting for part of Owen Wister’s novel, The Virginian. Searight sold out to the Carey Brothers in time to avoid the horrible winter of 1886-1887.

Out in the Sweetwater country the biggest ranchers were Tom Sun, Bonaparte “Boney” Earnest, Albert and John Bothwell, and Tom and John Durbin. Perhaps the most notorious incident in that part of the county was the hanging of James Averell and Ellen Watson on July 20, 1889, by vigilantes Tom Sun, John Durbin, Albert Bothwell, Robert Conner, Robert Galbraith and Ernest McLean. A grand jury failed to bring charges against the men. Publicity, almost certainly engineered by the vigilantes, branded Watson as Cattle Kate, a notorious rustler, tarring her reputation until new research turned up the real story, clearing her name, in the 1990s.

In addition to the owners of large parcels of land were numerous smaller ranchers some raised cattle and somer raised sheep. Sheep began appearing on the ranges mostly in the northern and western parts of the county in the 1880s, but sheep ranching was not a big part of the economy until the 1890s. Many of the sheepmen were Irish immigrants and some of them, too, eventually controlled large acreages of land.

But as sheep numbers rose in the 1890s, and numbers of cattle gradually declined, tensions between cattlemen and sheep ranchers led to violence over who would get to use the open range. Particularly in northern Wyoming, some cattlemen tried to eliminate their competition, killing entire bands of sheep and sometimes sheepherders. In 1909, the peak year for sheep, there were around 6 million in Wyoming, and only about a seventh as many cattle. Cattle-sheep ratios were probably similar in Natrona County. In the early 1910s, tensions between cattle and sheep raisers finally began to decrease.

As towns sprang up in the late 1880s, residents began seeking a county government with the infant town of Casper at the center of this effort. In 1890, Territorial Governor Francis E. Warren signed legislation splitting Carbon County in two with the north half becoming Natrona County. Casper and Bessemer, ten miles farther up the North Platte, vied for the plum title of county seat. Bessemer got more votes, but the number was so much larger than the hamlet’s actual population that election officials declared the returns fraudulent, and Casper won the election, ensuring its survival and leading to Bessemer’s demise.

Casper in 1890 was hardly an upscale community. Most buildings were wood, but the addition of new government buildings constructed of sturdy brick led to reconstruction and expansion of business blocks in brick and stone. The Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Railroad and later the Burlington Northern made the town into a supply and distribution hub. Other towns began to grow as ranching and oil discoveries drew people to the far reaches of the county.

Along with government and business infrastructure, houses, schools and churches made the towns good places to live and raise families. Newspapers competed aggressively for readers while detailing all of the comings and goings of residents and businessmen. Alfred Mokler, who arrived in 1897 to run the Natrona County Tribune, became an influential local opinion-maker. When he wrote his opinionated, but mostly factual History of Natrona County, Wyoming, 1888-1922 in 1923, he also became the official chronicler of the county’s past.

Little did people realize the immense changes that were coming their way when Cyrus Iba filed for the first oil lease in the county in the early 1880s. Beginning in the 1890s, scores of investors began to converge on Casper and by the turn of the century, test wells were common in the area. Mark Shannon created the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Company in 1888 to exploit possible oil properties in the Wyoming fields.

Transportation problems and the need for a local refinery hampered early efforts, but soon Pennsylvania Oil and Gas built a refinery in Casper. French and Belgian investors also set up operations, but it was the Midwest Oil Company in 1910 that began the first really big development. John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil was a latecomer. By the end of the 1920s, he had bought out most of the competition.

Around the same time, federal funds first came to the county in a substantial way with the construction of Pathfinder Dam on the North Platte River in Fremont Canyon, near the southern border of Natrona County. The U.S. Reclamation Service built the dam to store water for irriagation. Freight and supplies were shipped 50 miles out from Casper by mule train. The dam was completed in 1911.

In the 1910s and 1920s, the Salt Creek oil patch at the northern end of Natrona County was the largest production field in the world. This drew thousands of workers and their families, most of the men veterans of World War I, to Casper and the small towns that cropped up in the oil district. Salt Creek (later renamed Midwest), Edgerton, Lavoye and Snyder were just a few of the towns that arose almost over night. Edgerton and Midwest were the only towns to survive.

The Great Depression arrived in most of the nation after the stock-market crash of 1929. But economic difficulties hit Wyoming’s oil industry years earlier, in 1926. As prices and demand dropped, Natrona County experienced its first energy bust, and many people left.

After President Franklin Roosevelt took office in 1933, New Deal programs brought much- needed money and jobs into the county. Civilian Conservation Corps workers helped build roads and ski slopes on Casper Mountain. Works Project Administration and Public Works Administration money contributed to the construction of a replica of Fort Casper on its original site, a new post office and federal building downtown and provided funds for Alcova Dam, a U.S. Bureau of Reclamation project 30 miles upstream on the North Platte.

World War II, which began for the United States on December 7, 1941, finally brought the country out of the Depression and took hundreds of thousands of young men and women off to war. The war also brought the Casper Army Air Base to what is now the Natrona County International Airport. The base provided jobs for locals and introduced flyers-in-training to Wyoming hospitality.

After the war, many veterans returned to the state. They started families, found jobs and readjusted to their postwar lives. Natrona County’s population grew by more than 30 percent, from 23,858 to 31,437, between 1940 and 1950. In the following decade, population increased another 57 percent, reaching 49,623.

This was the time of television, and growing families and towns. Casper College opened for its first students in 1945, and a decade later was building a modern campus south of town on “C” Hill. This two-year college offered returning veterans an opportunity to begin their college educations paid for by the G.I. Bill.

From 1945 into the early 1970s was an era of optimism. Modern oilmen Dave True, Neil McMurry, Fred Goodstein, Tom Stroock and John Wold all began or expanded their operations during this time. The economic boom allowed these men and others to make fortunes in oil, real estate, construction and ranching. Casper was also a center in these years for the uranium business with offices of companies operating mines in nearby Carbon and Fremont counties. In spite of the prosperity, the population grew slowly in the 1960s. The census of 1970 recorded an additional 1,641 people, bringing the total up just 3.3 percent to 51,264.

Casper continued as the region’s hub, offering retail, medical and other services. In Casper and other communities, town leaders used tax revenues to pave streets, build sewer systems and provide a good water supply. Veterans Administration loans assisted veterans in buying many new houses.

Recreation and entertainment added to the quality of life. Casper had a symphony, movie theaters and beginning in 1957, the Casper Troopers, a drum and bugle corps that competed nationally. Ski enthusiasts enjoyed fresh powder on a few small ski slopes on Casper Mountain. The largest was Hogadon Basin Ski Area, which opened in 1959, and is still in use today, operated by the City of Casper. Many people also took advantage of the recreational opportunities at Alcova and Pathfinder Reservoirs.

Some of the luster ended when an economic bust in 1973 marked the end of the age of refineries and big oil production in Natrona County. Increasingly, oil came from other parts of the world but new types of oil drilling as well as an emphasis on natural gas eventually revived the county’s economy. Producers started shipping petroleum out by pipeline. The 1980 census showed 20,592 more residents than in 1970, a 40 percent increase that brought the total population to 71,856.

The most recent era of Natrona County’s history, between 1980 and 2011, showed some significant changes. Another energy bust in the 1980s led many of the larger oil companies to close their Casper offices, and forced local producers to diversify. Population fell. In addition to drilling, supplying equipment and workers kept companies afloat. The drilling supply business picked up again in the 1990s, with a boom in coal-bed methane production in the Powder River Basin to the north and east.

Cultural organizations continued to evolve. The Nicolaysen Art Museum opened in the restored Mountain States Power or Casper Lumber building in 1987. The museum and the expanded Natrona County Library anchored the eastern end of the historic downtown.

Casper remained a regional service center as large retailers came to town, and the Natrona County Memorial Hospital became the Wyoming Medical Center, providing increasingly complex and professional medical care. Casper College established a partnership with the University of Wyoming to offer four-year degrees in Casper. Government, service and medical jobs formed the core of the county economy.

The Texaco Refinery shut down in 1982 and the Amoco Refinery in 1991. After Amoco was absorbed by British Petroleum, that company cooperated with Natrona County and the City of Casper to clean up the refinery site and develop a golf course, river walk and business park on the property, which opened in 2004.

After a population loss during the bust of the 1980s, the area numbers were again climbing in the beginning of the 21 st century. As the county turned 120 years old in 2010, there was a sense of optimism in Natrona County. The population was up again, to 75,450. A diverse economy, a second hospital, other new medical businesses and many cultural amenities boded well for the county’s future. The resilience of the people showed through all the years of boom and bust. From early days, Natrona County was not appreciated by everyone, but those hardy enough to stay during tough times held it dear.


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