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Bostonska čajanka

Bostonska čajanka


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1771. skupina kolonista prosvjeduje protiv trinaest godina sve većeg britanskog ugnjetavanja, napadajući trgovačke brodove u Bostonskoj luci. U znak odmazde, Britanci zatvaraju luku i nanose još oštrije kazne.


Uz znatne troškove, Britanija je u Sedmogodišnjem ratu (1756-1763) osvojila teritorij Sjeverne Amerike koji je osvojio Francuska i rsquos. Britanija se sada suočila s velikim poslijeratnim dugom i odgovornošću dodatnog zemljišta za zaštitu i upravljanje. Vrlo opterećeni samim porezima, Britanci su samo tražili od kolonija da snose troškove vlastite uprave i obrane. Budući da je svaki predloženi prijedlog zakona o prihodima naišao na protivljenje, on je bio ukinut, a parlament je želio umiriti kolonije. No takva je „samosvojnost“ samo potaknula dodatnu neposlušnost koju su vješto organizirali kolonijalni propagandisti. Bostonski pokolj 1770., tijekom kojeg su crveni ogrtači pucali na rulju zbog ekstremne provokacije, odigran je kao da je umjesto pet ubijeno stotine kolonista.

Isprva jedva zapaženo u britanskom tisku, Bostonska čajanka uvećana je od jednostavnog uništavanja imovine do nedopustive uvrede britanske vlasti. Za incident su najviše odgovorni Sam Adams, čvrst i lukav profesionalni političar, za kojeg se govorilo da kontrolira dvije bostonske mafije koje je iskoristio za svoju osobnu korist i slavu, te bogati i isprazni poslovni čovjek John Hancock, kasnije opisan kao & quotan elegant revolucionar & quot "kvotnativne vladajuće klase trgovaca i zemljoposjednika čiji su interesi bili ugroženi imperijalnom politikom i barijerom za dobivanje zapadne zemlje." Ovi "zagovornici" koristili su sve vrste zastrašivanja, čak i kaljanje i nanošenje perjanica lojalnih podanika kralja, kako bi potkopali vlastitu sadašnju demokratsku državu samoupravu, iako su britanski odvjetnici nakon pomnog razmatranja utvrdili da pobunjenici nisu krivi za veleizdaju.

Zahvaljujući političkim i fizičkim poteškoćama u izvođenju tako velike prekomorske operacije, najveću svjetsku moć porazila je odrpana grupa revolucionara. No, gubitak američkih kolonija, formaliziran Pariškim ugovorom 1783., Britanci su prihvatili s karakterističnim aplombom - prije kao da je skupina poslovnih ljudi zatvorila neprofitabilnu granu, rečeno je.


Misterij konobe Green Dragon i Bostonska čajanka

U gornji lijevi kut crteža stavio je kvadrat i kompas. Do danas nitko ne zna tko je planirao Bostonsku čajanku.

Zgradu je 1764. kupila loža St. Andrews. Bio je kvadrat i kompas nad ulaznim vratima te bakreni Zmaj koji je postao zelen tijekom vremena. Bio je to društveni centar. Dolje je bila konoba. Gore se nalazila loža St. Andrews i Velika loža Massachusettsa (stari). Bilo je to najveće mjesto za sastanke na sjeveroistočnom kraju Bostona. Povjesničari su ga nazvali "sjedištem američke revolucije"

Ovdje je Bostonski dopisni odbor formiran nakon nekoliko prvih sastanaka u kući brata Josepha Warrena nekoliko vrata dalje. Ovdje su Sinovi slobode održavali tajne sjednice. Nosili su dragulj oko vrata i znalo se da imaju zaseban jezik za prepoznavanje. Na dragulju je bila slika Drveta slobode.

North End Caucus ovdje je formirao stražu koja je javno čuvala čajne brodove kako se čaj ne bi mogao istovariti. Brat Edward Proctor (St. Andrews Lodge) bio je poznat kao vođa ove straže. Brat Paul Revere služio je s ovim stražarom. Kasnije je brat Paul Revere služio u drugom čuvaru zvanom Izbornici koji je šetao ulicama Bostona, dva po dva, i promatrao kretanje britanskih trupa prije nego što je otišao na svoju poznatu vožnju do Lexingtona. Čuvar Izbornika sastao se u konobi Green Dragon i položio zakletvu tajnosti nad Biblijom.

Dr. Joseph Warren, 33 -godišnji liječnik, veliki je majstor Velike lože Massachusettsa koja se sastaje na katu. Paul Revere stariji je veliki đakon. Obojica su prošli majstori lože St. Andrews. Oni su bliski prijatelji i iste su godine došli u ložu St. Andrews. Joseph Warren šalje Paula Reverea u Lexington s kodiranom porukom za brata Johna Hancocka (također iz lože St. Andrews).

Warren i Revere sastali su se u taverni Green Dragon s kongresom North End koji je pjevao pjesmu & quotRally Mohawks & quot. Pjesma nam govori da su Warren i Revere tu, ali nitko nam nikada ne govori tko su & quotChiefs & quot. I nikad nećemo saznati tko su & quotMohawks & quot.

Rally, Mohawks - iznesite svoje sjekire! I reci kralju Georgeu da nećemo plaćati porez na njegov strani čaj! Njegove prijetnje su uzaludne - i uzaludno razmišljati Prisiliti naše djevojke i supruge da piju Njegovu podlu Boheu! Zatim skupite momke i požurite U susret našim poglavicama kod Zelenog zmaja. Naš Warren je tu, i odvažni Revere, s rukama za raditi i riječima navijati za slobodu i zakone! "Zemlje" i "Brave" i čvrste branitelje neće ostaviti pravi sjevernjaci, stvar borbe protiv slobode! Zatim skupite dječake i požurite u susret našim načelnicima kod Zelenog zmaja.

& Quotvile Bohea & quot; drugo je ime za čaj East India Company. Trulo je u njihovim skladištima u Engleskoj. Ovo je jeftin čaj i tvrtka ga se mora riješiti. Britanski parlament dao je East India Tea Company monopol nad čajem. Kolonije ne bi trebale kupovati nikakav drugi čaj. Parlament je zadržao porez na čaj samo kako bi dokazao da imaju moć oporezivanja.

A oporezivanje bez zastupanja, zajedno s monopolom na čaj, tiranija je!

U noći Bostonske čajanke bilo je muškaraca koji su sebe nazivali "Mohawks" i stavljali svjetiljku crnu i boju na lice kao masku. Neki od ovih "Mohawkova" upoznali su se u konobi Green Dragon. Neki su se sreli u kućama. Neki su se zamotali u deke i sjedili na balkonu Stare južne kuće susreta miješajući se s gomilom. Neki su došli iz tiskare Edes.

Dvije tisuće ljudi stoji na Griffinovom pristaništu i gleda Bostonsku čajanku. Gomila šuti dok šezdeset muškaraca baca 90 000 kilograma čaja u slanu vodu.

Postoje tajni znakovi i supotpisi za prepoznavanje.

Drugi podiže sjekiru i kaže: & quotPoznajem te. & Quot

Prvi tada uzvraća podižući sjekiru i daje drugo & quotUgh! & Quot

U svoj toj gomili nitko nije želio identificirati "Mohawka." Jedan čovjek je rekao da će biti svjedok pod uvjetom da suđenje bude udaljeno 3000 milja u Londonu. Nikada nije bilo suđenja. Guverner Hutchinson ne bi imao suđenje u Bostonu jer je mislio da će porota biti "Mohawkovi" ili njihovi simpatizeri. "Mohawkovi" ostaju jedan od misterija američke revolucije.

Događaji koji su prethodili večeri 1. prosinca Tea Party mogli bi baciti malo svjetla.

Brat Warren i brat Revere sastaju se u konobi Green Dragon kako bi objavili Rezoluciju Sjevernokorisnog kokusa:

& quotDa se usprotivimo prodaji bilo kojeg čaja poslanog od East India Company. . . sa našim životima i bogatstvom. & quot

Brat William Molineux, član lože St. Andrews, djeluje kao glasnogovornik Sinova slobode. Na Drvu slobode objavljena je obavijest da će primatelji čaja prijaviti i javno dati otkaz u svojim provizijama kao agenti za čaj za East India Company. & quotIgnorirajte ovo na vlastitu odgovornost. & quot Primatelji se ne pojavljuju. Gomila od 300 ljudi slijedi brata Molineuxa i brata Warrena do Carinarnice kako bi se suočili s primateljima. Gomila otkida vrata sa šarki i brat Molineux se suočava s primateljima. Hoće li dati ostavku kao primatelji da bi se čajni brodovi mogli okrenuti i odnijeti čaj natrag u Englesku? Ne. Primatelji ne bi dali ostavku. Zapravo su se tada preselili u Fort William pod vojnom zaštitom.

U New Yorku, Philadelphiji i Charlestonu, primatelji čaja dali su ostavke na rad Komisije na zahtjev Sinova slobode. Ti čajni brodovi otplovili su natrag u Englesku s čajem. Nije bilo primatelja koji bi platili porez i potpisali čaj.

Ali ne u Bostonu! Guverner Hutchinson i njegova obitelj bili su u poslu s čajem. Dva sina guvernera Hutchinsona i zet bili su primatelji. Zakon o čaju navodi da ako čaj nije prodan do 17. prosinca, kuća u custonu bi ga mogla zaplijeniti i prodati zbog neplaćanja pristojbi. Kad je čaj bio u guvernerovim rukama, mogao ga je tajno odložiti lokalnim trgovcima. Ne. Primatelji ne bi dali ostavku. Koraci su se morali poduzeti prije 1. prosinca.

Gradsko povjerenstvo odabranika pokušava s drugim pristupom guverneru i primateljima. Ti su izbornici vodeći trgovci u Bostonu. Vodi ih brat John Hancock, član lože St. Andrews. On je najbogatiji čovjek Nove Engleske. Pukovnik je guvernerskog kadetskog zbora. Guverner mu je dao posebne naloge da održava red oko čajnih brodova.

U Odboru odabranika također je brat John Rowe. Veliki je majstor Velike lože sv. Ivana u Massachusettsu (Moderni). Loža sv. Ivana sastaje se gore iznad konobe Grožđe grožđa i većina članova su Tory u svom suosjećanju. Brat Rowe je vlasnik jednog od čajnih brodova, Eleanor. Obećao je iskoristiti svoj utjecaj na guvernera da vrati čajne brodove i čaj u Englesku.

To je stvar trgovine s Odabranicima i oni koriste drugačiju privlačnost:

& "Izbornici se sastaju kako bi čekali primatelje i zatražili od njih da se obrate pažnji na njihove likove, mir i red u ovom gradu i pokrajini, da odmah daju otkaz."

Ne. Primatelji još uvijek ne bi dali ostavku. Povijest bi mogla biti drugačija da guverner Massachusettsa nije trgovao čajem.

Čajni brod Dartmouth stiže u Boston. Odbor za korespondenciju, predvođen bratom Josephom Warrenom, distribuira brošure koje pozivaju na sastanak Mass Town kako bi se vratio čaj odakle je došao.

& quotOdvratni čaj koji je za ovu luku isporučila istočnoindijska Comnpany sada je stigao u ovu luku. Sat uništenja zbog muškog suprotstavljanja mahinacijama tiranije zuri vam u lice. & Quot

Pet tisuća ljudi okuplja se i glasa za povratak čajne lađe. Brat John Hancock djeluje kao moderator gradskih sastanaka.

Brat Paul Revere započinje svoj posao kao stražar na brodu s čajem kako bi se uvjerio da čaj nije istovaren.

Zapisi o loži St. Andrews ukazuju na to da je loža prekinuta ove noći i navodni izvještaj o nekolicini prisutne braće. & Quot

Napomena: & quotDonjači čaja oduzeli su vrijeme Braći. & Quot

Vrijeme istječe. Pukovnik John Hancock odlazi na čajne brodove kako bi pregledao guvernerov kadetski zbor. I on i brat Warren bili su govornici na komemoraciji onima koji su poginuli u bostonskom masakru.

Primatelji su krivili stražara North End Caucusa jer nisu dopustili da primatelji iskrcaju čaj. Klub je čuvao čaj na nišanu i držao tajne sastanke u konobi Green Dragon.

Tory i Patriot krivili su primatelje jer se nisu povukli i pustili čaj da se vrati u Englesku.

Brat Warren odlazi u Carinarnicu s Francisom Rotchom, vlasnikom broda za čaj Dartmouth. Svi izlazi u luku su blokirani. Prema zakonu, carinski službenici ne mogu pustiti brod osim ako primatelji istovare čaj i plate porez. Carinski službenici 17. prosinca oduzet će čaj u skladu sa zakonom.

Brat Warren posjećuje brata Rowea, vlasnika čajanke, Eleanor. Ova dva velika majstora imaju jedinstvenu titulu u američkoj povijesti za drevne i moderne. Svaki od njih nazvan je & quotVeliki gospodar kontinenta Amerike. & Quot Oni se sastaju u brizi za njegov & quotquot i teret. & Quot Još jedan apel mora se uputiti guverneru.

Večer poznate Čajanke. Zapisi lože sv. Andrije pokazuju da je bilo prisutno samo pet članova. U bilješci stoji & quotLodge zatvoren zbog nekoliko prisutnih članova. & Quot

Odbor za dopisivanje s bratom Warrenom poziva na sastanak Mass Town. Sedam tisuća ljudi sastaje se u Staroj južnoj kući za sastanke i oko nje. To je najveća gužva koja se ikada okupila u Bostonu. Čekaju da čuju poruku guvernera Hutchinsona. Hoće li vratiti čaj u Englesku?

Sedam kilometara dalje u Miltonu, guverner se sastaje s Francisom Rotchom, vlasnikom Dartmoutha. Brat John Hancock i brat John Rowe pomažu u apelu guverneru da vrati čaj.

Guverner nije dopustio brodovima da odu s čajem. To bi bilo u suprotnosti s carinskim zakonom. Umjesto toga, dao bi vojnu pratnju Dartmouthu do otoka Castle i Fort Williams. Tamo su njegovi sinovi istovarili čaj i platili porez. Vlasnik Dartmoutha nije želio pomaknuti svoj brod pod takvim okolnostima vojne pratnje ratnog broda sa 60 topova.

Vlasnik Dartmoutha vraća se na prepuni Stari jug

dvorana za sastanke s vijestima. Postavljaju mu se dva pitanja.

Hoće li Dartmouth odnijeti u Englesku s čajem? Ne. To bi značilo njegov & quotruin. & Quot

Bi li istovario čaj na pristaništu? Ne. Bio je & quotnot ovlašten & quot da ga istovari.

Sastanak je završio i tada su & quotMohawks & quot iskrcali pošiljku čaja na Griffinovom pristaništu.

Guvernerov kadetski zbor stajao je daleko od gomile na pristaništu.

Posade čajnih brodova sišle su dolje i nisu pružile nikakvu pomoć. Neki od njih čak su pomogli iskrcati čaj. Gomila je promatrala tišinu. Na brodovima nije napravljena nikakva šteta. Pojedinac nije držao čaj.

Cijela čajanka bila je u dometu ratnog broda sa 60 topova. Britanski admiral promatrao je s prozora na katu obližnje kuće. v Nakon toga & quotMohawks & quot prošao je ispod njegova prozora. Admiral je otvorio prozor i povikao: "Sutra ćete morati platiti lutkicu!"

Brat Paul Revere uzjaše konja i prenosi vijesti u New York. S tim vijestima brod s čajem u New Yorku okreće se i otplovljava natrag u Englesku s čajem. Vijest širi Dopisni odbor. Samo u Massachusettsu postoji više od stotinu ovih odbora. Od vremena čajanke u Bostonu, East India Company nije više prodavala čaj u Americi.

Brat John Rowe naziva bacanje čaja i kvote katastrofalnom aferom & quot u svom dnevniku. & quot; Uistinu mogu reći, ne znam ništa o tom pitanju, niti koga to zanima. Vjerujem da je to spriječeno. Iskreno mi je žao zbog događaja. & Quot Brat Rowe je bio vjeran i ostao je vjeran.

Engleski državni odvjetnik stavio je ime Josepha Warrena na vrh liste od pet. Optužba bi bila izdaja Bostonske čajanke. Nedostajalo je dokaza. Ministri nikada nisu podigli optužnicu.

Ovo nije bio prvi put da su guverner Hutchinson i njegovi sinovi izgubili u trgovanju čajem. Samo tri godine prije nego što su brat William Molineux i brat James Otis (Loža sv. Ivana) poveli tisuću domoljuba iz Faneuil Halla da se suoče s Hutchinsonovima. Tada je u Bostonu postojao sporazum o neimportaciji. Trebalo je nestati. Njegovi su sinovi uvozili čaj i skrivali ga, čekajući da zarade. Njegovi sinovi predali su čaj i novac za čaj koji su već prodali. Hutchinsonovi to nisu zaboravili. Nisu to učinili ni Sinovi slobode.

Nakon Čajanke, guverner Hutchinson povučen je u London na & quotkonzultacije. & Quot; Kralj i ministarstvo poslali su generala Gagea kao novog vojnog guvernera i dali mu "potpuno diskrecijsko pravo" da pronađe dokaze za suđenje odgovornima za Bostonsku čajanku. U Bostonu nije bilo suđenja.

Benjamin Franklin, veliki majstor Pennsylvanije, bio je u to vrijeme u Londonu. Nazvao je Bostonsku čajanku i kvotan čin nasilne nepravde. & Quot Skupina londonskih trgovaca željela je platiti dvostruku vrijednost čaja kako bi trgovina ostala otvorena. Franklin se ponudio da sam plati čaj.

& quotMada je nestašluk bio čin nepoznatih osoba, ali budući da ih vjerojatno nije moguće pronaći, niti za to odgovoriti, čini se da postoji razumna tvrdnja za društvo u kojem se to dogodilo. & quot

No nitko nikada nije platio čaj, jer je parlament zatvorio luku u Bostonu, prekinuo trgovinu i poslao trupe.

Mnogo godina kasnije Sir Winston Churchill - premijer, povjesničar i mason - komentirao je čin Parlamenta kojim je East India Company dobila monopol na čaj. Brat Churchill je to nazvao & quota glupom greškom. & Quot

Amerikanci od tada piju kavu. Englezi su rekli da je razlog zašto su Amerikanci izgubili ukus za čaj taj što su imali poseban način miješanja u slanoj vodi.

Počelo je u konobi Green Dragon. Ako je muškarac naručio čaj, bio je torijevac. Ako je naručio kavu, bio je domoljub.

Nije čudno što se nitko nije mogao pronaći da identificira & quotMohawks. & Quot; Tako je bilo i godinu prije na Rhode Islandu. Neki domoljubi odjeveni u Indijance napali su Gaspee u dugim čamcima. Britanci su tvrdili da je brat Abraham Whipple (loža sv. Ivana, br. 1, Providence) bio vođa. Obećali su da će ga objesiti. Brat Whipple je rekao da će ga prvo morati uloviti.

George Washington, s 22 godine, upitan je zašto je postao mason. Rekao je da je to zato što ih je smatrao "voditeljima u zajednici"

Faneuil Hall i Old Meeting House Old South još uvijek stoje u Bostonu. Konoba Zeleni zmaj izgorjela je prije mnogo godina. Baština živi na slici nastaloj 1773. godine. Umjetnik je imao hrabrosti potpisati svoje ime riječima: & quotGdje smo se sastali kako bismo isplanirali pošiljku nekoliko tovara čaja. 16. prosinca 1773. & quot

Ako se & quotLeaders in community & quot ikada sretnu u konobi Green Dragon i pjevaju pjesmu & quotRally Mohawks & quot za televizijsku emisiju, neka budu sigurni da im je šminka ravna.


Koliko je ljudi sudjelovalo na Bostonskoj čajanci?

Putem usmene predaje, starih obiteljskih priča i neke dokumentacije, nepotpun popis od 175 imena sastavljen je i objavljen u knjizi pod nazivom Tea Leaves, koju je napisao Francis Drake 1884. godine, kao i u Posebnoj sekciji za bostonsku čajanku 1973. Boston Globe. :

Francis Akeley (ili Eckley)
Nathaniel Barber
Samuel Barnard
Henry Bass
Joseph Bassett
Edward Bates
Adam Beals Jr.
Thomas Bolter
David Bradlee
Josiah Bradlee
Nathaniel Bradlee
Thomas Bradlee
James Brewer
John Brown
Seth Ingersoll Browne
Stephen Bruce
Benjamin Burton
Nicholas Campbell
George Carleton
Thomas Chase
Nathaniel Child
Benjamin Clark
Jonathan Clark
John Cochran
Gilbert Colesworthy
Gersham Collier
Adam Collson
James Foster Condy
Daniel Coolidge
Joseph Coolidge
Samuel Coolidge
Samuel Cooper
William Cox
Thomas Crafts
John Crane
Obadiah Curtis
Thomas Dana, Jr.
Amasa Davis
Robert Davis
John DeCarteret
David Decker
John Dickman
Edward Dolbeare
Samuel Dolbeare
John Dyar, Jr.
Joseph Eaton
Joseph Eayres
Benjamin Edes
William Etheridge
Samuel Fenno
Samuel Foster
Thomas Fracker
Nathaniel Frothingham, Jr.
John Fulton
John Gammell
Eleazer Gay
Thomas Gerrish
Samuel Gore
Mojsije Grant
Nathaniel Greene
Timothy Guy
Samuel Hammond
Peter Harrington
William Haskins
William Hendley
George Robert Twelves Hewes
John Hicks
Samuel Hobbs
John Hooton
Elisha Horton
Elijah Houghton
Samuel Howard
Edward Compton Howe
Jonathan Hunnewell
Richard Hunnewell
Richard Hunnewell, Jr.
Thomas Hunstable
Abraham Hunt
Daniel Ingersoll
Daniel Ingoldson
Charles Jameson
Robert Jameson
Jared Joy
Robert Lash
Amarija je naučila
Joseph Lee
Nathaniel Lee
Amos Lincoln
John Locke
Matthew Loring
Josip Lovering
Joseph Ludden
David Lyon
Thomas Machin
Ebenezer MacIntosh
Peter McIntosh
Archibald MacNeil
John Marston
Martin, vjerojatno Wm.
Thompson Maxwell
John May
Mead, vjerojatno John
Henry Mellius
Thomas Melville
Aaron John Miller
James Mills
William Molineaux
Francis Moore
Thomas Moore
Anthony Morse
Joseph Mountfort
Eliphalet Newell
Joseph Nicholls
Samuel Nowell
Joseph Pearse Palmer
Jonathan Parker
Joseph Payson
Samuel Peck
John Peters
William Pierce
Isaac Pitman
Lendall Pitts
Samuel Pitts
Thomas Porter
Henry Prentiss
Nathaniel Prentiss
Velečasni John Prince
Edward Procter
Henry Purkitt
Seth Putnam
John Randall
Joseph Reed
Paul Revere
Benjamin Rice
Jonathan Dorby Robins
Joseph Roby
John Russell
William Russell
John Sawtelle
George Sayward
Edmund Sears
Robert Sessions
Josip Shed
Benjamin Simpson
Peter Slater, ml.
Samuel Sloper
Ephriam Smith
Josiah Snelling
Thomas Spear
Samuel Sprague
John Spurr
James Starr
Phineas Stearns
Ebeneezer Stevens
James Stoddard
Elizejeva priča
James Swan
Abrahamov toranj
Bartolomej Trow
John Truman
Benjamin Tucker mlađi
Thomas Urann
James Watson
Henry Wells
Thomas Wells
Josiah Wheeler
John Whitehead
David Williams
Isaac Williams
Jeremiah Williams
Thomas Williams
Nathaniel Willis
Joshua Wyeth
Thomas Young

Sumnjalo se da su i drugi ljudi sudjelovali u Bostonskoj čajanci, ali nikada nisu službeno navedeni, poput moga pretka kapetana Edwarda Burbecka, brata Henryja Burbecka.

Brojni dokumenti navode Burbecka kao mogućeg sudionika događaja i sugeriraju da je morao pobjeći iz Bostona kako bi izbjegao progon britanske vlade koja mu je stavila cijenu na glavu. Autor Povijesti Plymoutha, New Hampshire navodi:

"Edward Burbeck, sin pukovnika Williama i Abigail (Tuttle) Burbeck … Bio je drvorezbar u Bostonu, kapetan topništva, 1775. i, po tradiciji, jedan od ‘Bostonske čajanke."

Bostonska čajanka, gravura W.D. Coopera, oko 1789

Knjiga koju su napisali Sinovi američke revolucije 1896. također navodi da je Edward Burbeck bio:

“Osumnjičen da je bio član bostonske čajanke. Kad je Boston bio u rukama Britanaca, Edward je uspio poslati svoju obitelj iz grada, a zatim je sam pobjegao, prerušen u ribara. Ponovno se okupio s obitelji u Newburyportu. ”

Povjesničari nisu sigurni zašto su sudionici čaja odabrali prerušavanja Indijanaca, ali čelnica Kćeri slobode Sarah Bradlee Fulton, koja je od tada dobila nadimak “Majka čajanke, & od tada je zaslužna za ideju prerušavanja i mnogi povjesničari nagađaju da je to vjerojatno zato što je "sviranje indijskog" tada bila popularna američka tradicija, baš kao što je i sada.

Zbog tajnosti, većina sudionika čajanke izbjegla je kaznu, osim Francis Akeley koji je bio jedina osoba zatvorena zbog svoje uloge u čajanci.

Ako želite saznati više o Bostonskoj čajanci, pogledajte ovu vremensku traku Bostonske čajanke.

Izvori:
Godišnjak Wisconsin Society of the Sons of American Revolution. Tvrtka Swain & amp Tate, 1896
Stearns, Ezra Scollay i Moses Thurston Runnels. Povijest Plymoutha, New Hampshire. Vol. I, University Press, 1906
“ Često postavljana pitanja o bostonskoj čajanci. ” Stara kuća za sastanke Jug, osmh1.drupalgardens.com/history/boston-tea-party/frequent-asked-questions-about-boston-tea-party
“Kompletan popis sudionika. ” Povijesno društvo Bostonske čajanke, www.boston-tea-party.org/participants/participants.html


Bostonska čajanka - POVIJEST

Bostonska čajanka
ID digitalne povijesti 1192

Autor: George Robert Twelve Hewes
Datum: 1773

Napomena: George Robert Twelve Hewes, postolarski postolar iz Bostona, koji se kasnije borio u Revoluciji kao običan vojnik i mornar, bio je prisutan u Bostonskom masakru i bio je vođa bostonske čajanke.


Dokument: Uništeni čaj bio je sadržan u tri broda, koji su ležali jedan blizu drugoga na onome što se u to vrijeme nazivalo Griffinovo pristanište, a bili su okruženi ratnim naoružanim brodovima, čiji su zapovjednici javno izjavili da ako pobunjenici, kako im je drago, stiliziraju Bostonci, ne bi trebali povući svoje protivljenje iskrcavanju čaja prije određenog dana, 17. prosinca 1773., trebali bi ga tog dana istjerati na obalu, pod pokrovom usta topa.

Dan prije sedamnaestog održan je sastanak građana okruga Suffolk sazvan u jednoj od crkava u Bostonu radi savjetovanja o mjerama koje bi se mogle smatrati prikladnima za sprječavanje iskrcaja čaja, ili osigurati ljude od naplate carine. Na tom sastanku imenovan je odbor koji će čekati guvernera Hutchinsona i zatražiti ga da ih obavijesti hoće li poduzeti bilo kakve mjere kako bi zadovoljio ljude koji su na sastanku.

Na prvu prijavu ovog odbora, guverner im je rekao da će im dati konačan odgovor do pet sati popodne. U dogovoreni sat, odbor se ponovno popravio do guvernerove kuće, a na upit je utvrđeno da je otišao u svoje seosko sjedište u Miltonu, udaljeno oko šest milja. Kad se odbor vratio i obavijestio sastanak o odsustvu guvernera, došlo je do zbunjenog žamora među članovima, a sastanak je odmah raskinut, mnogi od njih su uzvikivali: "Neka svaki čovjek izvrši svoju dužnost i budi vjeran svojoj zemlja "i postojala je opća guzza za Griffinov pristanište.

Bila je već večer, i ja sam se odmah odjenuo u kostim Indijanca, opremljenog malom sekirom, koju smo ja i moji suradnici označili tomahawk, s kojom i toljagom, nakon što sam svoje lice i ruke naslikao ugljenom prašinom u kovačku radnju, popravio sam do Griffinovog pristaništa, gdje su ležali brodovi u kojima je bio čaj. Kad sam se prvi put pojavio na ulici nakon što sam bio ovako prerušen, upao sam s mnogima koji su bili odjeveni, opremljeni i oslikani kao i ja, koji su upali sa mnom i marširali prema mjestu našeg odredišta.

Kad smo stigli na pristanište, bilo je troje naših koji su preuzeli ovlaštenje za upravljanje našim operacijama, čemu smo se lako podnijeli. Podijelili su nas u tri stranke, radi ukrcaja na tri broda koja su istovremeno sadržavala čaj. Ime onoga koji je zapovijedao divizijom u koju sam raspoređen bio je Leonard Pitt. Imena ostalih zapovjednika nikad nisam znala.

Zapovjednici su nam odmah naredili da se ukrcamo na sve brodove u isto vrijeme, što smo odmah poslušali. Zapovjednik divizije kojoj sam pripadao, čim smo se ukrcali na brod, imenovao me je bocanom i naredio mi da odem do kapetana i tražim od njega ključeve otvora i desetak svijeća. U skladu s tim postavio sam zahtjev, a kapetan je odmah odgovorio i dostavio članke, ali me istovremeno zamolio da ne nanesem štetu brodu ili opremi.

Naš zapovjednik nam je tada naredio da otvorimo vrata i izvadimo sve škrinje čaja te ih bacimo preko broda, a mi smo odmah nastavili izvršavati njegove naredbe, najprije izrezavši i rascijepivši škrinje našim tomahawcima, kako bismo ih temeljito izložili učinci vode.

U otprilike tri sata od trenutka kad smo ušli na brod, tako smo razbili i bacili preko broda svaku škrinju za čaj koja se našla u brodu, dok su oni na drugim brodovima odlagali čaj na isti način, u isto vrijeme. Bili smo okruženi britanskim naoružanim brodovima, ali nismo pokušali odoljeti.

Zatim smo se tiho povukli u svoja nekoliko mjesta stanovanja, bez ikakvog međusobnog razgovora, niti poduzimanja bilo kakvih mjera da otkrijemo tko su nam suradnici, niti se sjećam da smo znali za ime jedne osobe koja se dotiče te afere , osim onog Leonarda Pitta, zapovjednika moje divizije, kojeg sam spomenuo. Činilo se da postoji razumijevanje da bi svaki pojedinac trebao dobrovoljno pružiti svoje usluge, čuvati svoju tajnu i riskirati posljedice za sebe. Tijekom te transakcije nije došlo do poremećaja, a tada je primijećeno da je uslijedila najtiša noć u kojoj je Boston uživao mnogo mjeseci.

Tijekom vremena dok smo čaj bacali na brod, neki su građani Bostona i njegove okolice nekoliko puta pokušali odnijeti male količine za svoju obiteljsku upotrebu. Kako bi ostvarili taj objekt, gledali bi svoju priliku da zgrabe šaku s palube, gdje se ona obilno rasula, i stavili je u džepove.

U tu svrhu ukrcao se jedan kapetan O'Connor, kojeg sam dobro poznavao, a kad je pretpostavio da ga ne primjećuju, napunio je džepove, ali i podstavu kaputa. Ali ja sam ga otkrio i kapetanu dao informacije o tome što radi. Dobili smo naredbu da ga privedemo, i upravo kad je izlazio iz plovila, uhvatila sam ga za suknju kaputa, i pokušavajući ga povući, otrgnula sam ga, ali, skočivši naprijed, brzim naporom uspio je pobjeći. Morao je, međutim, proći kroz gomilu kroz gomilu na pristaništu po devet, dok je prolazio, zadajući mu udarac ili udarac.

Još jedan pokušaj da se spasi malo čaja od ruševina tereta od strane visokog, ostarjelog muškarca koji je nosio veliki šešir sa poprsjekom i bijelom perikom, što je u to vrijeme bilo u modi. On je lukavo malo uvukao u džep, ali kad su ga otkrili, uhvatili su ga i uzeli mu šešir i periku s glave te ih zajedno s čajem iz kojeg su mu ispraznili džepove bacili u vodu. S obzirom na njegovu staru dob, dopušteno mu je pobjeći, s vremena na vrijeme laganim udarcem.

Sljedećeg jutra, nakon što smo očistili brodove od čaja, otkriveno je da vrlo velike količine lebde na površini vode i da se spriječi mogućnost da se bilo što od toga sačuva za upotrebu, niz malih brodova njima su upravljali mornari i građani, koji su ih veslali u one dijelove luke gdje god je čaj bio vidljiv, te ga udarajući veslima i veslima toliko temeljito natapali da je njegovo potpuno uništenje postalo neizbježno.


Bostonska čajanka - POVIJEST

Bostonska čajanka dogodila se 16. prosinca 1773. Bio je to jedan od ključnih događaja koji je doveo do američke revolucije.

Je li to bila velika, zabavna zabava uz čaj?

Ne baš. Bio je u pitanju čaj, ali nitko ga nije pio. Bostonska čajanka bila je prosvjed američkih kolonista protiv britanske vlade. Oni su organizirali prosvjed ukrcavši se na tri trgovačka broda u bostonskoj luci i bacivši brodski teret čaja u more. Bacili su 342 škrinje čaja u vodu. Neki od kolonista bili su prerušeni u Mohawk Indijance, ali kostimi nikoga nisu prevarili. Britanci su znali tko je uništio čaj.


Bostonska čajanka od Nathaniel Currier

Isprva se bacanje čaja u ocean odjeveno kao Mohawksi moglo činiti pomalo glupim, ali kolonisti su imali svoje razloge. Čaj je bio omiljeno piće među Britancima i kolonijama. Također je bio glavni izvor prihoda istočnoindijske trgovačke tvrtke. Ovo je bila britanska tvrtka i kolonijama je rečeno da mogu kupiti samo čaj od ove jedne kompanije. Rečeno im je i da moraju platiti visoke poreze na čaj. Taj se porez zvao Zakon o čaju.


Stara kuća za sastanke Jug od Ducksters
Domoljubi su se sastali u kući za sastanke na Starom jugu
raspravljati o oporezivanju prije Bostonske čajanke

To se kolonijama nije činilo poštenim jer nisu bile zastupljene u britanskom parlamentu i nisu imale riječi o tome kako bi se porezi trebali obavljati. They refused to pay taxes on the tea and asked that the tea be returned to Great Britain. When it wasn't, they decided to protest Britain's unfair taxes by throwing the tea into the ocean.

It's unclear to historians if the protest was planned. There had been a big town meeting earlier that day led by Samuel Adams to discuss the tea taxes and how to fight them. However, no one is quite sure if Samuel Adams planned the destruction of the tea or if a bunch of people just got mad and went and did it unplanned. Samuel Adams did later say that it was the act of people defending their rights and not the act of an angry mob.

It was just tea, what's the big deal?

It actually was a lot of tea. The 342 containers totaled 90,000 pounds of tea! In today's money that would be around a million dollars in tea.

  • The three ships that were boarded and had their tea dumped into the harbor were the Dartmouth, the Eleanor, and the Beaver.
  • The Beaver had been quarantined in the outer harbor for two weeks due to a case of smallpox.


Tea Party Finds Inspiration In Boston History

The Boston Tea Party of 1773, as depicted in an old engraving. Bostonians dressed as Indians dumped 342 chests of tea overboard from three British ships in protest against "taxation without representation." The famous Tea Party took place at Griffin's Wharf, where the ships were tied up. The site remained a landmark even after the waterfront was filled in, leaving the spot several hundred yards inland. AP hide caption

The Boston Tea Party of 1773, as depicted in an old engraving. Bostonians dressed as Indians dumped 342 chests of tea overboard from three British ships in protest against "taxation without representation." The famous Tea Party took place at Griffin's Wharf, where the ships were tied up. The site remained a landmark even after the waterfront was filled in, leaving the spot several hundred yards inland.

April 15 is not a date that most Americans look forward to. And lately, the grumbling over paying taxes has been louder than usual.

The Tea Party movement has been staging major rallies around the country to protest taxes and government spending, including one in Boston, where the original Tea Party took place.

There's actually a dock in Boston Harbor where historians believe that on Dec. 16, 1773, some colonists came down — with 50 or so dressed up as American Indians — and dumped a bunch of tea in the water.

Joe Thorndike, a tax historian, says the image is colorful. "And it's so ridiculous on some level," he adds. "People dressing up and running on and throwing crates of tea over the side of the ship — it's like a nice little picture we can put in our head."

But are modern-day Tea Partyers carrying on the same ideals as the Founding Fathers?

Thorndike, who is also director of the Tax History Project at the nonprofit group Tax Analysts, says many people seem to think the Boston Tea Party was a protest about high taxes. But it wasn't he says it was about that famous phrase in fourth-grade history books: "No taxation without representation."

The protest against British taxation on tea imports, depicted in the drawing above, brought the country one step closer to the American War of Independence. Edward Gooch/Getty Images hide caption

The protest against British taxation on tea imports, depicted in the drawing above, brought the country one step closer to the American War of Independence.

It was the idea of being taxed by a government that they didn't have any say in.

"What the original Tea Party was trying to drive home was that the British did not have a right to impose a tax on the Colonies, because the Colonies did not have representation in Parliament," Thorndike says. "That's a very different sort of message than saying, 'This tax is just too damn high for us.' I think the Tea Party today — at least it strikes me — is more about just taxes being too high."

Bailouts: Then And Now

The original Tea Party in 1773 was also sparked, Thorndike says, not just by a tax, but by a government bailout.

England was looking to prop up the British East India Company. So it gave a tax break that enabled the company to undercut Colonial tea merchants, which threatened to put a lot of them out of business.

Modern-day Boston Harbor near the spot of the original Boston Tea Party. Chris Arnold/NPR hide caption

Modern-day Boston Harbor near the spot of the original Boston Tea Party.

"They wanted to help bail out this company, which was struggling under a big debt load, if that sounds familiar," Thorndike says, adding that this is similar to what has motivated the modern-day Tea Party movement.

The recent Wall Street bailouts got a lot of Tea Party activists upset. And in both cases people saw the government as favoring big business over the little guy.

Boston's Modern-Day Tea Party

The Greater Boston Tea Party is planning a modern-day demonstration. The president of the group, Christen Varley, says that a year ago she was a housewife who decided to get involved in politics.

"You know, I was very dissatisfied with bailing out banks, bailing out auto companies — too big to fail — and thought as a newcomer to Massachusetts, we should definitely be having one of these Tea Party things here, because this is where it all started," she says.

Varley says she feels a connection to the original Tea Party.

Christen Varley is president of the modern-day Greater Boston Tea Party. The group is planning a rally on the Boston Common. Chris Arnold/NPR hide caption

Christen Varley is president of the modern-day Greater Boston Tea Party. The group is planning a rally on the Boston Common.

"The root of it is we believe in limited government and personal responsibility and individual liberty — those are our core principles," Varley says.

When it comes to taxes, the Obama administration has actually cut taxes for 95 percent of Americans through a federal income tax credit.

But Varley says she doesn't believe that — no matter what the government says. And regardless, she says she's worried about what's to come with the rising deficit.

Meanwhile, some historians say the modern Tea Party movement has become enough of a force in politics that it will probably garner at least a small mention in the history books.


George Hewes is certainly one of the most well known names when it comes to participants of the famous protest. One of the less known events in his biography was the circumstances of his meeting with John Hancock. When Hewes was a shoemaker apprentice in 1763 he had a chance to repair shoes for John Hancock.

Sometimes the tea party ships are mistakenly called British. In fact only the tea belonged to East India Tea Company but the ships themselves were American. Nantucket was homeport to two ships that were involved in the Boston Tea Party, the Beaver and the Dartmouth. Even though Dartmouth made history for carrying tea it was built for a different purpose – offshore whaling.


What happened at the Boston Tea Party?

Pozadina

The law of bell Townshend Acts 1765 and 1767 did the settlers are displeased about the British decisions on imposing taxes to the colonies without consultation of the Parliament of Westminster. One of the protesters was John Hancock. In 1768, the boat Liberty Hancock was retained by customs officials and smuggling charges against him. John Adams defended the charges were finally dropped. However, Hancock had to face after many other accusations.

Hancock organized a boycott of tea from China and sold by the East India Company, sales to the colonies which fell from 145,000 kg to 240 kg. Since 1773 the company had large debts, large stocks of deposits and has no prospect of sales, as smugglers Hancock expensive imported tea without paying tariffs. The British government approved the Tea Act, which allowed the East India Company to sell tea to the colonies directly, without paying any customs duty or tax in Britain in exchange for colonial pay the tariff, which was much smaller . This suspension of taxes allowed the Company to sell at prices lower than those offered by the merchant colonists and smugglers.

The settlers, especially wealthy smugglers, offended by the favorable treatment to a company that had acted as a lobby and had exerted great influence in Parliament. As a result, there were protests in Philadelphia and New York, but were demonstrations that took place in Boston that marked history. Still recovering from the incident of “letters of Hutchinson,” the settlers of Boston suspected that the new tax on tea was simply another attempt by the British parliament to bring down the colonial autonomy. Samuel Adams, prosperous smugglers and others who had profited from the smuggling of tea, demanded to representatives and agents of the East India Company to abandon their posts. The agents who doubted were frightened with attacks on their deposits and even their homes.

The first of many boatloads of tea East India Company was the HMS Dartmouth, who arrived in late November 1773. At that time, found themselves in an impasse between the port authorities and Sons Freedom. Samuel Adams Aviv increasing multitude demanding a series of protest meetings. Thousands attended these meetings from the city and outlying areas, each larger than the last meeting. Crowds cried not only disobey the British Parliament, the East India Company and the HMS Dartmouth, but the governor Thomas Hutchinson, who fought because you were downloaded. The night of December 16, the assembly protesting the Old South Meeting House in Boston was the largest seen before. It is estimated that around 8,000 people attended.

Događaji

The evening of the same day, put up movement. Before you download tea, the Sons of Liberty (according to sources, between 60 and 150 people) is disguised as Mohawk Indians, leaving the great assembly of protest and Griffin drove the dock, where they were Dartmouth and Beaver and newly arrived ships Eleanour. Quickly and effectively armed with axes and knives, and esporuguiren sailors climbed up boxes of wine on the deck (reasonable evidence that some of the “Indians” were actually longshoremen). Opened the boxes and threw the tea overboard. The study, which lasted well into the night, take less than three hours, was thorough and effective. At dawn on 45 tons of tea, with an estimated value of £ 10,000 had been spilled in the waters of Boston Harbor. are not damaged or stole anything, except a padlock broken accidentally and replaced anonymously shortly after. Tea fleet on the shores around Boston for weeks.

Reaction

The event attracted much criticism from officials of the colony as British. For example, Benjamin Franklin declared that the cost of tea was to be reimbursed and offered to pay it with their own money. From the metropolis were carried out repressive measures against the colonies: The British government closed the port of Boston in 1774 as retaliation and declared a state of emergency, restoring other laws known as the Intolerable Acts, also called “coercive laws “or” Punitive Laws. ” However, a number of settlers was inspired to carry out similar acts such as the burning of the boat Peggy Stewart. The Boston Tea Party, over time, proved to be one of several causes that led to the War of Independence of the United States. At least this riot and the reaction that followed served to consolidate the support of the revolutionaries Thirteen Colonies that eventually were successful war of independence.

Regarding the consumption of tea, many colonists in Boston and elsewhere in the country, swore not to take this drink as a sign of protest, preferring other herbal teas and coffee. However, this social protest movement against the tea consumption was not lasting.

International Influence

What happened at the Boston Tea Party is known worldwide and was an inspiration for other rebellions. For example, Erik Erikson said in his book Gandhi’s Truths (truths Gandhi) when Mahatma Gandhi met with the viceroy British in 1930, after the Salt March, he took a pinch of salt, free of tariffs from his blanket and said with a smile, that the salt had reminded the famous Boston Tea Party.


Ships of the Boston Tea Party: Eleanor, Beaver, and Dartmouth

The Boston Tea Party was the culmination of a series of events that steadily aroused the ire of colonists who considered themselves British subjects entitled to the same rights and privileges as those who lived in England—rights that included representation in Parliament. England needed money, especially after the French and Indian Wars, and imposed monopolies and taxes—especially on tea, which was a hugely popular commodity—on the American colonists, denying them any recourse. Bostonians submitted to the inequity of the taxation until their resentment motivated them to resist, and on the night of December 16, 1773, they made their historic move.

Everyone knows that the Boston Tea Party was a pivotal point in United States history and that it was the spark that ignited the American Revolution. But how many know that two of the three ships involved were whaleships out of Nantucket?

How the Ships Become Involved in the Boston Tea Party

By the 1770s, Nantucket whalers were hunting sperm whales in the Atlantic off the coasts of South America and Africa and as far south as the Falkland Islands. It was common practice to send whaleships loaded with barrels of spermaceti and oil collected from oilier vessels in the South Atlantic directly to the London market.

Spermaceti was the sperm whale’s most prized oil. The head cavity of the sperm whale-the “case,” averaging two feet in diameter and about six feet deep-could contain upwards of a hundred gallons of this superior oil. It burned more brightly and cleaner than any other substance and was used then mainly for making candles. The manufacturing process of spermaceti candles, an important and lucrative branch of the whaling industry, was a closely guarded secret. Only a handful of colonial candle manufacturers possessed this knowledge, and they attempted to establish a monopoly under the name of the United Company of Spermaceti Candlers. The Nantucket whaleship owners, being shrewd businessmen, knew they would get a better price for the oil in London than what was offered by this cartel in the colonies.

The ship Dartmouth and the brig Dabar were in London in the late sunmmer of 1773. Having discharged their cargoes of oil and spermaceti, their captains-James Hall and Hezekiah Coffin-acting as agents for the ships’ owner, Joseph Rotch, were obligated to find cargoes for the return trip to the colonies, and they accepted the controversial tea. The Dartmouth was loaded with 114 chests of tea, each weighing about 350 pounds, and the Dabar carried 112 chests. The Beaver’s hold also held fine English furniture an English Chippendale side­ chair from that cargo is in the collection of the Nantucket Historical Association.

The donor of the chair is the great, great grandson of Captain Coffin. Presumed line of descent for the chair: Hezekiah Coffin (1741-1779) to Elisabeth Coffin Brown (1763-1843) to Mary Brown Pinkham (1791-1874) to Harriet B. Pinkham Locke (1828-1874) to John Goodwin Locke Jr. (1868-1955).

English Chippendale side chair from the cargo aboard the ship Beaver. Gift of John G. Locke. 1952.2.1

By October 19, 1773, seven colonial ships had departed England for the eight-week voyage to the American ports of Boston, New York, Charleston, and Philadelphia. The ships were carrying almost 600,000 pounds of the East lndia Company’s tea, and the intention was to sell it only to its consignees in the colonies in an attempt to monopolize the tea market.

The Ships Arrive in Boston Harbor

On November 28, 1773, the Dartmouth was the first “tea ship” to arrive in Boston, commanded by Captain James Hall with mate Hodgdon. Upon entering the harbor, Hall proceeded to take the Dartmouth to Rowe’s Wharf. But at the insistence of merchant John Rowe, perhaps with the motive to avoid a violent scene on his property, the Dartmouth was later warped to Griffin’s Wharf. John Rowe was also the owner of the merchant vessel Eleanor. Joseph Rotch’s son, twenty-three-year-old Francis, represented the Dartmouth i Dabar. By law, after having entered the harbor, Rotch had only twenty days to unload his cargoes before the ships would be seized and the cargoes sold at auction to pay the customs duties. Once having entered the harbor, a vessel could not legally set sail again with the cargo still on board without special permission from the governor of Massachusetts.

At a public meeting, Sam Adams, John Hancock, and others, supported by thousands of Boston residents, urged him to return the tea in the same vessels in which it arrived, but Rotch knew that he would not be granted the needed permission from Governor Hutchinson to do so.

The main channel of Boston Harbor was secured by the British with a hundred large cannon on Castle William at the mouth of the harbor and two men-of-war, the Active and Kingfisher. No ship could leave without permission of the governor. When the same “request” was made of Captain Bruce of the Eleanor, he replied, “If l am refused, I am loath to stand the shot of 32 pounders from the Castle.” Over the next twenty days, the tension built as all concerned worried about what would happen on the December 17 deadline.

The Tea Party

On December 16, the eve of the twenty-day deadline, at ten o’clock in the morning, some five thousand of Boston’s fifteen-thousand residents, nearly every male citizen, along with two thousand more from neighboring towns, packed the Old South Meeting House and spilled out into the rainy streets, determined to finally resolve the tea controversy. Francis Rotch was again summoned and ordered by the massive assembly to send the Dartmouth back to London with the tea. He replied, “Gentlemen, I cannot. It is wholly impractical. It would cause my ruin.” He was given until three in the afternoon to obtain a permit from the governor to allow his ship to safely pass under the huge guns of Castle William. The young businessman, anxious to be rid of this offensive cargo and resume his family’s business, complied and rode his horse fifteen miles to meet with Governor Hutchinson who, fearing trouble, had moved from Boston to his summer home in Milton. As expected, the governor refused to grant his permission.

It was dark when Rotch reappeared at the Old South Meeting House, but the meeting was still in progress. Samuel Adams, Joseph Warren, Josiah Quincy, and others had made one rousing speech after another all through the day. The intent crowd became silent when the young Mr. Rotch entered the hall and informed the assembly of the governor’s final decision. Rotch was again asked if he would offload the tea in Boston, he replied, “I have no business doing so, but if I were called upon to do so by the proper persons, I would try to land it for my own security’s sake.”

With that, the famous words rang out, “Who knows how tea will mingle with sea water?” Followed by the shout “Boston Harbor, a teapot tonight,” and “The Mohawks are coming.” With that, Sam Adams proclaimed that nothing more could be done to relieve the situation.

Those shouts were a preplanned signal: It is estimated that sixty to ninety unidentified men hastily blackened their faces and donned blankets and headed for Griffin’s Wharf, followed by most of the citizens of Boston. Thinly disguised as lndians to protect their identities, quickly and quietly, under organized leadership, they boarded each of the ships. Armed with axes and hatchets, they systematically destroyed 342 chests of British tea, weighing over 92,000 pounds, worth over a million dollars in today’s money. Thousands of spectators watched in utter silence. Only the sounds of axes splitting wood could be heard from Boston Harbor during the still, cold, December night. At low tide, with only two to three feet of water in the docks, the tea piled up higher than the ships’ bulwarks. Young boys climbed on the piles of tea to push it over, so that by morning the rising salt water would be sure to spoil all of it, and not one ounce of the forty-two tons of tea could be salvaged.

Since the Dabar had been tied up at Griffin’s Wharf the day before, Captain Coffin of the Dabar was concerned about the safety of his other cargo of fine English furniture, which was loaded on top of the tea chests. He was told, “If you go to your cabin quietly, not one item of your goods will be hurt. The tea we want and the tea we’ll have.” True to their word, the patriots carefully removed all of the inoffensive cargo, and a padlock that was broken was replaced the next day.

The patriots worked feverishly, feating an attack by the Royal Navy’s Admiral Montague at any moment. Three hours later, by nine o’clock, the work was finished. Fearing any connection to their treasonous deed, the patriots took off their shoes and shook them out overboard. They swept the ships’ decks clean, and made each ship’s first mate swear that only the tea was damaged.

Admiral Montague watched the whole affair from a house on Griffin’s Wharf, but gave no orders to stop the “Party.” When all was through, the “Mohawks” marched from the wharf, hatchets and axes resting on their shoulders. A fife played as they paraded past the house where British Admiral Montague had been spying on their work. Montague yelled as they passed, “Well boys, you have had a fine, pleasant evening for your Indian caper, haven’t you? But mind, you have got to pay the fiddler yet!”

Subsequently, John Adams wrote in his diary: “This is the most magnificent Movement of all. There is a Dignity, a Majesty, a Sublimity in this last Effort of the Patriots that I greatly admire. This Destruction of the Tea is so bold, so daring, so firm, intrepid, & inflexible, and it must have so important Consequences and so lasting, that I cannot but consider it as an Epocha in History.”

Governor Hutchinson was shocked, and was correct in his prediction when he said, “This is the boldest stroke which has yet been struck in America …. The body of people had gone too far to recede … and open and general revolt must be the consequence.”

The party was over for Boston, and the path to revolution had begun.

What Became of the Original Boston Tea Party Ships?

In February 1774, the Dabar returned to London with more oil to sell with one of the East India Company’s consignees, Jonathan Clarke, on board. During her stay, her captain, Hezekiah Coffin, died and she was then sold. There are no records about what happened after the sale.

The Dartmouth set sail with Francis Rotch and others who had witnessed the Tea Party with a load of oil for London on January 9, 1774. Rotch, Captain Hall, Clarke, and the other witnesses were summoned to Whitehall by Lord Dartmouth to give testimony regarcting “the late transaction in Boston.” Rotch wished to see how he stood with the East India Company, and did collect his money for the freight. The Dartmouth foundered on the return voyage. The crew was taken off by Timothy Folger or by Shubael Coffin of Nantucket and brought to Boston in November 1774.

There is no record of what became of the Eleanor.

This article was featured in the issue of Historic Nantucket, Winter 2012, Vol. 62, No. 1. Read the full issue here

Leon Poindexter is a master shipwright and marine historic preservationist who builds and restores large wooden sailing vessels, many of which are on the National Register of Historic Places. Mr. Poindexter also served as a historian/consultant and shipwright for the Academy Award-winning film Master and Commander.

The Nantucket Historical Association preserves and interprets the history of Nantucket through its programs, collections, and properties, in order to promote the island’s significance and foster an appreciation of it among all audiences.


Gledaj video: Epizoda 33 - Bostonska cajanka sa Srdjanom Cikijem Orlandicem (Srpanj 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Kajigrel

    In my opinion it already was discussed.

  2. Akigor

    Apsolutno si u pravu. In this nothing in there and I think this is a good idea. Potpuno se slažem s njom.

  3. Loughlin

    Upravo ono što trebate. Good topic, I will participate. Zajedno možemo doći na pravi odgovor.

  4. Aquilino

    Ne sviđa mi se.

  5. Yates

    Yes this is all fiction



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