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Kako je Britanija vladala Šri Lankom?

Kako je Britanija vladala Šri Lankom?


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Kako je Britanija vladala Šri Lankom. Osim Velike pobune, u kojoj je Britansko Carstvo brutalno potisnulo kraljevstvo Kandy, nema mnogo podataka o tome kako je život zaista izgledao pod stranom vlašću, osobito u ranoj polovici 20. stoljeća. Pa kako je zaista bilo biti Cejlonce u prijeratnom razdoblju? Kako su se britanska vladavina usporedila sa životom prije Carstva?


Uništeno?

Britanska je uprava bila korisna za indijsko gospodarstvo. Nakon odlaska Britanaca, indijsko gospodarstvo je jako opalo. 1900. Indija je rangirana na 36. mjestu u svijetu po BDP -u po stanovniku. Danas je na 135. mjestu, odmah ispod Nigerije.

Da stavimo to u perspektivu: da je Indija danas#36, bilo bi usporedivo s Izraelom (#35) i Španjolskom (#33).


Sretan Dan neovisnosti (kratka povijest kolonijalne vladavine)

Šri Lanka danas slavi 67. dan neovisnosti. Spominje se davanje samouprave Cejlonskoj vladavini od Britanskog Carstva 4. veljače 1948. godine.

Portugalska era

Europske su sile prvi put stupile u kontakt s otokom 1505., kada Lourenso de AlmeidaPortugalsku flotu uhvatila je oluja i izbacila na obalu u Galleu. Flota je kasnije stigla u Colombo (luka najbliža tadašnjoj prijestolnici Šri Lanke, Kotte), a zatim je tamo pokrenula trgovačko mjesto, koje je na kraju postalo utvrda Colombo.

Portugalci su se miješali u unutarnju borbu za moć između šrilankanskih prinčeva, u kojoj se kraljevstvo podijelilo na tri frakcije: kraljevstva Kotte, Sitawaka i Raigama. Sitawaka je pripojio Raigamu, a Kotte je postala marionetska država Portugalaca. Na kraju su Portugalci počeli kontrolirati većinu obalnih područja otoka, te unosnu trgovinu začinima (osobito cimetom), u to vrijeme najvažnijem izvozu Šri Lanke. Kraljevstvo Sitawaka sudjelovalo je u brojnim vojnim sukobima s Portugalcima, od kojih je najznačajnije opsada Colomba pod Rajasingha I u kojem su Portugalci bili gotovo poraženi.

Slika opsade na časničkom stolu, topnička pukovnija, Panagoda. Nacrtala iznimno talentirana Prasanna Weerakkody (pogledajte njegovu stranicu!). Obratite pažnju na Kodithuwakku koristila lokalna milicija, kao i Zastava Kotte (Lav drži bič, označavajući pravdu).

Kandy

Kandy, u središnjim brdima, bila je dobro branjena kaštel okružena jala dhurga, giri dhurga i wana dhurga (trostruke prepreke vode, planina i guste džungle). Postao je istaknut za vrijeme vladavine kralja Vimaladharmasurija I (vladao 1590. - 1604.), koji se borio protiv dvostruke prijetnje Portugalaca i Sitawake. Učvrstio je svoju moć tako što je preuzeo skrbništvo nad relikvijom Zupca i upisao je u novosagrađenu Daladu Maligawa u Kandyju, te ponovno uveo budističko ređenje na otoku slanjem misije u Burmu. Krajem 1590 -ih, Kraljevstvo Kandy bilo je posljednje preživjelo lokalno društvo: Sitawaka se raspala nakon smrti Rajasinghe I, a Kraljevstvo Jaffna postalo je država klijent Portugalaca.

Zastava Kandijskog kraljevstva

Kandijanci su zadržali unutrašnjost Šri Lanke unatoč mnogim pokušajima Portugalaca da je zauzmu. Impresivne vojne pobjede kod Randeniwele (1630) i Gannoruwe (1638) ozbiljno su oslabile portugalsku vlast na otoku. Nizozemska istočnoindijska tvrtka kasnije je stupila u savez s kraljem Kandyja (to je bio produžetak Osamdesetogodišnjeg rata u Europi), iako je sporazum povremeno posustao, združene snage uspjele su potjerati Portugalce iz svih obalnih područja do 1658. Tvrđava Galle pala je 1640. godine i sljedećih je 18 godina bila središte nizozemske moći na Šri Lanki. Kolombo je pao 1656.

Nizozemski Cejlon i Nayakkari

Sporazum dviju strana brzo se raspao nakon pobjede, pa su Nizozemci na kraju držali većinu zemlje koju su ranije držali Portugalci. Bilo je nekoliko razdoblja sukoba između Kandijanaca i Nizozemaca, ali nizozemska vladavina nastavila se do kraja 1790 -ih.

Pečat nizozemske istočnoindijske tvrtke, iz tvrđave Galle

Posljednji domaći kralj, Sri Vira Parakrama Narendrasingha, umro je 1739. godine bez zakonitog nasljednika. Prijestolje je potom prešlo na njegovog šogora, Sri Vijaya Rajasingha, princa Nayakkara iz Južne Indije. Došlo je do znatnih trvenja između domaće Kandijanske aristokracije i Nayakkara, pri čemu se potonji smatraju elitom iznad moćnih Kandyan Adigara.

Ozbiljne pobune 1732., 1749. i 1760. prijetile su da razore kraljevstvo. U prvoj polovici 1760 -ih, kraljevstvo je pokrenulo katastrofalnu vojnu kampanju protiv Nizozemaca koja je rezultirala gubitkom cijelog obalnog teritorija, a Kandy je postala entitet bez izlaza na more, odsječen od stranih kontakata.

Britanski

Tijekom Napoleonovih ratova u Europi Nizozemska je pripala Francuskoj. Nizozemske posjede diljem svijeta, uključujući obalnu Šri Lanku, Britanija je ili prenijela ili zauzela (odakle je nizozemsko vodstvo pobjeglo). Britanci su došli kontrolirati obalnu Šri Lanku u doba kada je unutarnja politika Kandijanskog kraljevstva bila u krizi, zbog rastućeg raskola između domaće aristokracije i Nayakkara. Britanci su pokušali invaziju 1803. godine, ali je stranka bila razorena nedostatkom hrane, bolestima i taktikom pogotka koji su koristili gerilski borci Kandyan. Nemirno primirje sklopljeno je 1805. godine.

Posljednji kralj i njegova kraljica

To je ipak bio početak kraja Kandijanskog kraljevstva, budući da je pobuna 1808. skoro svrgnula kralja Šri Vikrama Rajasinha. Njegov vlastiti šef Adigar, Pilimathalawa, s Britancima je planirao svrgnuti kralja i preuzeti prijestolje za sebe. Ove su zavjere otkrivene i on je pogubljen. Njegov nasljednik, Adigar Ehelepola, također je optužen za izdaju. Uspio je pobjeći Britancima, no njegova supruga i mala djeca brutalno su pogubljeni u Kandyju. Madumma Bandara, drugi sin Ehelepole, postao je narodni heroj zbog svoje hrabrosti pred krvnikom. Kip u njegovu spomen stoji ispred Dalade Maligawe u Kandyju.

Madduma Bandara imala je 8 godina

Ti su događaji doveli do potpune pobune među općim stanovništvom, a Britanci su napali Kandy 1815. Supruga kralja i kraljice zarobljena je i prognana u utvrdu Vellore u Indiji. Zatvorska ćelija koja ga je držala u Colombu i dalje stoji. Britanci su potpisali Kandjansku konvenciju s Kandyan disawes (moćno plemstvo zaduženo za upravljanje provincijama) čime je Kandy postala protektorat, očuvajući njezin sustav vlasti i običaja.

Magul Maduwa, iza Dalade Maligawe u Kandyju, bio je mjesto gdje je sjedio kraljevski dvor. Tamo je također 2. marta 1815. potpisana Kandjanska konvencija.

Prvi borci: Uva i Matale

Nezadovoljstvo britanskom vladavinom (i njihovo zanemarivanje lokalne vjere i običaja) uskoro je preraslo u otvorenu pobunu, počevši od Uve. Britanski odgovor bio je oštar, a civilno stanovništvo i ogromno poljoprivredno zemljište Uva-Wellassa bili su devastirani.

Još jedna od Prasanninih slika, koja prikazuje brutalno uništenje pobune Uva 1818.

Šteta je što nema zaostalih dokaza koji bi pokazali točno stanje u Uvi u smislu razvoja stanovništva ili poljoprivrede nakon pobune. Novi vladari ne mogu doći do bilo kakvog zaključka o točnoj situaciji u Uvi prije pobune jer nema tragova dokaza koji bi došli do takvih zaključaka. Ako je tisuće poginulo u bitci, svi su oni bili neustrašivi i pametni borci. Ako uzmemo u obzir da preostalih 4/5 stanovnika nakon bitke čine djeca, žene i stari ljudi, nastala je pustoš neograničena. Ukratko, ljudi su izgubili živote i sve druge vrijedne stvari. Sumnjivo je je li se Uva barem sada oporavio od katastrofe.

Herbert White, agent britanske vlade u Badulli

Keppetipola Disawe , vođi pobune, odrubljena je glava ispred Dalade Maligawe u Kandyju. Njegova lubanja odnesena je u Edinburgh, ali je 1954. vraćena u Šri Lanku i ukopana u spomen obilježje Keppetipola. Protektorat je ukinut, a cijela je Šri Lanka došla pod izravnu britansku kolonijalnu vlast.

Godine 1848. Kandijanci su ponovno bili u uzbuđenom stanju. Britanci su preuzeli njihovu zemlju kako bi zasadili kavu, a ljudima je nametnuto veliko izravno oporezivanje. Veera Puran Appu predvodio je pobunu Matale 1848., ali su je Britanci ubrzo slomili i pogubili pobunjenike. Bio je poznat po tome što je uglavnom bio pobuna predvođena seljacima.

Samoupravljanje

Do proboja na putu prema samoodređenju došlo je imenovanjem britanske socijalistice Sidney Webb za britanskog državnog tajnika za kolonijalna pitanja. To je dovelo do Komisije Donoughmore, koja je donijela novi ustav za Šri Lanku 1931. Po prvi put, kolonija u kojoj nije dominiralo bijelo stanovništvo dobila je opće pravo glasa i predstavničku demokraciju. Imajte na umu da je Šri Lanka također imala opće pravo glasa čak i prije Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva i Sjedinjenih Američkih Država.

Ustav je imao za cilj riješiti jedinstvene multikulturalne izazove sa kojima se Šri Lanka suočila imenovanjem odbora koji predstavljaju sve zajednice koji će biti zaduženi za svaki predmet, umjesto ministara i kabinetskog modela stranačke demokracije. Većinom lokalnih poslova bavilo se državno vijeće, dajući Šri Lanki izvanrednu mjeru samoodređenja s obzirom na tadašnje okruženje, iako su kolonijalne vlasti i dalje zadržale pravo veta na sve zakone.

Uključeni su i značajni vođe pokreta za neovisnost ovog doba Sir Ponnambalam Arunachchalam, Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan, A. E. Gunasinha, F. R. Senanayake, E. W. Perera i pjesnik redovnik iz Sikkima, S. Mahinda Thero .

1944, Sir Ivor Jennings (autoritet za ustavno pravo i legendarni prvi vicekancelar Sveučilišta u Ceylonu) pomogao je D. S. Senanayake izraditi nacrt ustava po Westminsterskom modelu. Pod određenim pritiskom lorda Mountbattena, imenovano je povjerenstvo, a do 1947. stupio je na snagu novi Soulburyjev ustav. Održani su opći izbori, a gospodin Senanayake imenovan je prvim premijerom. Šri Lanka je stekla neovisnost u okviru Britanskog komonvelta 4. veljače 1948. godine.

Proslave su održane na Trgu neovisnosti, u privremenom ograđenom prostoru jer Spomen -dvorana nezavisnosti još nije bila izgrađena. Prisustvovali su razni uglednici, uključujući princa Henryja, vojvodu od Gloucestera.

Rijetki snimci proslave neovisnosti 1948. iz nedavno objavljene kolekcije British Pathe

Zastava Kandyana izmijenjena je s dvije dodatne pruge kako bi predstavljala tamilsku i muslimansku zajednicu, a postala je nacionalna zastava 1950. Ananda Samarakoonova Šri Lanka Matha (izvorno Namo Namo Matha, Apa Šri Lanka ) postala je nacionalna himna 1951.

Šri Lanka je postala republika 1972. godine, konačno postala potpuno neovisna i prekinula sve ustavne veze s Ujedinjenim Kraljevstvom, uključujući zajedničkog monarha i ovlaštenja Tajnog vijeća. Nekoliko godina 22. svibnja slavio se kao Dan Republike, državni praznik koji je zamijenio Dan neovisnosti, ali ta praksa nije preživjela promjenu vlasti i ustava u drugoj polovici 1970 -ih.

Dan neovisnosti dan je razmišljanja za Šri Lankance. Koliko god bio težak put nakon osamostaljenja Šri Lanke, ipak smo se uspjeli ukopati i olujno vrijeme. Neiskorišteni potencijal zemlje i njezinog naroda ogroman je i nadamo se da ćemo nastaviti ispunjavati visoke ambicije i skromne težnje ljudi koji su se borili za naše pravo na slobodu.


Drevna Šri Lanka

Šri Lanka je važno trgovačko i lučko mjesto u antičkom svijetu. Otok su posjetili trgovački brodovi iz Perzije, Bliskog istoka, Burme, Malezije i Indonezije.

Šri Lanka je bila dobro poznata prvoj skupini istraživača jugoistočne Azije. Mnogi malajski trgovci i Arapi naselili su se na Šri Lanki.

Portugalska kolonijalna misija koja je na čelu s Lourencom de Almeidom stigla na otoke Šri Lanku 1505. godine. Tadašnji otok imao je 3 kraljevstva koja su uključivala: Yarlpanam, Kandy i Kotte.

U sedmom stoljeću Nizozemci su stigli na Šri Lanku. Većina je otoka u to vrijeme bila pod europskom vlašću, ali unutarnja, brdovita regija otoka bila je neovisna, tadašnji glavni grad je bio Kandy.

Kontrolu nad otokom uspostavila je britanska istočnoindijska tvrtka 176. devedeset i šest. proglasili su otoke krunskom kolonijom.

Kraljevstvo Kandy osjeća se u Osamnaest i petnaest, što je rezultiralo ujedinjenjem otoka pod britanskom vlašću.

Europski kolonist postavio je na Otoku plantaže cimeta, šećera, čaja, gume, kave. Britanci su na rad u plantaže doveli brojne radnike iz Tamil Nadua.

grad Colombo tada je uspostavljen kao administrativno središte u Šri Lanki. Također su osnovali moderne fakultete, škole, crkve i puteve koji su u Šri Lanku unijeli obrazovanje zapadnog stila.

Zlostavljanje, zlouporaba domorodaca i uskraćivanje građanskih prava doveli su do borbe za neovisnost u trideset tridesetih godina. Otok je služio kao važna vojna baza saveznicima tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata.

Veliki broj američke i britanske flote i vojnika bio je raspoređen na Otok u borbi protiv rata protiv Japana.


Nakon rata ostali su ožiljci

Mnoge zamjerke oko sustavnih predrasuda koje su dovele do građanskog rata ostaju nerazriješene.

Tamilske obitelji još uvijek traže tisuće ljudi nestalih tijekom rata i pokušavaju povratiti zemljište koje još uvijek drži vojska. Zdravstvene službe pokušavaju riješiti ogromnu traumu ostavljenu tim desetljećima nasilja.

S porastom sinhalskog budističkog nacionalizma, sektaške podjele nastavile su rasti - a zemlja je doživjela nove valove nasilja. Porast netolerancije djelomično se pripisuje poslijeratnom trijumfalizmu nekih političara većine Sinhalea.

Prošle su godine dužnosnici proglasili izvanredno stanje u središnjem okrugu Kandy nakon što su budističke mafije napale tvrtke i domove manjinskih muslimana.


Građanski rat u Šri Lanki i njegova povijest, ponovno posjećen 2020

9. lipnja 2020. Šri Lankanci su okupirali ulice ispred američkog veleposlanstva u glavnom gradu Šri Lanke, Colombu, u znak solidarnosti s pokretom Black Lives Matter, držeći znakove koji osuđuju rasizam, policijsku brutalnost i druge bolesti koje muče Sjedinjene Države. Socijalna pitanja Šri Lanke također su izašla na vidjelo na ovom prosvjedu. Zemlja, na kraju krajeva, ima svoju povijest etničkih sukoba i trenutno se popravlja nakon završetka dugog, brutalnog građanskog rata. Dok se nacija pokušava izliječiti, Šri Lanka nastavlja trpjeti nove ozljede svojih društvenih i političkih struktura koje otkrivaju mnogo veće sistemske probleme. Policija je stigla na demonstracije i nasilno rastjerala prosvjednike-uhitivši najmanje 53 osobe-navodno radi provođenja zdravstvenih ograničenja povezanih s epidemijom COVID-19. Međutim, policijska žestina bila je uznemirujuća. Neki su snimci, na primjer, "pokazivali kako mladu ženu ubacuju u policijsko vozilo, prvu glavu". Jedan od organizatora prosvjeda, Pubudu Jayagoda, naznačio je da je vlada Šri Lanke "umanjivala zdravstvene rizike od koronavirusa", implicirajući da je policija možda imala skrivene motive i otkrila njegovo razočaranje vladinom policijskom moći. Takvo rastuće razočarenje u vladu Šri Lanke predstavlja samo jedan problem u povijesti etničkih tenzija u zemlji.

Sadašnjost Šri Lanke progone sjećanja na višedecenijski građanski rat na otoku, koji je započeo 1983., a završio prije nešto više od 10 godina. Rat je uglavnom bio sukob između vlade Šri Lanke u kojoj su dominirali Sinhali i pobunjeničke skupine Oslobodilački tigrovi Tamil Eelama (LTTE), od kojih se potonja nadala da će uspostaviti zasebnu državu za tamilsku manjinu. Glavni narativ sugerira da je građanski rat izveden iz napetosti između sinhalskih i tamilskih etničkih skupina. Međutim, rat je također predstavljao naslijeđe britanskog imperijalizma. Ova alternativna analiza sugerira da su etnički sukobi bili simptomi mnogo većeg problema, odbacujući previše pojednostavljenu priču da je Šri Lanka dom ljudi koji se neprestano sukobljavaju zbog etničkih nespojivosti. Umjesto toga, analiza koja okružuje naslijeđe britanskog imperijalizma prihvaća ideju da sukob Šri Lanke ima mnogo veze sa svakom grupom koja se bori za povratak svog dostojanstva i moći, iako na štetu druge. Postkolonijalna analiza otkriva da su i Sinhalezi i Tamili djelovali kako bi povratili ono za što su vjerovali da su izgubili tijekom svoje odgovarajuće zlatne ere, imperijalne vladavine za Sinhale i nedugo nakon toga za Tamile. Sadašnji trenuci poput prosvjeda 9. lipnja više ne iznenađuju i jasno se usklađuju s širom poviješću Šri Lanke prema ovom tumačenju. Možda je još važnije, ova postkolonijalna priča sugerira da sukobi u Šri Lanki nisu u prošlosti, već se sukobi nastavljaju manifestirati kroz vladino vodstvo u trenucima nalik prosvjedima u Colombu.

Priča o porijeklu

Šri Lanka je 74,9 posto Sinhalaca i 11,2 posto Šri Lanke Tamila. Unutar ove dvije skupine, Sinhalezi su obično budisti, a Tamili hinduisti, pokazujući značajne jezične i vjerske podjele. Međutim, sukobi između terena navodno su započeli mnogo dalje u povijesti naselja Šri Lanke. Iako je dolazak Sinhalaca na Šri Lanku donekle dvosmislen, povjesničari vjeruju da su Tamili na otok stigli i kao osvajači i kao trgovci iz indijskog kraljevstva Chola. Ove priče o podrijetlu ukazuju na to da su zajednice Sinhala i Tamila od samog početka iskusile napetost - ne zbog kulturne nekompatibilnosti, već zbog sporova oko moći.

Tijekom britanske imperijalne vladavine napetosti između dviju skupina pogoršale su se. CIA je 1985. sugerirala da se sinhalska zajednica osjećala ugroženom zbog prosperiteta tamilske grupe dijelom zbog britanskog favoriziranja Tamila tijekom britanske okupacije Šri Lanke. Budući da su tamilske zajednice postojale i u nekoliko drugih britanskih kolonija poput Indije, Južne Afrike i Singapura, šrilankanski Tamili imali su koristi od šire trgovačke mreže i šireg spektra mogućnosti. Štoviše, britanske kolonijalne vlasti često su smještale škole engleskog jezika u pretežno tamilska područja, pružajući Tamilima više državne službe i profesionalnih mogućnosti od svojih kolega iz Sinhale. Ovaj obrazac favoriziranja Tamila ostavio je Sinhalese da se osjećaju izolirano i potlačeno. Unatoč napetosti između ovih skupina prije britanske kolonizacije, događaji koji su uslijedili nakon neovisnosti Šri Lanke sugeriraju da je imperijalna vlast izazvala sukob koji je uslijedio. Doista, ubrzo nakon što su britanski okupatori napustili otok 1948., ti su se obrasci dominacije Tamila dramatično promijenili.

Priča se obrće

Nakon britanske neovisnosti, mnogi su se Sinhali probili u viši nivo vlasti. Ti su Sinhali dobili moć i nastavili postupno donositi akte koji su učinkovito obespravljivali njihove tamilske kolege. Jedan od takvih činova bio je Zakon o samo Sinhali, zakon iz 1956. godine koji je sinhalski učinio jedinim službenim jezikom Šri Lanke i stvorio prepreke tamilskim ljudima koji pokušavaju pristupiti državnim službama ili traže javno zaposlenje. Bivša predsjednica Šri Lanke Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga akt koji je njezin otac donio uokviruje kao potez njegovanja i vraćanja identiteta Šri Lanke nakon duljeg razdoblja britanske vladavine. Ako su Kumaratungine izjave o zakonodavstvu njezina oca iskrene i točne, njezin komentar može otkriti da su se tadašnji zakonodavci nadali povratku dostojanstva svoje sinhalske nacionalnosti za koju su smatrali da je izgubljena tijekom britanske imperijalne vladavine - a ne da su htjeli aktivno minimizirati tamilsku kulturu. Retrospektivno, međutim, minimiziranje tamilske kulture je upravo ono što su zakoni postigli.

Druga relevantna politika bila je politika standardizacije, koja je imala za cilj pružiti više obrazovnih mogućnosti za učenike u nepovoljnom položaju Sinhalese. Politika je od tamilskih studenata zahtijevala postizanje boljih bodova ispita od svojih sinhalskih kolega kako bi bili primljeni na sveučilišta u Šri Lanki. Zakonodavci su stvorili program koji je nalikovao afirmativnoj akciji za Sinhale, kojima je nedostajalo mogućnosti i bili su u nepovoljnom položaju za vrijeme britanske carske vladavine. Ipak, kada je spojena sa Zakonom o jedinoj sinhali, standardizacija je iskoristila mogućnosti tamilskih studenata, od kojih se nekoliko okrenulo obrazovnim mogućnostima kako bi nadoknadilo nedostatak svojih mogućnosti za profesionalnu državnu službu. Stoga ovaj zakon koji je donijela vlada u kojoj dominiraju Sinhali nije uspio izjednačiti uvjete, već je promijenio izglede u drugom smjeru i učinkovito diskriminirao tamilske studente. Navodno su ta etnička trvenja imala korijene u društvenoj destabilizaciji uzrokovanoj britanskom okupacijom, a imala su više veze s povratkom moći i dostojanstva Sinhala nego s kulturnim napetostima između Tamila i Sinhalaca. Uprkos tome, ubrzo je nekoliko militantnih šrilankanskih Tamila organiziralo pobunu.

Sam rat

Neki Tamili su na ovu diskriminatornu politiku odgovorili idejom Tamil Eelama, zasebne države za Tamile. Iako se čini da je ideja ekstremna, dvije su skupine već živjele u pomalo odvojenim sferama zemlje: Sinhalezi u južnoj, zapadnoj i središnjoj Šri Lanki i Tamili u sjevernim i istočnim dijelovima otoka. Tamil Eelam je namjeravao formalizirati ovo postojeće geografsko razdvajanje. Pokret je izgrađen na ideji da Tamili i Sinhalezi predstavljaju različite etničke skupine u Šri Lanki. Međutim, postkolonijalna bi misao sugerirala da temeljni razlozi i za sinhalske i za tamilske akcije u neposrednom postkolonijalnom razdoblju nisu posljedica neodrživih razlika, već želje za moći u svim zajednicama zemlje i osjećaja frustracije zbog nedostatka mogućnosti uzrokovane čimbenicima na koje grupe ne mogu utjecati.

Unatoč tome, Tamili su imali miješane reakcije na koncept Eelama. Dok je nekolicina grupa podržavala Tamil Eelam, prevladala je samo jedna: Tigrovi oslobođenja Tamil Eelama (LTTE). LTTE je uništio druge nadobudne skupine Eelam poput Oslobodilačke organizacije Tamil Eelam (TELO) kako bi postao "jedini predstavnik Tamila". Sukob je potom prerastao u građanski rat. Rat je službeno počeo nakon jednog dana nemira usmjerenih protiv Tamila u Colombu u srpnju 1983., mjesec koji je od tada nazvan "Crni srpanj". Borbe su trajale nešto manje od tri desetljeća i završile su u svibnju 2009., kada je vlada Šri Lanke objavila da je ubila vođu LTTE -a.

LTTE je bila beskompromisna skupina inspirirana Che Guevarrom i njegovom taktikom gerilskog ratovanja. Američki Federalni istražni ured (FBI) ubrzo je označio LTTE kao terorističku skupinu nakon što su pokrenuli terorističku taktiku, uključujući bombaše samoubojice, pojas samoubojica i samoubilačke napade pod vodstvom žena. Grupa je čak ubila dva svjetska lidera: indijskog premijera Rajiva Gandhija i predsjednika Šri Lanke Ranasinghea Premadasu. Doista, aktivnosti LTTE -a proširile su se izvan granica Šri Lanke. Međutim, LTTE nije bio jedini počinitelj groznih zločina tijekom građanskog rata u Šri Lanki. Visoki povjerenik UN-a za ljudska prava utvrdio je da je vlada u kojoj dominiraju Sinhali također umiješana u ratne zločine poput mučenja ratnih zarobljenika i nestanaka građana. U jednom izrazito brutalnom primjeru, vladine snage ubile su pet tamilskih studenata u lučkom gradu Trincomalee. Ti su sukobi, ukorijenjeni u potrazi za moći i dostojanstvom, prešli u brutalno nasilje s obje strane, a sjećanja na to nasilje progone zemlju i danas.

Situacija sada i ponovljeni prosvjedi

Iako je građanski rat završio 2009., trenutna situacija u Šri Lanki samo se djelomično popravila. Veliki dio tamilskog stanovništva i dalje je raseljen. Iako je sve manje pitanja političkih i građanskih prava, primjeri mučenja i prisilnih nestanaka prisutni su čak i posljednjih godina. Štoviše, vlada Šri Lanke često prati i prati ljude povezane s LTTE -om. Vojska Šri Lanke i dalje zauzima pretežno tamilska područja označena kao "zone visoke sigurnosti", iako u manjoj mjeri nego tijekom rata. Vladin Zakon o sprječavanju terorizma (PTA) uglavnom cilja na Tamile. U suptilnijem smislu, vlada Šri Lanke nastavlja obespravljivati ​​tamilsku zajednicu. Kroz proces „sinhalizacije“, na primjer, sinhalska kultura polako je zamijenila kulturu tamilskog stanovništva. Sinahleski spomenici, putokazi, nazivi ulica i sela, kao i budistička bogomolja postali su uobičajeniji u pretežno tamilskim područjima. Ti su napori narušili, a u nekim slučajevima čak i izbrisali, tamilsku perspektivu povijesti Šri Lanke, kao i tamilske i hinduističke elemente kulture zemlje.

Fotografija Agnieszka Kowalczyk / Unsplash

Možda se sukob pretvorio u etničko pitanje, ali nije tako počeo. Možda ni to neće ostati tako. Vlada Šri Lanke otuđila je tamilsku manjinu od završetka građanskog rata, ali je u novije vrijeme razočarala i svoju izbornu jedinicu Sinhalese. Vladini postupci od završetka građanskog rata postali su sve nedemokratskiji za Tamile i Sinhale. Njezin odgovor na prosvjede Black Lives Matter, na primjer, bio je samo posljednji primjer u kojem je vlada imala neviđenu količinu moći. Vlada Šri Lanke počela je jačati svoju moć tijekom građanskog rata - sukoba koji je proizašao iz etničkih napetosti ukorijenjenih u naslijeđu britanskog imperijalizma na otoku. Vlada nastavlja širiti svoja ovlaštenja i sada mnogo godina kasnije. Nejasno je što to znači za budućnost Šri Lanke. Ipak, jedno je sigurno: čak i ako zacijele rane uzrokovane građanskim ratom u Šri Lanki i pratećim etničkim podjelama, zemlju će i dalje proganjati mnogo veća strukturna pitanja u njezinoj povijesti i vladi. Međutim, jedinstveno građanstvo u Šri Lanki moglo bi biti moćno oruđe u odgovoru na rastuću moć njene vlade. Etničko jedinstvo na otoku moglo bi biti ključ sigurnije budućnosti.


Zašto Britanski licemjeri ignoriraju svoje ratne zločine?

Britanski parlament će 18. ožujka imati opsežnu raspravu o Izvješću Visokog povjerenika UN-a za ljudska prava s ciljem da se Vlada Šri Lanke, njezina mehanizacija i visoki dužnosnici pozovu na odgovornost za navodne ratne zločine u prošloj godini. dana rata protiv terorizma koji je završio 18. svibnja 2009.

Netko upoznat s velikim brojem zločina počinjenih tijekom britanskog kolonijalnog razdoblja na Šri Lanki (1796.-1948.) Možda ne zna treba li se smijati ili plakati zbog ove rasprave u britanskom parlamentu.

Jedna je od velikih ironija našeg doba da su zemlje koje su proganjale i nastavljaju proganjati bivše kolonije, poput Šri Lanke, gdje god je to bilo moguće u svakom kutku i kutku sustava UN-a, uglavnom iste zemlje koje su sustavno uništili civilizacijske temelje kolonija i povrijedili ljudska prava podanika u europskim kolonijama u Aziji i Africi.

U Šri Lanki tri glavne europske kolonijalne zemlje su Portugal, Nizozemska i Britanija. Svaka od ovih zemalja besramno izbjegava što se tiče odgovornosti za zločine koje su počinili njihovi kolonijalni vladari u Šri Lanki.

Pitanja odgovornosti ne bi se trebala pretvoriti u jednosmjernu ulicu. Time će i međunarodno pravo, Ujedinjeni narodi, pa čak i britanski parlament postati na lošem glasu i potaknuti pitanja vjerodostojnosti.

Upravo je objavljena nova knjiga pod naslovom ‘Borba slobode za Šri Lanku – Naučene lekcije i put naprijed ’ u kojoj se prilično sveobuhvatno govori o britanskoj odgovornosti za niz pogrešnih radnji. U izdanju Godage International Printers, glavni urednik je profesor C.M. Madduma Bandara, poznata polaznica Sveučilišta Cambridge. Knjiga sadrži neke korisne informacije i analize od značaja za sadašnje poteškoće s kojima se Šri Lanka suočava na međunarodnoj sceni.

Poglavlje o ‘Kolonijalnim zločinima britanskog Cejlona ’ odvjetnice Senake Weeraratna, prikuplja opsežne dokaze o zločinima protiv čovječnosti koje su počinili britanski kolonijalni vladari. Gradi snažan slučaj koji opravdano može postati temelj za traženje odštete. Između ostalih poglavlja, ona posljednja o budućim scenarijima i ‘Prodaj naprijed ’, nesumnjivo bi se mogla pokazati korisnima za današnje političko vodstvo. Njegova buduća prognoza jednako je snažna jer koristi neke metodologije razvoja scenarija.

Knjiga također otkriva neke rijetke povijesne izvore poput Izvještaja britanskog parlamentarnog izabranog odbora iz 1850. godine##8217, koji je našao zamjerku britanskom guverneru, odnosno vikontu Torringtonu, zbog njegovog suučesništva u brutalnom i nehumanom suzbijanju pobune Matale 1848. godine. Stotine nevinih civila izgubilo je živote u kaznenim ekspedicijama koje je pokrenula Kolonijalna vlada pod nadzorom Torringtona u područjima Kandyana.

Cijeneći takve pokušaje današnjeg britanskog parlamenta zbog njihove žudnje za daljnjim istraživanjem i ispravljanjem kolonijalnih nepravdi, on također pruža mnoge pouke današnjim parlamentarcima.

Bauk ljudskih prava

Danas Zapad propovijeda ljudska prava, zahtijeva odgovornost i poštivanje općeprihvaćenih standarda o ljudskim pravima. Britanski borci za ljudska prava prstom optužuju Šri Lanku. Ipak, detaljno ispitivanje kolonijalne vladavine na britanskom okupiranom Cejlonu (1796.-1948.) Otkriva tužnu sagu o kršenju ljudskih prava teške vrste poput tiranije, pljačke, zavadi i vladaj, te opakoj politici nasilja i diskriminacije usmjerenoj uglavnom protiv Sinhala budisti i oduzimanje njihove dragocjene naslijeđene zemlje.

Potrebno je iskoristiti međunarodnopravne doktrine 21. stoljeća kako bi se prezentirao slučaj odštete sadašnje britanske vlade za genocid i masovna ubojstva ljudi u Uva-Wellassa 1817.-1820. Ispravljanje povijesnih nepravdi glavna je dužnost svakog naroda koji poštuje sebe. Nezavisnost nikada nije potpuna bez oduzimanja pravde onima kojima je nepravda nanijela nepravedan kolonijalni sustav.

Nacionalni domoljubi Šri Lanke kao što su Keppetipola, Madugalle, Ven. Kudapola Unnanse and several others who were convicted on the footing of a Victor’s (White Man’s) Justice by colonial judges presiding in what was in reality nothing more than Kangaroo Courts, for their leading role in popular uprisings in 1818 and 1848 deserve to be exonerated through public re-trials. The colonial Governors such as Robert Brownrigg, Viscount Torrington, Robert Chalmers and other officials such as George Turnour must be tried posthumously, in a Nuremberg like Trial, for their reprisal killings and drafting harsh laws that were later imitated on a bigger scale by the Third Reich in the massacre of the people of Lidice in Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia in June 1942. Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings. ‘In absentia’ is Latin for ‘in the absence’.

Land grab in Kandyan areas

British injustice was felt mostly in the enactment of waste land laws. Kandyan peasants were made landless. They were reduced to a landless state by the takeover of their lands for the plantation industry (initially coffee, then tea) under a series of waste land laws commencing with the Crown Lands (Encroachments) Ordinance, No. 12 of 1840.

Kandyan chena which traditionally had no documentary proof of ownership was taken over for plantation agriculture. This is demonstrated by the names of estates with older names ending with hena or chena crop names. This affected the food security of the people. Evidence of starvation sometimes resulting in death is revealed in the writings of authors such as Le Merseur. The British systematically transferred the wealth of the Kandyan region into their own coffers.

An accountability process for these colonial crimes is warranted through an apology, catharsis and adequate reparations. An apology must be particularly directed to the descendants of the Sinhala Buddhist Kandyans who were singled out victims of colonial brutalities. These are the descendants of a highly oppressed group of people who were also deprived of their inheritance by the colonial rulers planting thousands of indentured Indian labour in their lands without their consent. 19th century British official documents reveal how the freedom struggles against British colonial rule were suppressed in a most brutal, genocidal manner in one of the darkest pages of European colonial history.

There were two major wars for independence from British colonial domination. The first uprising took place in 1818 in Uva-Wellassa and the second uprising took place in Matale (1848). Both insurrections were brutally crushed. Millewa Adikarange Durand Appuhamy (Rebels, Outlaws and Enemies to the British (Colombo: Gunasena, 1990)), comments as follows in respect to the crushing of the Kandyan Sinhala uprising in 1818:

“This brute force was employed in Kandy to reduce the inhabitants to savages and to dehumanise them. Everything was done to wipe out their traditions, customs, culture and religion. Mind you, the Kandyans were promised that this would not happen, and that their customs and traditions would be maintained (cl. 4, 8 of the Convention). However, Kandyan villages and farms were burnt down. Their paddy-fields were scorched. Their cattle slaughtered and their fruit bearing trees were simply chopped down. Starved and ill, they were finished off with the gun as if they were stray dogs in a stranger’s land. British civilians then flocked in to take over their lands, clear the virgin forests, and convert them to cash crops for the benefit solely of the settlers and their financiers in Britain. To the Kandyans, the most concrete and the foremost in value was land. This land not only gave them their daily bread but also their dignity. It was to preserve this land that they fought off successfully three western imperial nations, Britain included. Now having ceded their country to trickery, they remained helpless against the planters who insolently trampled over their lands and their rights to their lands”.

The crushing of the uprising in Matale in 1848 is described in a nutshell in a remarkable critical article ‘English in Ceylon’ published in USA in 1851 (The United States Magazine and Democratic Review. Print: Vol. XXVIII, No. CLV, – 1851 May). It is as follows:

“The history of Lord Torrington’s administration in Ceylon affords an epitome of English rule, wherever throughout the world, by force, or fraud, or violence, she has succeeded in planting her guilty flag. The horrors perpetrated during 1848 in the island-gem of the East, are the counterpart of those of which, from time to time, during a period of seven centuries, the green isle of the West has been the victim”.

Even the animals were destroyed en masse – elephants the mode of transport used by both King and villager alike for cultivation, tanks, religious processions soon became the target of British huntsmen. Samuel Baker headed the elephant slaughter killing 30-40 elephants on a daily basis.

It is estimated that the British decimated over 10, 000 elephants in Ceylon.

Holocaust of elephants by the British Raj in Sri Lanka

No apology nor any compensation has been paid by any of the Western colonial Governments e.g. Portugal, Netherlands and Britain to Sri Lanka for the destruction of both man-made as well as the natural foundations of life in Sri Lanka over a period of nearly 450 years (1505-1948).

The vastness of the British Empire including the jungles of Sri Lanka was made into a hunting ground for Big Game on the part of members of British military families. They hunted not only for pleasure but also as part of their training for battle and display of their male masculinity. It was the fauna and flora of Sri Lanka that paid a huge price for this training which brought out a new genre – hunting narratives.

There is enough evidence to reveal British complicity in the liquidation of a good part of Sri Lanka’s natural forests in the Kandyan areas and the priceless elephant wealth which was until then greatly protected by Sri Lanka’s animal friendly cultural heritage.

English writer Gary Brecher

An English writer Gary Brecher, author of the book ‘War Nerd’ has written a long article on British crimes in Sri Lanka to a website called ‘Exiled on Line’ under the title ‘When Pigs Fly-and Scold: Brits Lecturing Sri Lanka’.

He accuses the British establishment of destroying the Sinhalese people completely. Completely and deliberately, sadistically. Stole their land, humiliated and massacred their government, made it Imperial policy to erase every shred of self-respect the Sinhalese had left. He says, “You can talk about the Nazis all day long, but nothing they did was as gross as what you find out when you actually look into the history of British-Sinhalese relations. If you can even call them relations I guess a murder-rape is a relation, sort of.”

Making a comparison between Nazi and British atrocities he says that the British were great masters at grabbing some paradise island in the tropics, then using the British Royal Navy to wall it off separating the island from the rest of the world, and crushing the local tribe without any qualms of conscience. If the locals put up a resistance, the Brits would take measures to starve them to death, shoot them down, infect them with smallpox or get them addicted to opium (as in China) – whatever they had to do to gang-rape the locals so bad that they the victims would thereby lose the will to resist.

Brecher points out that the Nazis governed for only one decade but the Brits were able to quietly carry out their extermination programs for 300 years, and to this day they have no remorse nor have any guilty feeling about it.

He further says that by all accounts, the Sinhala/Kandyans were harmless people, who didn’t need or want much from the outside world. All they asked was for people to leave them alone up on their big rocky highlands to indulge in their Buddhist way of life. Unfortunately, that wasn’t British policy. It irked the red coats that Kandy still had a king, an army, all this impudent baggage that went with independence. The British decided to break the Sinhalese completely and crush the whole society”.

By this time, i.e. the early 1800s, the Brits had perfected their techniques in little experiments all over the world. Those Clockwork Orange shrinks were amateurs compared to the Imperial Civil Service. The British Empire knew dozens of ways of undermining and suppressing native kingdoms.

Brecher writing further says that destroying Buddhism was a big part of Brit policy. The Buddhist routine, the temples, begging monks, long boring prayers – it was the glue that kept Kandy together. So, the Brits decided to destroy it. They even said so, in private memos to each other. They weren’t shy in those days. Here’s the Brit governor in 1807: “Reliance on Buddhism must be destroyed. Make sure all [village] chiefs are Christian.”

The British developed ingenious ways of grabbing other people’s lands under various pretexts. For example, the British began invading Australia in 1788, on the footing that it was terra nullius: a land with no owners.

‘Divide and Rule’ colonial policy

European powers like Spain and Portugal depended on bloody conquest and massacres in colonial expansion, especially in South America. Britain was not far behind, given what the British did to Australian Aborigines in Tasmania and mainland Australia. The British were the masters of the game of ‘Divide and Rule’.

The ethnic and religious tensions in Sri Lanka are very much a legacy of colonial rule. If the target country had many ethnic groups or tribes like in India, North America, Fiji, Malaysia, or Sri Lanka, the British first looked for any potential allies that have distinctive differences from other groups, particularly the majority. Then the British undermine the authority of the majority by promoting unfairly selected members of a minority community with a view to creating tension and conflict between various groups.

The appointment of Haji Marikar (Muslim) as the Muhandiram to be in charge of roadways in Wellassa is a case in point. This appointment was resented by the Sinhalese as it undermined the authority of Dissawa Mellewa. This was the spark that led to the 1818 uprising.

British intrigue in Kandy under the directions of successive Governors, namely, North, Maitland and Brownrigg, was also intended to achieve British supremacy in Ceylon as in India, by subduing the Kingdom of Kandy through a vicious campaign of propaganda and character assassination directed against the ruler of the Kandyan Kingdom, King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha. He was demonised. He was accused of being a tyrant. Killer of women and children (of persons who had committed treason). A common punishment for treason in most countries including imperial Britain. A drunkard. And as he was of Indian origin the British discredited his Malabar ancestry as a ploy to alienate him from his Adigars, his chiefs and rejected his right to the throne.

In fairness it must be said that as a young King, Sri Vikrama Rajasinha was popular among the people of his Kingdom. He took charge of the administration which was fair and efficient. He displayed aesthetic sensibility regularly listening to music and commissioned the Royal Architect and Master Craftsman, Devendra Mulachari to design and build the Paththripuwa (1802) and the Kandy Lake (1807), among other novel creations. The King supervised the artists who enlarged and decorated the Kandy City.

Colonialism under three European countries was a dark chapter in the history of Sri Lanka. Much of the problems in the country today particularly ethnic and religious tension have their origin in divisive policies fashioned by the colonial rulers. This Chapter cannot be closed merely because the former colonial countries wish to evade accountability. Reconciliation between the coloniser and colonised can be effective only on the basis of apology, catharsis and reparations for colonial crimes committed in Sri Lanka.

The British Parliament must also listen to the grievances of the Sinhala Buddhist people who resisted colonial invasions more than any other community of the country and for this reason alone were selectively victimised substantially during the era of the Portuguese Inquisition in Ceylon (1505-1658), discriminated against by the Dutch on ground of religion, and made destitute particularly the Kandyan Sinhala peasantry whose lands were grabbed under waste lands laws and denied employment by the import of thousands of Indentured labour from South India to work in tea and coffee plantations of the British.

The people of Sri Lanka still continue to suffer from the cruel legacy of the colonial masters.


In the south of India, there is an island in the Indian Ocean bound by India, which is named Sri Lanka. The distance of the country is only 32 kilometers from India. By 1972, its name was Ceylon, which was changed to Lanka, and in 1978 it was further changed to Sri Lanka by adding the word Sri. Sri Lanka has had an unbroken relationship with India since ancient times. Let’s know some facts in this regard.

Sri Lanka, located in the south of India, had a large number of Hindus. But, presently about 12.60 percent of the population is Hindus. According to DNA research, the Sinhalese people living in Sri Lanka are associated with the North Indian people. The Sinhala lingo is correlated with the Gujarati and Sindhi languages. The previous 3000 years of the written history or narrative of Sri Lanka is obtainable. There has been an indication of human territories in Sri Lanka about 125,000 years ago. Buddhist scripts concocted at the time of the fourth Buddhist association in 29 BC have been established.

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  • According to the Hindu mythical chronology, Lord Shiva have inhabited Sri Lanka. Vishwakarma had constructed a gold palace in Sri Lanka for Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati on the orders of Lord Shiva himself. Sage Vishrava took benefit of Lord Shiva’s naivety and asked him to contribute to Lanka. Then, Goddess Parvati condemned that, only part of Mahadev would burn the palace with coal, and with that, the devastation of your lineage would commence. Lankapuri got her son, Kubera, from Vishrava, but Ravana crippled Kubera and seized Lanka. Lord Hanuman, an incarnation of Shiva, burnt Lanka due to the curse, and the family of Ravana, Kumbhakarna’s son, was destroyed. Vibhishan survived by being in Shriram’s shelter.
  • According to legends, the three sons of Shiva’s demon son Sukesh, Mali, Sumali and Mallywan, established a city on Mount Trikut Subel (Sumeru) and named it Lanka. Later, Kubera was made the Lankapati or the king of Lanka by the Devas and Yakshas by executing Mali. Ravana’s mother Kaikesi was the daughter of Sumali. At the incitement of his maternal grandfather, Ravana was determined to fight a battle with his step-mother Ilavilla’s son Kubera, and vanquish Lanka again to the demons. In the same sequence, Ravana also took away the Pushpak Vimana of Kubera. Kubera was Ravana’s half-brother.
  • Srilanka has a mountain which is also known as the Shripada peak. He titled it Adam’s Peak during the time of the British rule. However, the ancient name, of this Adam Peak, is Ratan Island mountains. A temple is constructed on this mountain. According to the Hindu presumption, there are footprints of Mahadev Shankar, the “God of gods”, thus, this place is named Sivanolipadam (Light of Shiva). The footprint is 5 feet 7 inches long and is 2 feet 6 inches wide. Located at an altitude of 2,224 meters, lakhs of devotees and tourists come to visit this ‘Shreepad’. The Christians, acknowledging its significance, propagated that these were the footprints of Saint Thomas. According to Buddhist legends, these designations pertain to the Gautama Buddha. According to the Muslim legends, the designation denotes Hazrat Adam. Few people have begun to call Ram Sethu Adam’s Bridge. It is said about this mountain that this mountain is the mountain which was a piece of Dronagiri and which was taken up and taken to Hanumanji. This thrilling mountain in Galle, the southern coast of Sri Lanka, is called by the Sri Lankans as Rehumashala Kanda.
  • Sri Lanka’s International Ramayana Research Center and the Ministry of Tourism have together found 50 such sites related to Ramayana which have archaeological and historical importance and which are also mentioned in Ramayana. The place in Sri Lanka where Ravana’s gold Lanka was found. It has been claimed to possess discovered Ashoka Vatika, Ram-Ravana battleground, Ravana’s cave, Ravana’s airport, Ravana’s corpse, Ravana’s palace, and 50 such Ramayana sites. Evidence of this has also been presented.

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It is believed that there is a cave of Ravana on a giant hill amidst the forests of Raglan, where he had done severe penance. Ravana’s corpse is still preserved in the exact cave even today. This cave of Ravana is positioned at an altitude of 8000 feet in the province of Raglan. The corpse of Ravana is conserved in a 17-foot-long coffin. There is a unique coating around this coffin, because of which the coffin has been unharmed and intact for thousands of years. Archaeological analyses of Ravana Fall, Ravana Caves, Ashoka Vatika, the decayed palace of Vibhishan, etc., located around the Nuara Eliya Hills in Sri Lanka, verify their presence in the Ramayana interval. Everyone knows about the Ram Sethu.

  • Sri Lanka has a shared ritual, belief, and culture of Hinduism as well as Buddhism. But it was shattered in the British era. There has never been a conflict between Hindus and Buddhists in Sri Lanka over almost 2000 years of civilization. There is a prevalence of Shaivism of Hinduism in Sri Lankan. Sri Lanka is contemplated as the home of the five abodes of Lord Shiva. Murugan indicates Kartikeya, son of Shiva, is one of the most prominent Hindu deities in Sri Lanka. They are worshipped not only by Tamil Hindus but also by Buddhist Sinhalese and Adivasis. There are many temples here that reflect the shared cultures of Hinduism and Buddhism.
  • Hindu Emperor Ashoka (269-232 BCE), after many years of battle, boycotted the war after banning Buddhism and hunting. The third session of Buddhism concluded in the 17th year of Ashoka’s reign. Emperor Ashoka sent his son Mahinda and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka for preaching. Through him, King Devnamapiya Tissa of Sri Lanka adopted Buddhism and inaugurated a Buddhist monastery named ‘Mahavihara’ there. In the modern era, this country is also a stronghold and fortress of Theravada Buddhism. In Sri Lanka, Hindus and Buddhists used to live together due to the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism being the same, but in the British era, the social composition was jeopardized here.
  • In Valmiki Ramayana, Lanka is told to be positioned in the middle of the island across the sea, i.e., in the recent times it has been seen, Ravana’s Lanka was placed in the middle of Sri Lanka. Sanskrit and Pali literature of Sri Lanka had an intimate connection with India since historical periods. About the founder of ‘Janaki Haran’, based on the tradition of Indian epics, Kumar Das is proclaimed to be an exclusive friend of Mahakavi Kalidasa. In 512-21 AD, Kumar Das was known to be the king of Lanka. It was first popularized in Sri Lanka in 700 BC in the Sinhalese language, which is associated with the existence of Rama.
  • Sri Lanka was ruled first by the Portuguese, then by the Dutch, and in the early 1800s, the British began to occupy it and in 1818 took it under their full authority. Where the missionaries got a chance to flourish here in the British period, the Muslim settlements started in the Tamil region from India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Maldives etc. and gradually the number of mosqueand madrasas increased. Today the circumstances in the Tamil region have deteriorated to its extreme.

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In the British era, the British broke the communal unity between the Tamil and Sinhalese under the policy of ‘divide the rule’. Sri Lanka achieved independence on 4th February, in the year 1948, after World War II. When Sri Lanka came to be independent, authority passed into the hands of the Sinhalese and the Tamils were marginalized, but the Sinhalese did not understand that the British and Muslim sultanates wished to see Sri Lanka as turbulent. Why did the Sinhalese systematically incite hatred towards Tamil Hindus?

  • The dissatisfaction among the Tamils began to spread due to the isolation of themselves for a long time. In May 1976, Prabharan set the Liberation Tigers Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and urged a diverse nation for Tamils. LTTE is guilty of massacring thousands of innocent Sinhalese, high-ranking Sri Lankan authorities and Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.* It has been alleged that the Muslim fundamentalists and Christians took advantage of the long battle between the Sri Lankan regime and the Tamil separatists and they started to set foot in the meantime. This directed to intensify social chaos in the Tamil and Sinhalese regions of Sri Lanka. While Bangladesh and Pakistan received indirect support from the Muslims there, Christian missionaries continued their campaign in the poor region of Sri Lanka.

In 2009, Tamil revolutionaries were entirely demolished in India with the backing of Manmohan Singh’s government. Prabhakaran was also killed on 19 May 2009. Thousands of innocent Tamils were murdered in this campaign. Thousands of Tamil Hindus fled and took refuge in Tamil Nadu, India during the vicious massacre of Tamils by the Sri Lankan army, who are still living in refugee camps. After the action of the Sri Lankan army in 2009, there were millions of Tamil homeless people who are still concierge.

  • Presently, Sri Lanka has a population of about 22 million. 70 percent of the country’s population is Buddhist. 10 percent of the population is in Sri Lanka is of Muslims, 12 percent Hindus and 6 percent Catholics. Buddhists never targeted Hindus and Christians because of religion, but Muslims have been marked. There are many reasons for this.

In 2012, the tensions between the Buddhists and Muslims in Sri Lanka started up, after the Tamil crisis was eliminated. Some radical Buddhist groups accused Muslims of forcibly converting and harming Buddhist monasteries. Muslims in Sri Lanka are not just Muslims, there are Tamil-speaking Muslims as well and Tamils have a known dispute with Sinhalese. Apart from this, the existence of Rohingya Muslims in Sri Lanka is also a reason for feud. In Sri Lanka, Muslims are slaughtering carnivores or domesticated animals under the Muslim ritual has always been a matter of disagreement among the Buddhist population. Presently, the Islamic fundamentalist National Tauheed Jamaat has also become a reason for friction.

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Šri Lanka

Historical Evolution: The history of Sri Lanka before 1500 C.E., as recorded in its Great Chronicles, is considered unverifiable and is largely an obscure, confusing, and conflicting set of records about wars, invasions, usurpations, and dynastic rivalries. Beginning with the thirteenth century C.E., Sri Lanka was divided into three major kingdoms: a Tamil kingdom in the north, a Sinhalese kingdom in the southwest, and the kingdom of Kandy in the interior. In 1505, the Portuguese came to the island and established settlements on the west and south coasts. Despite Portuguese efforts to subjugate the entire island, the Kandyan kingdom remained independent. In 1612, the king of Kandy formed an alliance with the Dutch, successfully defeating and dislodging the Portuguese by 1656. Unfortunately, in removing the Portuguese, Kandy traded one European colonial master for another. Sri Lanka was subservient to Dutch interests for over a century and a half. British trading interests in Sri Lanka led to the ouster of the Dutch in 1796. The 1815 unification of the island's three kingdoms under British rule continued until 1948, when Great Britain granted Sri Lanka its independence.

Ethnically, Sri Lanka's population is divided among Sinhalese (74 percent), Tamils (18 percent), Moors (7 percent), and Burghers, Malays, and Veddas (1 percent). Most of the people of Sri Lanka migrated to the island from India more than 2,500 years ago, often in the interest of trade, war, religion, economic opportunity, or colonization. The Sinhalese are allegedly the descendants of the Aryan Prince Vijaya, from India, and his 700 followers they came to Sri Lanka about 485 B.C.E., chased from their homes for their marauding activities. Tamils fall into two groups: Sri Lankan and Indian. The Sri Lankan Tamils came to the island in the third century B.C.E., moving across the strait from India as part of the expansion by India's southern kings. The majority of Indian Tamils were imported by the British to work on the coffee and tea plantations in the island's interior during the second half of the nineteenth century. A few Indian Tamils came as traders. The Moors, or Muslims, came to Sri Lanka in the eighth century C.E., and are descendants of Arab traders. The Burghers are descendants of marriages contracted between Portuguese and Dutch settlers, or between the Europeans and the Sinhalese or Tamils. The Dutch brought over Malays as soldiers, and the Veddas are the aboriginal forest dwellers of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka's history left the island with a diverse population composed of self-conscious ethnic groups, differentiated by religion, language, and social customs. Hinduism, the island's first religion, came from India during its era of unrecorded history and is the faith of Sri Lanka's largest minority group, the Tamils. Theravada Buddhism was introduced from India during the third century B.C.E. and is the religion of the island's Sinhalese majority. Arab traders and western colonists brought Islam and Christianity in the tenth and sixteenth centuries C.E., respectively. In the modern era, Buddhists constitute 69 percent of the population, Hindus 15 percent, Christians 8 percent, and Muslims 8 percent.

Sri Lanka's commitment to education began more than 2,500 hundred years ago, when Hindu kings and chieftains received their education from Brahmins (Hindu priests), and education is thus closely tied to the religious history of the island. Similarly, early in Sri Lanka's history, education became associated with high caste status and privilege. The sweep of Buddhism from India into Sri Lanka in the third century B.C.E. converted kings and people. Monasteries were erected to educate bhikkus, or monks. These monks built the first pirivenas, or temple schools, in the villages, educating the laity in religion and secular subjects. Little information exists on the schools of Sri Lanka's minority populations of Hindus and Muslims, but it is generally assumed that each faith had temple and mosque schools, respectively, which provided an elementary education with emphasis on religion, reading, and writing.

Portuguese rule of Sri Lanka brought both Franciscans and Jesuits, who founded 41 parish schools, and three Franciscan and two Jesuit colleges. Converting the island's diverse population was a primary focus of this educational mission. The Dutch, who followed the Portuguese, replaced the Catholic parish schools with schools affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church. Both the Portuguese and the Dutch used religious conversion to promote access to educational opportunity. Native Sri Lankans quickly realized that if they wanted to gain a public office or qualify as a schoolmaster, they had to convert to the Dutch Reformed faith, and did. A Dutch seminary in Colombo, the capital, provided additional higher education. The Dutch educational system in Sri Lanka continued to foster the public's perception of a link between education and financial success.

When the British began their occupation of Sri Lanka, they gave responsibility for the island's education to Christian missionary societies who promoted an English, western-oriented education designed to "civilize" the Sri Lankan people. English schools charged fees and received British government grants. The island's nonEnglish vernacular (secular) schools were taught in Sinhala or Tamil, Sri Lanka's two principal languages. Vernacular schools were traditionally under financed because they were denied government educational grants. Without government subsidies, these schools could offer only the basics of an elementary education. Buddhist temple schools, primarily in rural areas, suffered the most: in addition to being denied government funding, they could not charge fees, the result of successful lobbying by the missionary societies who wanted the elimination of any rival religious schools. Under British rule, Sri Lankans who spoke English were eligible to become teachers. Colonial administrators only recruited only English-speaking Sri Lankans for government service. Thus the Sri Lankans who prospered under British colonial rule were more likely to be better-educated, high-caste Hindu Tamils, Tamils who converted to Christianity and were educated in English schools, or descendants of the Burghers.

Christians, the island's smallest minority, were historically the best educated. In 1901, approximately 55 percent of Christian males were literate, compared to only 35 percent of Buddhist males, 34 percent of Muslim males, and 26 percent of Hindu males. Among Christian women, 30 percent were literate, compared to 5 percent among Buddhist women, 3 percent among Muslim women, and 2.5 percent among Hindu women. The lower literacy rates among Hindu males can be attributed to the inclusion of the uneducated and stateless imported Indian Tamil males who worked tea plantations. Cultural factors account for the low literacy rates among Buddhist, Muslim, and Hindu women. By 1921, within just 20 years, literacy rates among the island's male population rose to 66 percent for Christians, 50 percent for Buddhists, 45 percent for Muslims, and 37 percent for Hindus. For women, 50 percent of Christians were literate, while literacy rates among Buddhist, Muslim, and Hindu women rose to 17 percent, 6 percent, and 10 percent, respectively. When independence was granted in 1948, Sri Lanka had 5,895 schools enrolling more than 1 million students. The nation's literacy rate was 57.8 percent, the highest among both Great Britain's colonies and Asian nations. Independence did not eliminate a colonial perception among the majority of Sinhalese that British rule had favored an English-speaking Tamil minority who benefited from better education, which led to higher incomes and more valuable careers.

Political, Social, & Cultural Bases: For centuries Sri Lankan Tamils used education to promote their social mobility. The Tamil region in northern and eastern Sri Lanka is arid and infertile compared to the rest of the island and is unsuitable for profitable farming. The Tamils depended on education to prosper. Under British rule the Tamil minority received a disproportionate share of university and government positions. Higher earnings among Sri Lankan Tamils plus the income sent home by overseas Tamils generated greater economic prosperity in the Tamil regions than in the rest of the country.

Independence changed the balance of power. Two major political parties formed&mdashthe United National Party (UNP) and the Sri Lankan Freedom Party (SLFP)&mdashand both political parties competed for the vote of the Sinhalese majority. The parties promoted Buddhism, nationalism, socialism, and non-alignment in the Cold War era, with little thought for Tamil issues. From independence until 1956, the more conservative UNP, advocating a mixed economy and private enterprise, maintained a parliamentary majority. However, during the 1956 election, SLFP leader S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike encouraged xenophobic fears among the Sinhalese majority, allying himself with Marxist parties advocating the nationalization of banks and industry and Sinhalese Buddhist extremists who wanted to replace English with Sinhala as Sri Lanka's official language. After Bandaranaike won the parliamentary elections of 1956, the SLFP approved the change of language, and established quotas limiting Tamil entry into government service and higher education, particularly in the fields of medicine and the sciences. The number of Tamil students admitted to medical school and engineering schools fell by 50 percent and 67 percent, respectively. Tamil recruitment by the central government in the general clerical services fell from a 41 percent high in 1949 to a mere 7 percent among recruits nationally in 1963. Less than 5 percent of Tamils were in the nation's police force and national army. By the 1970s, only 6 percent of newly hired teachers were Tamil, and university placement for Tamils in the science-based disciplines fell to 11 percent in 1974 from 35 percent just four years earlier.

Tamils organized to protect their interests, and extremist factions of all parties and nationalities employed violence to bring national attention to their concerns. The violence temporarily ended in 1959, when Prime Minister Bandaranaike was assassinated. During the 1960s and 1970s both the UNP and the SLFP competed with each other for a parliamentary majority among the Sinhalese. Consistently, Tamil interests were again ignored or forgotten by the central government and the politicians. In 1972, the Sinhalese majority voted to end its status as a monarchy, which had come to represent Sri Lanka's colonial past. The Constitution of Sri Lanka was substantially revised, and parliamentary government was replaced with a presidential republic dominated by a Buddhist, Sinhalese majority. President J.R. Jayewardene was elected in 1978 the Jayewardene administration continued reforms tending toward reconciliation of Sri Lanka's warring factions.

The civil war has persisted into the twenty-first century, fought primarily in the Tamil regions of eastern and northern Sri Lanka, but Tamil guerrillas have brought the war to all parts of the country. President Jayewardene's attempts to grant Tamil autonomy under Indian supervision caused great fear among the Sinhalese majority of the nation's impending division and permanent Indian occupation. Later Sri Lankan presidents accepted Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi's offer to mediate the dispute between Tamils and Sinhalese. Gandhi's efforts ended tragically with his assassination in 1991, by Tamils opposed to Gandhi's use of Indian troops to suppress the Tamil insurrection in Sri Lanka. Two years later in 1993, Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa was assassinated five years into his presidency when he proposed substantial grants of autonomy in Tamil areas. Although blamed, the Tamil rebels rejected responsibility for his death.

Chandrika Kumaratunga, president of Sri Lanka since 1993 and the daughter of a previous prime minister and president, both named Bandaranaike, has scaled back many oppressive and discriminatory aspects of education and language laws that precipitated the civil war. Surprisingly, the university system in the Tamil region remains open and funded by the central government while Sinhalese universities suffer from Tamil insurgency. Long-term peace in Sri Lanka depends on the creation of a pluralistic and multiethnic nation. Proposals of the Kumaratunga government bear a striking similarity to the Bandaranaike-Chelvanayagam Pact of 1957, which proposed that Sri Lanka be a multiethnic state with Tamil as a national language in the northern and eastern sections of the country. The government would provide full protection for non-Tamil speakers and regional councils were permitted authority over centralized political system favoring the majority. Locally elected leaders could administer land development projects.

In December, 1999, as President Kumaratunga prepared to begin a second term of office, she barely survived an attempted assassination, and she did lose an eye. Her reelection came with 51.2 percent of the vote, the lowest percentage in the nation's history, and a realization that Sri Lankans were discouraged with politics. The assassination attempt increased President Kumaratunga's resolve to institute national reforms.


Serendib, Ceylon and now Sri Lanka

The name Sri Lanka was adopted in 1972 after the island was called Ceylon during the British rule. Riječ lanka is an old Tamil word that makes more sense with the island country. In antiquity, the island was called Serendib by the Arabs and Persian merchants, a word that was regenerated into the word “serendipity.” All reference to Ceylon has been slowly eradicated from national institutions and companies. Although it is unlikely that Ceylon Tea will change its name any time soon.


President Sirisena elected

2015 January - Maithripala Sirisena defeats Mahinda Rajapaksa in presidential election, pledging accountability over alleged atrocities during the civil war.

2015 September - Rajavarothiam Sampanthan becomes the first lawmaker from the ethnic Tamil minority in 32 years to lead the opposition in parliament.

2016 June - Government acknowledges for the first time that some 65,000 people are missing from its 26-year war with the Tamil Tiger rebels and a Marxist insurrection in 1971.

2017 January - Police clash with protesters demonstrating against a plan to evict villagers to make way for a mostly Chinese port and industrial zone near the port city of Hambantota.

2018 October - Constitutional crisis as President Sirisena replaces Prime Minister Ranil Wickramasinghe with former president Mahinda Rajapaksa, and suspends parliament.

2018 November-December - Constitutional Court rules that dissolution of parliament was illegal. Mahinda Rajapaksa fails to form a government that commands a parliamentary majority. Mr Wickramasinghe resumes office.

2019 April - Jihadist suicide bombers attack churches and hotels on Easter Sunday, killing more than 350 people.

2019 November - Gotabaya Rajapaksa, the younger brother of former president Mahinda Rajapaksa, wins the presidential election.

2020 August - President Rajapaksa's SLPP party wins large majority in parliamentary elections.


Gledaj video: LAC पर चन क खलफ भरत क सपरट म आय BRITAIN, बरस क ऐलन स जनपग क नकल गई हकड (Svibanj 2022).