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Messerschmitt Bf 109 obori baraž

Messerschmitt Bf 109 obori baraž

Messerschmitt Bf 109: Pt. 1, John R. Beaman, Jr. Ovaj rad pruža dobru tehničku povijest 109 -a, koji prati razvoj lovca od ranih prototipova do 109E, modela koji se koristio tijekom bitke za Britaniju. [vidi više]


Yeovilov virtualni muzej, A-to-Z Yeovilove povijesti

Budući da su tvornica i aerodrom Westlands glavna meta njemačkih napada na Luftwaffe, Yeovil se pripremio za rat. Dok je grad bio prepun balonskih balona, ​​odreda reflektora i baterija protuzračnih topova, sirene za zračne napade postavljene su na tri mjesta u okolici Yeovila kako bi se što bolje pokrilo upozorenje o skorom napadu. Jedan je bio montiran na krov policijske postaje / zgrade suda u Petters Wayu, drugi je bio u školi Yeovil na Mudford Roadu, a treći na 166 Hendford Hill, blizu Quicksilver Maila. Prvi alarm aktiviran je 5. srpnja 1940., a od tada do posljednjeg alarma 16. lipnja 1944. bilo je ukupno 365 upozorenja o zračnim napadima.

Za detalje o svim civilima koji su poginuli u zračnim napadima na Yeovil - kliknite ovdje

Jeovili se sjećaju.

"Kako je 1940. napredovala, život je zasigurno postajao sve teži. Zračni napadi su se povećavali i iako je Yeovil bio pomalo uzdrman, nije pretrpio ništa poput blic napada koji su vršeni na veća mjesta.

Međutim, dok smo bili na putu bombardera koji su dolazili sa zapada Francuske, nastavljajući prema sjeveru do Bristola, Liverpoola, Manchestera itd. Bili smo pod stalnim noćnim uzbunama. Zajedno s blizinom topova Houndstone Camp, morali smo izdržati i brojne teške mornaričke topove koji su se nalazili s druge strane Summerhouse Hill -a. Satima su se prozori i kuća tresli i zveckali. Ugasit će se, a zatim ponovo početi kad se bombarder vrati. S poremećenim snom i zahtjevima za rani jutarnji rad bilo je teško. Nakon nekog vremena smo se navikli, a ostajući u krevetu, većinu toga je bilo moguće prespavati.

Imao sam osobno iskustvo bombardiranja izbliza - jedne ljetne večeri bio sam u sportskom klubu Westland. Bilo je tiho s gotovo nikim ondje, vjerojatno jer smo toga dana imali zračni napad u gradu. Neke su bombe bačene na Station Road, a nasred grada gdje je nekad bila stara gradska vijećnica u High Street.

Bio sam ispred kluba kad sam podigao pogled i vidio kako se približavaju tri zrakoplova. Prepoznao sam da nisu naši pa sam utrčao u klupsku kuću i zaronio pod veliki bilijarski stol. Zrakoplovi su bacili hrpu bombi, a zgrada se toliko tresla da se stol podigao nekoliko centimetara od poda. Istrčao sam van, a jezivu tišinu razbijao je pseći lavež i daljinsko zvonjenje vatrogasnih zvona i sirena.

Sada je bio mrak, gasovodi su se rasplamsali, a krater koji se protezao od jedne kuće do druge strane ceste blokirao je spasilačke odrede. Na vanjskom putu bili su ostaci skloništa za zračne napade Anderson. Cijela je obitelj uništena izravnim pogotkom. Odlučio sam pobjeći odande u slučaju da se pojavi grupa zrakoplova za praćenje. Pronašavši blatnjavu stazu oko ruba uzletišta, stigao sam kući što sam brže mogao kroz grad.

Grozota? Ne. Tvornica Westland bila je kamuflirana kako bi se uklopila u sve kuće s obje strane uzletišta. Nažalost, neprijateljski zrakoplovi su se približili s istoka umjesto sa zapada, otuda i greška. "

Sjećanja na pokojnog Waltera McGowana
Ljubaznošću udruge Stari jeovili

. i veliko hvala pokojnom Tonyju Robinsu na sljedećem -

"Nekoliko puta smo imali prozore u prozorima, zatamnjene zavjese bačene po cijeloj prostoriji i spuštene stropove popravljane su Essex Boardingom, listovima drvenih vlakana koje je tata kupio od Bradfordovih građevinskih trgovaca. Kad se oglasila sirena zračnog napada, mama, tata i ja sam se sklonio ispod stepenica jer se smatralo da je to najsigurnije mjesto. Moj brat nije htio ustati iz kreveta, rekao je: "Prije ću sići s ruševinama nego biti zatrpan ispod njega."

. veliko hvala i Richardu Venusu, evakuiranom u Yeovil iz Londona između 1939. i 1942., koji se prisjeća ovog iskustva -

"Jedno živo sjećanje vezano je za ratno iskustvo. Išao sam u školu koja je podrazumijevala pješačenje ovom dugom kosom cestom (Ulica Orchard) u blizini vojnog skladišta. Mora da je bilo hladno jer sam nosio dugi ogrtač s kapom i plinskom maskom Bilo je niskog oblaka i mogao sam čuti ovaj avion iznad sebe koji je očito letio vrlo nisko. Dok sam gledao gore ovaj avion je izašao iz oblaka točno iznad glave. Bio je to njemački bombarder. Imao je dva motora i bio je obojen u crno s bijelim njemačkim križem na sebi. Bio je dovoljno nizak da vidi zrakoplovce u njemu. Zatim je počeo pucati iz mitraljeza u mene. Pa mislio sam da puca na mene, ali vjerojatno je pucao samo na vojna vozila pored mene . Čovjek u prolazu me bacio na tlo i položio na mene. Sve je bilo gotovo u nekoliko sekundi. Čovjek me podigao i rekao da odmah krenem u školu. Možete zamisliti priču koju sam ispričao u školi. Nema sumnje da je to uljepšano u pričanju. "

. i gotovo sigurno isti napad, ova priča ljubaznošću Anthonyja Daviesa.

"Moja je majka pričala priču o tome da je nakratko bila smještena blizu kraja aerodroma u Yeovilu i dok je jednog dana gasila pranje, njemački je avion letio vrlo nisko, tako nisko da je mama rekla da im vidi lica . Zrakoplov je pucao iz mitraljeza, mama je otrčala natrag u kuću i sakrila se ispod stepenica toliko uplašena, pretpostavljam da je ovo najbolje posvećeno sigurno mjesto u slučaju zračnog napada. Nažalost, zasun je pao na vrata zbog čega je mama zaključana mnogo sati dok joj prijateljski upravitelj zračnih napada nije čuo njenu viku i spustio je van. "

Na sreću bilo je samo deset stvarnih napada na sam Yeovil (plus nekoliko manjih incidenata), iako je 49 ljudi poginulo, a 122 ozlijeđeno. Napravljena je velika šteta s 68 potpuno uništenih nekretnina i 2754 oštećena. Iako je Westlands bio glavna meta, samo dvije bombe su ikada pogodile tvornicu, a bombardiranja su teško utjecala na proizvodnju.

Svi poznati napadi na grad navedeni su u nastavku, a deset velikih napada je istaknuto i numerirano.

U petak 9. kolovoza 1940
Mali zračni napad dogodio se u ranim satima usamljenog Junkersa Ju88 koji je bacio četiri HE bombe na Chilthorne Domer. Vjerojatna meta mu je bio Yeovilton, no presreli su ga uragani iz 'Plavog odsjeka', 213 eskadrile iz Exetera te su morali žurno baciti bombe. Ju88 je pretrpio štetu, ali se uspio vratiti u svoju bazu iako je topnik ubijen. Vjerojatno je to bio isti top koji je oborio i uništio balon iz baraža u Yeovilu. Osim njemačkog topnika, nije bilo žrtava.

U srijedu, 18. rujna 1940
Autogol je postignut kada je bombarder Wellingtona tijekom noći udario u balon baraža Yeovil. Troje članova posade se izvuklo, a jedan je teško ozlijeđen. Preostala tri člana posade ostala su na brodu, a Wellington se sigurno vratio u bazu.

U srijedu 25. rujna 1940
Sedamdeset neprijateljskih bombardera s lovcima u pratnji prišlo je Yeovilu sredinom jutra. Misleći da bi im zračni radovi u Westlandu mogli biti meta, kontrolori su prebacili eskadrilu 238 iz Srednjeg Wallopa sa naredbom da se upute na lokaciju deset milja južno od Yeovila, a svi drugi lovci u grupi 10 dobili su naredbu u Yeovil. Daljnje eskadrile dovedene su u pripravnost, ali neprijateljska formacija bombardera prošla je preko Yeovila i nastavila prema Weston-super-Mare.

U ponedjeljak 30. rujna 1940
Tijekom kasnog poslijepodneva snaga od četrdeset Heinkela u pratnji Messerschmitta Bf 110 prešla je obalu u blizini Weymoutha krenuvši prema zrakoplovnim radovima Westland. Zbog velikih oblaka koji su zaklanjali tlo, neprijatelj je morao slijepo bombardirati. Nažalost, Sherborne je preuzeo punu snagu napada. Sherborne je izgubio deset mrtvih i pedesetak ozlijeđenih, uništeno je dvadeset kuća, a oštećeno je još oko 300.

Zračni napad broj 1: Ponedjeljak, 7. listopada 1940
Prvi veliki napad Luftwaffea na Yeovil dogodio se u popodnevnim satima kada je let od dvadeset i pet dvomotornih srednjih bombardera Junkers Ju88, u pratnji pedesetak Messerschmitta Bf 110, bacio preko trideset eksplozivnih bombi i osamnaest naftnih bombi na Yeovil. Njemačke snage napalo je pet eskadrila lovaca iz grupe 10, koji su oborili sedam Bf 110 i Ju88.

Burtonova prodavaonica pored Woolworth'sa u Middle Streetu uništena je usmrtivši osam osoba, a izravni pogodak u javnom skloništu Metodističke crkve u ulici Vicarage ubio je četiri osobe. Štap bombi koji je pao preko Grove Avenue, Summerleaze Park (sada Parcroft) škole, Summerleaze Park i St Andrew's Road ubio je daljnje četiri osobe. Druge bombe pale su u području Roping Road i Addlewell Lane. Kao rezultat ove racije ubijeno je 16 ljudi, a ozlijeđeno 29.

U tisku je objavljeno da je to prvi koncentrirani napad na grad Somerset.


Ljubaznošću Richarda Gibbsa

Avenija Grove 12, djelomično uništena njemačkom bombom, ali kasnije popravljena.

Ova fotografija datira iz kasnih 1940 -ih ili ranih 1950 -ih - u središtu se vidi kako je bomba oštetila Burtonovu krojačku radnju i oštećenu Woolworthovu zgradu u susjedstvu.

Zračni napad broj 2: Utorak, 8. listopada 1940
Sljedećeg dana, oko doručka, njemački bombarderi bacili su četrdeset četiri eksplozivne bombe preko zapadnog Yeovila sa središtem oko Westbourne Grovea i Preston Grovea. Izravni pogodak u sklonište za zračne napade u vrtu Preston Grovea ubilo je jedanaest ljudi, a tri su ozlijeđene. Pet kuća je potpuno uništeno, a više od pedeset oštećeno.


Ljubaznošću Roba Bakera

Joyce, trogodišnji Maxwell i Jimmy Fitkin, koji su svi poginuli kada je njemačka bomba pala na njihovo sklonište za zračne napade u Preston Groveu.

Kao rezultat ovog napada, ukupno je 11 ljudi ubijeno, a 3 ozlijeđeno.

Zračni napad broj 3: Subota, 12. listopada 1940
Predvečer je jedan bombaš Luftwaffea bacio pet bombi na središte grada, Park Street i Penn Hill, ozlijedivši pet osoba. Krilo crkvene kuće je uništeno, a mnogo vitraja u crkvi sv. Ivana razbijeno. U istom naletu četiri HE bombe bačene su na vojni kamp Houndstone, ubivši petero osoblja, a ranivši još trideset i dvije.

U ponedjeljak, 14. listopada 1940
Vojni kamp Lufton napao je niskoleteći neprijateljski bombarder. to je uzrokovalo smrt trinaest vojnih osoba i šesnaest ozlijeđenih. Jedan od ubijenih bio je zapovjednik 208 pukovnije AA, Kraljevska artiljerija, pukovnik GFR Wingate OBE, brat slavnog general bojnika Orde Wingatea legendarnih 'Chindita'. Nekoliko koliba uništeno je vatrom.

Zračni napad broj 4: Srijeda, 16. listopada 1940
Mudford Road bombardiran je u večernjim satima, ozlijedivši tri osobe, uništivši pet kuća i oštetivši još sedamnaest nekretnina.

U srijedu, 6. studenog 1940
Policajac i dva čovjeka jedinice za odlaganje bombi pokušali su deaktivirati bombu 20 stopa niz okno u Yeovilu kada je bomba eksplodirala, ubivši sva tri čovjeka odmah.

U četvrtak 27. veljače 1941
Jedan neprijateljski zrakoplov proletio je nisko iznad Yeovila, a zatim nastavio do mitraljeskog kampa Houndstone. Nije bilo žrtava.

Zračni napad broj 5: Srijeda, 26. ožujka 1941
Nakon što je u listopadu 1940. pretrpio četiri zračna napada u nešto više od tjedan dana, došlo je do predaha do ovog napada neposredno prije ručka, kada je jedan bombarder Luftwaffea napao tvornicu Westlands. Četiri njegove HE bombe eksplodirale su po imanju Westland, a dvije su zapravo pogodile tvornicu - jedine bombe koje su uspjele tijekom cijelog rata. Vrijedan posao za ratne napore u tvornici odgođen je za sat vremena. Pet osoba je ubijeno na Westland Roadu, a četiri su poginule u tvornici. Još trideset šest osoba je ozlijeđeno.

Zračni napad broj 6: Veliki petak 11. travnja 1941
Kasno navečer nekoliko bombi s odgođenim djelovanjem pogodilo je središte grada. Dizajnirani su tako da eksplodiraju neko vrijeme nakon udara, a osigurači bombe postavljeni su tako da odgode eksploziju za razdoblje koje traje od samo nekoliko sekundi do nekoliko tjedana. Kratka kašnjenja omogućila su prodor bombe prije nego što je eksplodirala, dok su dulja kašnjenja bila namjera ometanja odlaganja bombe i drugih aktivnosti, kao i širenja terora. Sve su bombe eksplodirale prije nego što je začula "potpuno čista" sirena koja je rušila sjedište WVS-a, a druga uništavala Medicinsku dvoranu (gornji kat koristio se kao kantina za evakuaciju, srećom zatvorena u vrijeme napada) i tri druge trgovine u četvrti i još jedno ubijanje četvorice vojnika Kraljevskih vlastitih škotskih graničara smještenih u Burzi kukuruza iza općinskih ureda u Ulici kralja Georgea. Tijekom gašenja požara u pomoćnoj vatrogasnoj službi pomoćne vatrogasne službe razmjene kukuruza Charlie Gillard je poginuo kada je bomba s odgođenim djelovanjem eksplodirala u Burzi kukuruza u ranim jutarnjim satima 12. travnja. U njegovu uspomenu podignuta je ploča (snimljena gore) na ostacima Burze kukuruza. Jedna od bombi uništila je staru Medicinsku dvoranu u okrugu koju je koristio Boots the Chemist. Kao rezultat ovog napada, ukupno je 5 ljudi poginulo, a 14 ozlijeđeno.

Ova razglednica datira iz 1947. godine i prikazuje neobičan pogled na gradsku četvrt. Wine Street odlijevi se lijevo, High Street je gore lijevo, a Middle Street donji desni kut. Vrtovi u donjem lijevom kutu označavaju mjesto bombardirane medicinske dvorane i bili su zasađeni tulipanima koje je donirala nizozemska djeca koja su tijekom rata bila evakuirana u Yeovil.

Zračni napad broj 7: Četvrtak, 8. svibnja 1941
Oko ponoći bombarder Luftwaffea udario je u čelični kabel baražnog balona na Yeovil baražnom balonu br. 5, južno od Plackett Lane, presjekavši balon. Bombarder je ispalio svoje bombe kao mjeru opreza, ali osim što su pogodile smještajnu kolibu posade balona, ​​sve su bombe pale na polja. Nije bilo žrtava. Dvije su bombe sletjele blizu linije GWR blizu farme Yew Tree, ali nisu eksplodirale.

Zračni napad broj 8: Petak 16. svibnja 1941
Oko ponoći je jedan njemački bombarder bombardirao polja sjeverno od Mudford Roada između Avenije St Michael i Stone Lanea. Nije bilo žrtava, osim nekoliko krava, a eksplozija je raznijela samo nekoliko prozora.

Zračni napad broj 9: Nedjelja 25. svibnja 1941
Nešto iza ponoći u nedjelju ujutro, jedan jedini bombaš Dornier bacio je štap od četrnaest visoko eksplozivnih bombi s vrlo niske razine preko Mudford Roada ubivši pet osoba, a ozlijedivši još sedam. Osam je kuća potpuno uništeno, a 115 oštećeno.

Zračni napad broj 1 0 : Srijeda 5. kolovoza 1942
Nakon više od godinu dana bez zračnih napada, ovaj posljednji zračni napad izvela su dva lovačka bombardera Luftwaffe Focke Wulf 190. Nakon što su grad nanijeli topovskom vatrom od 20 mm, svaki je ispustio bombu od 500 kg, a jedna je pala u stražnje vrtove blizu križanja Grass Royal i Gordon Road, dok je druga bomba pala na tlo, odskočila oko 200 metara, očistila brojne kuće i konačno eksplodirao u ulici Dampier. Tri su osobe poginule, a dvadeset pet ozlijeđeno, od kojih je trinaest zadržano u bolnici. Uništeno je 15 kuća, a oštećeno je još 972.

Sljedeće fotografije prikazuju oštećenja bombe nastala prvom bombom na kućama na Matthews Roadu i Gordon Roadu.


Ljubaznošću Roba Bakera

Oštećenja kuća na Matthews Roadu (stražnji dio bloka na istočnoj strani, uz Gordon Road).


Ljubaznošću Roba Bakera

Ova fotografija prikazuje put bombe koja je silazila niz krovnu padinu na Matthews Roadu i preko vrtova. Krater se vidi u prvom planu.


Ljubaznošću Roba Bakera

Ova fotografija kuće na Matthews Roadu prikazuje oštećenje bombom na bloku povjetarca i zid od betonske ploče koje je usisano djelovanjem eksplozije.


Ljubaznošću Roba Bakera

Oštećenje bombe na par dvojnih kuća na Gordon Roadu, otprilike pedeset metara od kratera.


Ljubaznošću Roba Bakera

Fragmentacija i oštećenje od eksplozije na dvojici kuća u ulici Gordon Road udaljenoj približno šezdeset stopa od kratera.

U petak 8. kolovoza 1942
Neprijateljski zrakoplovi puškomitraljezom baloni u Yeovilu tijekom večeri 8., ali nije prijavljeno nikakvo oštećenje.

U petak 23. listopada 1942
Neprijateljski zrakoplov prijavljen je iznad Yeovila u 16:15 sati, leteći jugoistočno. Nije bacala bombe, ali je bila pogođena protuzračnom vatrom. Istog dana Yeovil je izgubio dva baražna balona, ​​jedan je bio prizemljen na Glenthorne Avenue, dok je drugi zadnji put viđen kako odmiče na istok.

"Svi su koristili baklje u zamračenju jer je jedino svjetlo koje smo vani vidjeli noću bila mjesečina, tako da je dosta vremena posvuda bilo crno. Da smo imali dug put noću, zasvijetlili bismo baklju na zemlji nekoliko metara sprijeda i dok smo hodali uključivali bismo i gasili svjetiljku svakih pet sekundi, to je trebalo produžiti bateriju. "

Sjećanja na Briana Walkera
Reproducirano s BBC -ja "Narodni rat u Drugom svjetskom ratu" pod uvjetima "poštenog poslovanja".


Povijest

Nakon što je nacionalističkim snagama već isporučio oskudnu količinu novih prototipova Bf 109 V i A, bilo je jasno da je Njemačka odana nacionalističkoj strani rata. Zadovoljan performansama 109, Reichsluftfahrtministerium (njemačko Ministarstvo zrakoplovstva) naručio je verziju jednokrilca s najnovijim motorom Jumo, označivši ga Bf 109B. Α ]

Nijemci su već koristili španjolski sukob kao borbena poligona za svoju novu tehnologiju, pa je kao takva prva serija 109B -a gotovo odmah poslana u Španjolsku po završetku 1937. Ώ ]

Pokriveni Bf 109B tijekom Španjolskog građanskog rata.

Svenjemačka dobrovoljačka legija Condor u velikoj je mjeri iskoristila 109-e, pronašavši ih kao vrhunske zamjene za starije dvokrilce He 51 i Ar 68E. ΐ ] U vrijeme svog predstavljanja, Messerchmitt Bertha bio je jedan od najnaprednijih dizajna borbenih zrakoplova na svijetu, bez premca nijednom od njegovih protivnika. Β ]

Kasnije u njenoj službi, međutim, Bertina superiornost počela je blijediti. Do kraja 1937. godine, novi lovac Polikarpov I-16 tipa 10 "Supar Mosca" potpuno je nadmašio Messerschmitte u gotovo svim aspektima.  Starija je Bertha trebala biti nadopunjena serijom 109 -ih "Clara" početkom 1938., no ti su noviji modeli stigli u malom broju. Kako su Berte počeli trpjeti gubitke, u Condor Legiji je počelo ponestajati zrakoplova. Β ]

A Bf 109 Bertha nakon što mu se pri slijetanju srušio stajni trap. To je bio stalni problem s 109B.

Preostale Berte služile su u Španjolskoj sve dok nisu prestale s radom dovršetkom serije "Dora" u ljeto 1938., a potpuno su zastarjele uvođenjem "Emila" 1939. Ώ ] ΐ ] Α ]


Joachim Marseille ’s Bf 109 Točenje goriva na aerodromu Quotaifiya, Egipat — I. Uvod

Neutešna, brižna lica prisutnih oštro su se suprotstavljala optimističnoj ritmu Kubanaca Rumba Azul svira na gramofonu na navijanje. Piloti i zemaljske posade Luftwaffe Fighter Wing JG 27 odali su posljednju počast prije nego što su posmrtni ostaci njihova poginulog suborca ​​trebali biti odvezeni u Dernu, Libija, 300 milja zapadno, gdje će tijelo biti sahranjeno istog dana na groblju Heroes ’ . Jednom u Derni, generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring, vrhovni zapovjednik Wehrmachta na Sredozemlju, izrazio je emocionalnu pjesmu prisjećajući se pokojnih legendarnih zračnih podviga.

Tijelo Marseillea#8217 leži u državi u Derni, Libija, 1. listopada 1942. godine.

Jasno je da ovo nije bio običan sprovod. Ovaj posljednji oproštaj bio je za visoko odlikovanog heroja Trećeg Reicha, čovjeka koji je zaradio hrastovo lišće, mačeve i dijamante svom viteškom križu, najmlađem kapetanu Luftwaffea i jednom od najvećih pilota Drugoga svjetskog rata. Njegove tehničke vještine bez premca zaslužile su poštovanje i drugova i neprijatelja, a njegova buntovna, ali ljubazna priroda zadobila je njihovo divljenje. Novopočivši je bio maverick-ikonoklast koji je, izbjegavajući nacističku ideologiju, crnog južnoafričkog zarobljenika koji govori njemački govorio ubrajao u svoje najbliže prijatelje i uživao u "degeneriranom" američkom jazzu i latino glazbi — Rumba Azul njegova omiljena melodija.

Marseille (lijevo) s južnoafričkim prijateljem Matthew “Matthias ” Letuku (desno).

Hans Joachim Marseille, 22-godišnji “Star Afrike, ” oborio je 158 neprijateljskih zrakoplova kada se motor njegovog novog Messerschmitta Bf 109G pokvario iznad egipatske pustinje 30. rujna 1942. Kad se dim iz motor je napunio kokpit, potpuno zamagljujući vidljivost, Marseille je izletio iz svog Gustava, slučajno udario glavom o kormilo koje je najavilo njegove brojne pobjede. Odmah je pao u nesvijest, prije nego što je uspio spustiti padobran, pa je pao na tisuće stopa do svoje smrti.

Članovi JG 27 pregledavaju olupinu Marseillea#8217s Bf 109.

Marseille je čak i u životu bio legenda. U svom hvalospjevu, samo jedan dan nakon prolaska Marseillea, Kesselring je sažeo Marseille ovako: “Hauptmann Marseille je pao. Neporažen. Njegovim odlaskom herojski pojedinac, veličanstven kolega, umjetnik u zraku i najbolji pilot lovaca na svijetu zauvijek je otišao iz naših redova. ” Adolf Galland, i sam legenda Luftwaffea, nazvao ga je “ virtuozom bez premca među pilotima lovcima Drugog svjetskog rata ” u svojim memoarima.

Marseille je bio čovjek koji je jasno shvaćao da svaka njegova pobjeda znači gubitak sina, oca, brata ili muža. U pismu svojoj majci nakon svoje prve pobjede 24. kolovoza 1940., tijekom bitke za Britaniju, Marseille je napisao: “Danas sam oborio svog prvog protivnika. Meni to ne pristaje. Stalno razmišljam o tome kako se majka ovog mladića mora osjećati kad sazna vijest o smrti svog sina. I ja sam kriv za ovu smrt. Tužan sam, umjesto da sam sretan zbog prve pobjede. Uvijek vidim lice Engleza ispred sebe i razmišljam o njegovoj uplakanoj majci. ”

Tragična je ironija da je nakon posljednjih sedam pobjeda Marseillea ’s##8212 152-158 — Erwin Rommel, hvaljeni “Desert Fox,##8221 nazvao 28. rujna kako bi zatražio da ga Marseille prati u Berlin kako bi prisustvovao ceremoniji 30. rujna — na dan kada je Marseille dočekao svoju sudbinu — gdje su Marseille i Rommel programirani da sjede s obje strane Adolfa Hitlera. Nije volio Führera, Marseille je to odbio tvrdeći da bi radije ostavio dopust za prosinac, kada je namjeravao otputovati u Berlin kako bi se oženio svojom zaručnicom. Može se samo zapitati što je sudbina spremila da je Marseille prihvatila Rommelov poziv.

Marseille s generalfeldmarschalom Erwinom Rommelom.

Marseilleova karijera pilota trajala je jedva dvije godine-od prve pobjede u kolovozu 1940. do posljednje u rujnu 1942. Ipak, on je predmet nekoliko knjiga, bezbroj članaka, brojnih dokumentarnih filmova i cjelovitog njemačko-španjolskog filma i #8212 Der Stern von Afrika (Afrička zvijezda). Čitatelj se upućuje na te izvore radi prikaza njegovih zračnih postignuća i osjećaja njegova izvanrednog karaktera.

Ovaj je post samo uvod u dioramu razmjere 1/72 koja prikazuje punjenje gorivom zrakoplova Marseillea u Quotaifiyi u Egiptu, krajem rujna 1942., samo nekoliko dana prije njegove smrti. Diorama će se sastojati od nekoliko komponenti, od kojih je svaka tema zasebnog posta, kako slijedi:

I. Uvod - Gore navedeni post daje kratku skicu Marseillea i opisuje komponente projekta.

Inženjeri i zemaljska posada JG 27, razgolićeni od struka prema gore i u kratkim hlačama i šlemima zbog velikih vrućina u pustinji, pune gorivo Messerschmitt Bf 109.

II. Marseille ’s Messerschmitt Bf 109s - Marseille je tijekom svoje karijere letio nizom različitih Messerschmitta Bf 109. Prema mojim saznanjima, četiri različita proizvođača - Atlas, Corgi, Easy Model i Gemini - proizveli su ukupno šest unaprijed izgrađenih 1/72 modela letjelica iz Marseillea#8217 u različitim razdobljima od dvije godine od njegove prve pobjede u kolovozu 1940. do posljednje u rujnu 1942. Ja ću jednu od ovih šest koristiti za dioramu. Ovaj će post dati fotografije i opažanja ovih modela.

Marseille sa svojim Messerschmittom Bf 109 “ žuta 14. ”

III. Marseille ’s “OTTO ” Kubelwagen -Nakon što je Marseille ’s oborio osam RAF-ova P-40 Tomahawksa u 10-minutnom naletu 1. rujna 1942., Talijani su u kampu “ posudili ” Marseille ’s u kubelwagenu i naslikali “OTTO ”-"osam" na talijanskom - sa strane, ukrašavajući četiri slova pustinjskom faunom. Ovaj post opisat će kubelwagen koji namjeravam koristiti za ovu dioramu.

Marseille ’s kubelwagen “OTTO. ” Obratite pažnju na posebne gume od balona izrađene posebno za pustinjsku terensku vožnju i na zastavicu na vozačevoj strani##1212 koje proizvođačima modela često nedostaju.

IV. Luftwaffe Opel Blitz Tankwagen - Luftwaffe je koristio Opel Blitz tankwagen Kfz. 385 za punjenje aviona gorivom tijekom cijelog sukoba, uključujući i sjevernu Afriku. Koliko ja znam, tri proizvođača su proizvela 1/72 modela kompleta Kfz. 385 - dvije u plastici Roden i MAC Distribution i jedna u smoli od FM Detail Sets. Ovaj post će ukratko raspravljati o tenkwagenu koji namjeravam koristiti za ovu dioramu.

Opel Blitz rezervoar natoči gorivo Bf 109 iz JG 27.

V. Neumanns bunte Bühne - Prikolica zapovjednika JG 27 Eduard Neumann ’s, poznata kao “Neumanns bunte Bühne ” (šarena pozornica Neumann ’s), služila je kao sjedište JG 27, borbenog krila Marseillea. Nema dostupnog modela ove prikolice ni u jednom opsegu pa ću je stvarati plastičnom karticom uglavnom od nule. S obzirom da prema mojim saznanjima postoji samo nekoliko fotografija prikolice, nedostaju podaci o dimenzijama i detaljima. Nužno je da će značajan dio ovog napora biti obrazovano nagađanje. Ovaj će post opisati ovaj najizazovniji dio projekta.

Sjedište JG 27, zapovjednika prikolice Eduard Neumann prisvojio je u Francuskoj.

VI. Slike i drugi detalji - Nijedna diorama nije potpuna bez brojki koje bi je oživjele i pružile osjećaj razmjera. Možda ne znamo raspon krila Messerschmitta Bf 109, ali ljudska figura pokraj njega pruža neposrednu perspektivu. Svjestan sam dviju figura u mjerilu 1/72 - jedne iz Preisera i jedne iz Zmaja - koje su jasno namjeravale predstavljati Marseille. Ovaj će post obuhvatiti ove dvije figure, kao i približno 60 drugih figura (plastiku, smolu i metal) iz mnogih skupova figura koje ću koristiti u diorami. Izazov je u tome što trenutno nema figura bez majice koje nose kratke hlače i šiljate kacige. Stoga će projekt uključivati ​​mnoge konverzije pomoću torza, glava i udova iz različitih skupova figura.

Inženjeri JG 27 uživaju u predahu. Opet, imajte na umu šuplje kacige, kratke hlače i nedostatak košulja.

Lagniappe: Rumba Azul, autora Lecuona Cuban Boys

Konačno, za one znatiželjne Rumba Azul, evo ’s videozapisa na YouTubeu. Glazba počinje oko 30 sekundi, a tekstovi oko 90 sekundi.

Kao što je vjerojatno jasno, ovo je iznimno ambiciozan projekt, barem za mene, i vjerojatno će mu trebati mjeseci da se dovrši. Molim vas da me podnesete i često posjećujete stranicu.

Hvala vam na popustljivosti i nadam se da vam se post svidio. Ako nešto izgleda pogrešno, javite mi. Bilo bi mi drago ispraviti netočne podatke kako bi to moglo biti korisno drugim sakupljačima i grijačima razmjera 1/72. Kao i uvijek, komentari, pitanja, ispravke i zapažanja su dobrodošli.


Schweizer Luftwaffe - Povijest

Počeci vojnog zrakoplovstva u Švicarskoj mogu se pratiti do 1891. godine, kada je Glavni stožer razmatrao nabavu balona u zatočeništvu. S odobrenom kupnjom, grupa volontera javila se na dužnost u prvu školu za novačenje zračnih brodova u Bernu 1900. godine.

Dana 2. prosinca 1912., na svojoj općoj skupštini u Fribourgu, Švicarsko časničko društvo odlučilo je zatražiti od javnosti nacionalnu donaciju kako bi se osnovale švicarske zračne snage. Poziv su 1. siječnja 1913. potpisali ne samo visoki vojni zapovjednici i 39 članova Državnog vijeća i Nacionalnog vijeća, već i savezni vijećnik A. Hoffmann, načelnik Vojnog odjela. Naknadno organizirani letovi, događaji, kolekcije i posebna prodaja prikupili su impresivnu svotu od 1.734.564 CHF. Godine 1916. Vojni odjel nabavio je 17 zrakoplova, 14 pričuvnih motora i opreme te je dao izgraditi hangar u Dubendorfu po cijeni od 866.000 CHF, preuzetih iz zrakoplovnog fonda.

Čim je izbio rat, dužnosnici su odmah promijenili melodiju. Dana 31. srpnja 1914. Theodoru Realu, instruktoru konjanika i pilotu, povjereno je formiranje letačke službe. Prvo što je učinio bilo je zapovijedati s tri zrakoplova izložena na Nacionalnoj izložbi u Bernu. U prosincu 1914. godine jedinica se preselila s improviziranog aerodroma u Beundenfeldu u blizini nogometnog stadiona Wankdorf u Bernu u D bendorf blizu Zricha. Prva ispostava bila je u mjestu Claro u južnom švicarskom kantonu Ticino. Kako su sami piloti tijekom rata vidjeli malo akcije, umjesto toga su se koncentrirali na razvoj i obuku. Presudna važnost nadmoći u zraku, zračnog izviđanja i borbe zrak-zemlja postala je očita tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata (1914.-1918.). No, iako su Zračne snage tijekom tog rata brzo dobivale na važnosti, ipak nisu uspjele postići ratnički status. Međutim, postupno se zračne snage razvile u treću glavnu granu oružanih snaga, uz vojsku i mornaricu.

U razdoblju između ratova letaci, kojima je upravljao načelnik Odjela Glavnog stožera, smatrani su pomoćnom snagom. D bendorf, kao prvu stalnu zračnu bazu, slijedile su, od 1919. nadalje, one u Thunu i Lausanni, a kasnije Payerne (osnovan 1921.).

Daljnje prekretnice uključuju osnivanje, 1921., regrutnih škola zračnih snaga, dočasničkih škola i centara za obuku časnika, zatim je došlo do osnivanja današnjeg Medicinskog zavoda zračnih snaga 1924. godine, integraciju borbene taktike zrak-zemlja 1930. (privremeno prekinuta) od postupnog napuštanja Hunter flote 1994.) uvođenje Službe za promatranje i komunikaciju zrakoplova 1934. i 1938., otvaranje prve Škole za regrutiranje signala.

U listopadu 1936. dogodila se radikalna promjena. S obzirom na politička zbivanja u Europi i općenito naoružavanje, važnost zračnog ratovanja konačno je prepoznata i u Švicarskoj. Zbog toga su zračne snage proglašene službenim ogrankom obrambenih snaga, a stvoren je i Odjel za zrakoplovstvo i protuzrakoplovnu obranu, pod zapovjedništvom general-bojnika.

U siječnju 1937. švicarskom Ministarstvu zrakoplovstva i protuzračne obrane uručen je prvi zrakoplov B cker B 133C Jungmeister, koji je konstruiran u tvornici B cker blizu Berlina. U svibnju 1937. godine uslijedili su prvi borbeni zrakoplovi dvosjed K+W C-35 koji su bili mješovite konstrukcije. Although the 90 aircraft procured proved themselves, they were already outdated when delivered.

On 3 August 1936, under the command of the department for artillery, the first anti aircraft artillery recruit school (red AAA) with four officers, nine NCOs and 49 recruits was carried out at the Kloten military training grounds. Colonel Ernst von Schmid was the first school commander. Our anti aircraft artillery/AAA force was founded in 1936 because the Head of the Federal Military Department, Federal Councillor Rudolf Minger, ordered on 19 October 1936 the creation of the department of aviation and active air defence, which on 10 November 1936 already, was renamed Department of Aviation and Anti Aircraft Defence .

Within a remarkably short time, the aircrew strength was doubled, and the first batch of previously ordered Messerschmitt Bf 109 combat aircraft arrived just in time before World War Two broke out. In January 1939, the aviation corps received from Germany 10 Messerschmitt Bf 109D-1 David for re-training and in June of the same year 30 Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3 Emil fighters. When mobilisation was declared on 30 August 1939, Flight Coy 6 in Thun and Flight Coy 21 in Duebendorf had already been equipped with these state-of-the-art high-performance fighter aircraft, while the rest of the flying units had only the hopelessly obsolete Dewoitine D-27 fighter monoplanes and Fokker C.V-E reconnaissance aircraft as well as the K+W C-35 at their disposal. An additional 50 Bf 109E-3 aircraft were delivered to Switzerland after the outbreak of war, between October 1939 and April 1940.

The Swiss Air Force and Anti-Aircraft Defence Force were mobilised on August 28, 1939 - three days before the war broke out. With a total of 86 fighters and 121 reconnaissance and ground support aircraft at their disposal, only three of the 21 Air Force units were actually considered fit for active service five did not even have any aircraft. This deficiency was gradually made good by the procurement of further Messerschmitt fighters as well as several Morane-D-3800 fighters manufactured under license. 1943 was the year when the Federal Aircraft Factory in Emmen was founded.

The Air Force soon withdrew into the Alpine redoubt. Defended airfields were established, e.g. at Alpnach, Meiringen and Turtmann. In 1942/43 the Air Force firing range at Ebenfluh/Axalp was put into service. Established in 1941, the Air Surveillance Wing was ready for service from 1943 onwards. A night fighter wing, formed on a trial basis in 1944, was disbanded again in 1950.

Together with Anti-Aircraft Defence - then still in the process of formation - the Air Force did active service partly as a whole, and partly on a rotational basis. During the first months of the war, the Air Force and Anti-Aircraft Defence Force saw action only sporadically. But after May 10, 1940, when Germany launched its offensive against the West, triggering the second general mobilisation of the Army, violations of Swiss airspace by German aircraft multiplied.

The resolute fighting spirit of the Swiss pilots and gun crews, who saw the fiercest action at the beginning of June, was to become the impressive symbol of Switzerland's spirit of resistance. They shot down several aircraft of G ring's Luftwaffe in aerial combat, albeit at the cost of three airmen's lives. On June 20, effective until the end of October, 1943, the Swiss Supreme Commander, General Henri Guisan issued a ban on air combat activity above Swiss territory, for political reasons. In September 1944 a fatality occurred when a Swiss aircraft was shot down by a US crew.

Anti-Aircraft Defence was entrusted with the protection of Swiss neutrality. During the first months of the war it was only sporadically in action as the majority of frontier violations took place along the Swiss frontier. Later, the heavy anti-aircraft brigades were often in action and nearly all the batteries went into action at some point. The simple fact of their existence and their constant readiness for action played an important deterrent role. The Aerial Reconnaissance and Observer Corps played a particularly important part as it was the only source of information for the Air Force as well as for meteorological and ground observers. During the war there were 6,501 instances of border violation 244 foreign aircraft landed or crashed on, or were shot down over Swiss territory 1,620 aircrew were interned. As the war progressed, so did the mission of the Air Force and Anti-Aircraft Defence Force. Collaboration with the ground forces and inflexible organisation were among the areas most in need of improvement.

During the Cold War, a multitude of nuclear weapons and thousands of conventionally armed fighter bombers were stationed throughout Europe. The Warsaw Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) created a 'balance of terror.' Spurred on by this situation, aerial warfare technology raced ahead. These international developments had a direct bearing on Switzerland's overall armament strategy. With the introduction of the Vampire in 1946, the Air Force took an early and bold step into the jet age. Very soon a decision was made to invest in the building of caverns for aircraft, the establishment of command and control and an underground Operations Centre.

1954 was marked by three major events: the opening of the first Air Radar Recruit School, the commissioning of the first early warning radar systems and the introduction of the concept of mountain radar stations. This led, in 1965, to the acquisition of the early warning and command guidance system Florida, which is currently being replaced by the newer Florako system. In the Sixties, several important projects for the strengthening of ground-based anti-aircraft defence were realised, among them the radar-equipped medium-calibre guns with the integrated fire control system 63 'Superfledermaus,' as well as the Bloodhound missile system (in operation from 1964 to 1999).

Switzerland's own development of combat aircraft was discontinued in 1958 after the termination of Projects P-16 and N-20. In 1964 the procurement of the Mirage fighter (Mirage IIIS in operation until 1999) caused a scandal due to the severe budget overrun involved. Head of the Air Force Etienne Primault, Chief of the General Staff Jakob Annasohn and Defence Minister Paul Chaudet sooner or later all had to resign or left prematurely. What followed was the complete restructuring of the Air Force and Anti-Aircraft Defence Force effective as of February 1, 1968. This led to a separation of users and procurement officials. Air Force, Air Base Logistics and Anti-Aircraft Defence were converted into brigades, and the Armed Forces Meteorological Group and Avalanche Rescue Service were assigned to the Air Force and Anti-Aircraft Command. Today's Parascout Company was established in 1969.

1972 was the year of historic major maneuvers, with 22,000 participants, and also of the zero decision by the Swiss cabinet concerning the proposed procurement of a new ground support aircraft. The evaluation proceedings forming the basis for the decision between the American LTV A-7 Corsair II ground attack aircraft and the French Dassault Milan fighter-bomber caused a rift within the Air Force. The growing significance of electronic warfare brought about the first systems operator training programme, in 1979. C I Brigade 34, formed ad hoc in 1984, was converted to a regular brigade in 1991.

The end of the Cold War brought about a series of massive changes. The downsized Air Force of today is the outcome of the amalgamation of the Air Force and Anti-Aircraft Defence, implemented in 1996 as part of the reorganisation of the armed forces.

Time and again the Swiss Air Force has found itself at the mercy of the politicians. No other branch of the armed forces stirs up such strong feelings as the Air Force. Onet recent example of this is the 1993 referendum aimed at preventing the procurement of 34 McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet interceptor aircraft. As in 1912, however, the people decided in favor of their Air Force. and so YES to 34 FA-18 Hornets.

But on May 18, 2014 voters rejected the purchase of Swedish fighter jets for Switzerland s air force. Final results show 53.4% of voters came out against the acquisition of 22 JAS-39 Gripen fighter jets by the Swedish Saab company. It was the first major defeat for the government in a ballot on military matters for 20 years.


“Mosquitos über Berlin” covered by FalkeEins – The Luftwaffe Blog

Over the past few weeks, I had regular contact with Neil over at FalkeEins, one of the leading Luftwaffe Blog site.

Neil was kind enough to pick up the topic of Mosquitos, Messerschmitt Me 262 Night Fightgers, and the Nachtjagd with the jets. He had some interesting interview questions that I hope I was able to provide him with some interesting answers and background information.

If you are interested, head over to his space at FalkeEins Blogspot…


V1 Rocket - Flying Bomb V-1

By September 1944, the V-1 threat to England was temporarily halted when the launch sites on the French coast were overrun by the advancing Allied armies. 4,261 V-1s had been destroyed by fighters, anti-aircraft fire and barrage balloons.


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V1 Rocket - Flying Bomb


The Vergeltungswaffe 1 FZG-76 (V1), known as the Flying Bomb, Buzz Bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. Vergeltungswaffe means "reprisal weapon", and FZG is an abbreviation of Flak Ziel Ger?t ("anti-aircraft aiming device"), a misleading name.

Called the Buzz Bomb because of the of the engine it caused considerable fear in the population of London. People would listen for the sound approaching, but then be relieved when it sounded overhead as that meant the bomb had actually passed them.

Developed in Germany during WW II it was used initially against England, mainly London from "ski-jump" launch sites along the French (Pas-de-Calais) and Dutch coasts until they were over-run. It was superseded by the V2 rocket

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It was a simple device, designed by Robert Liisser of the Fieseler company as the Fi 103 and could be constructed in around fifty man-hours of mainly sheet metal. It was powered by an Argus pulse jet engine providing 660lb (300kg) of thrust for a top speed of 390mph and a range of around 150 miles (later the range was extended to 250 miles). It was 26 feet (7.9m) long, 17 ft (5.3m) in span, it weighed 4,800lb (2180kg) and carried a 1870lb (850kg) warhead.

The guidance system was very crude in construction but sophisticated in conception (and had a few flaws in execution). Once clear of the launching pad, an autopilot was engaged. It regulated height and speed together, using a weighted pendulum system to get fore and aft feedback linking these and the device's attitude to control its pitch (damped by a gyromagnetic compass, which it also stabilised). There was a more sophisticated interaction between yaw, roll, and other sensors: a gyromagnetic compass (set by swinging in a hangar before launch) gave feedback to control each of pitch and roll, but it was angled away from the horizontal so that controlling these degrees of freedom interacted (the gyroscope stayed trued up by feedback from the magnetic field, and from the fore and aft pendulum mentioned before). This interaction meant that rudder control was sufficient without any separate banking mechanism. On reaching the target, the desired altitude was reset to be negative this should have led to a power dive, but the steep descent caused the fuel to run away from the pipes and so the power cut out. As there was a belly fuse as well as a nose fuse, there was still usually an explosion although not always with the device buried deep enough to increase the effect of the blast.

The first test flight of a V1 was in late 1941 or early 1942 at Peenem?nde. The first offensive launch was on June 12, 1944. The Allies organised a heavy series of air attacks on the launch sites and also attacked the V1s in flight. Due to defensive measures and guidance errors, only a quarter successfully hit their target.

Once the Allies had captured the launch sites that allowed the V1s to hit England the remaining missile strikes were against the port of Antwerp.

Almost 30,000 V1s were manufactured. about 10,000 were fired at England up to March 29, 1945. Of these, about 7000 were "hits" in the sense that they landed somewhere in England, and a little more than half of those (3876) landed in the Greater London area.

An almost equal number were shot down or intercepted by barrage balloons. When the V1 raids began, the only effective defence was interception by a handful of very high performance fighter aircraft, in particular the Hawker Tempest.

Anti-aircraft gunners found that such small, fast-moving targets were difficult to hit, and most fighter aircraft were too slow to catch a V1 unless they had a useful height advantage. Even when caught, the V1 was difficult to bring down: machine gun bullets had little effect on the sheet steel structure and 20mm cannon shells had a shorter range, which meant that setting the warhead off could all too easily destroy the fighter aircraft as well.

When the attacks began in mid-June 1944 there were less than 30 Tempests in 150 Wing to defend against them, and few other aircraft had the low altitude performance to be effective. Initial attempts to intercept V1s were often unsuccessful, but aiming techniques were rapidly developed. (Including the hair raising but effective method of simply flying so close alongside that the airflow disturbed the buzz bomb's gyros and sent it out of control.)

The Tempest wing was built up to over 100 aircraft by September Griffin-engined Spitfire XIVs and Mustangs were polished and tuned to make them almost fast enough, and during the short summer nights the Tempests shared defensive duty with Mosquitoes. (There was no need for radar - at night the V1's engine could be seen from 10 miles or more away.)

In daylight, V1 chases were chaotic and often unsuccessful until a special defence zone between London and the coast was declared in which only the fastest fighters were permitted. Between June and mid-August 1944, the handful of Tempests shot down 638 flying bombs. (One Tempest pilot, Joseph Berry, downed fifty-nine V1s, another 44, and Wing Commander Beaumont himself destroyed 31.) Next most successful was the Mosquito (428), Spitfire XIV (303), and Mustang, (232). All other types combined added 158. The still-experimental jet-powered Gloster Meteor, which was rushed half-ready into service to fight the V1s, had ample speed but suffered from jamming cannon and accounted for only 13.

In mid-August 1944, the threat was all but overcome - not by aircraft, but by the sudden arrival of two enormously effective electronic aids for anti-aircraft guns, both developed in the USA by the Rad Lab: radar-based automatic gunlaying, and above all, the proximity fuse. Within weeks, the vast majority of V1s launched were shot down by anti-aircraft guns as they crossed the coast.


V1 Experimental and long-range variants

Late in the ww2r, several air-launched piloted V-1s, known as Reichenbergs, were built, but never used in combat. Hanna Reitsch made some flights in the modified V-1 Fieseler Reichenberg when she was asked to find out why test pilots were unable to land it and had died as a result. She discovered, after simulated landing attempts at high altitude where there was air space to recover, that the craft had an extremely high stall speed and the previous pilots with little high speed experience had attempted their approaches much too slowly. Her recommendation of much higher landing speeds was then introduced in training new Reichenberg volunteer pilots. The Reichenbergs were air-launched rather than fired from a catapult ramp as erroneously portrayed in Operation Crossbow.

There were plans, not put into practice, to use the Arado Ar 234 jet bomber to launch V-1s either by towing them aloft or by launching them from a "piggy back" position (in the manner of the Mistel, but in reverse) atop the aircraft. In the latter configuration, a pilot-operated hydraulic arrangement would lift the missile on its launch cradle some eight feet clear of the 234's dorsal fuselage. This was necessary to avoid damaging the mother craft when the pulse jet ignited, as well as to ensure a 'clean' airflow for the Argus motor's intake. A somewhat less ambitious project undertaken was the adaptation of the missile as a 'flying fuel tank' for the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter. The pulse-jet, internal systems and warhead of the missile were removed, leaving only the wings and basic fuselage, now containing a single large fuel tank. A small cylindrical module, similar in shape to a finless dart, was placed atop the vertical stabilizer at the rear of the tank, acting as a centre of gravity balance and attachment point for a variety of equipment sets. A rigid tow-bar with a pitch pivot at the forward end connected the flying tank to the Me 262. The operational procedure for this unusual configuration saw the tank resting on a wheeled trolley for take-off. The trolley was dropped once the combination was airborne, and explosive bolts separated the towbar from the fighter upon exhaustion of the tank's fuel supply. A number of test flights were conducted in 1944 with this set-up, but inflight "porpoising" of the tank, with the instability transferred to the fighter, meant the system was too unreliable to be used. An identical utilisation of the V-1 flying tank for the Ar 234 bomber was also investigated, with the same conclusions reached. Some of the "flying fuel tanks" used in trials utilised a cumbersome fixed and spatted undercarriage arrangement, which (along with being pointless) merely increased the drag and stability problems already inherent in the design.

One variant of the basic Fi 103 design did see operational use. The progressive loss of French launch sites as 1944 proceeded and the area of territory under German control shrank meant that soon the V-1 would lack the range to hit targets in England. Air-launching was one alternative utilised, but the most obvious solution was to extend the missile's range. Thus the F-1 version developed. The weapon's fuel tank was increased in size, with a corresponding reduction in the capacity of the warhead. Additionally, the nose-cones of the F-1 models were made of wood, affording a considerable weight saving. With these modifications, the V-1 could be fired at London and nearby urban centres from prospective ground sites in the Netherlands. Frantic efforts were made to construct sufficient F-1s so that a large-scale bombardment campaign could coincide with the Ardennes Offensive, but numerous factors (bombing of the factories producing the missiles, shortages of steel and rail transport, the chaotic tactical situation Germany was facing at this point in the war etc) delayed the delivery of these long-range V-1s until February/March 1945. Before the V-1 campaign ended for good at the end of the latter month, several hundred F-1s were launched at Britain from Dutch sites.

Almost 30,000 V-1s were made by March 1944, they were produced in 350 hours (including 120 for the autopilot), at a cost of just 4% of a V-2, which delivered a comparable payload. Approximately 10,000 were fired at England 2,419 reached London, killing about 6,184 people and injuring 17,981.[11] The greatest density of hits were received by Croydon, on the southeast fringe of London. Antwerp, Belgium was hit by 2,448 V-1s from October 1944 to March 1945

To adjust and correct settings in the V-1 guidance system, the Germans needed to know where the V-1s were landing. Therefore, German intelligence was requested to obtain this impact data from their agents in Britain. However, all German agents in Britain had been turned, and were double agents under British control (the Double Cross System).

On 16 June 1944, British double agent Garbo (Juan Pujol) was requested by his German controllers to give information on the sites and times of V-1 impacts, with similar requests made to the other German agents in Britain, Brutus (Roman Czerniawski) and Tate. If given this data, the Germans would be able to adjust their aim and correct any shortfall. However, there was no plausible reason why the double agents could not supply accurate data the impacts would be common knowledge amongst Londoners and very likely reported in the press, which the Germans had ready access to through the neutral nations. In addition, as John Cecil Masterman, chairman of the Twenty Committee, commented, "if St Paul's Cathedral were hit, 'it would be useless and harmful to report that the bombs had descended upon a cinema in Islington.

While the British decided how to react, Pujol played for time. On 18 June it was decided that the double agents would report the damage caused by V-1s fairly accurately and minimise the effect they had on civilian morale. It was also decided that Pujol should avoid giving the times of impacts, and should mostly report on those which occurred in the north west of London, to give the impression to the Germans that they were overshooting the target area.

While Pujol had been downplaying the extent of V-1 damage, an uncontrolled agent in Lisbon codenamed Ostro had exaggerated in the other direction, reporting to the Germans that London had been turned into a wasteland and had been mostly evacuated due to enormous numbers of casualties. Due to an inability to perform aerial reconnaissance of London, the Germans believed Ostro's reports in preference to those of Pujol, and believed that the Allies would make every effort to destroy the V-1 launch sites in France. Due to Ultra however, the Allies read his messages and were able to adjust for them.

A certain number of the V-1s fired had been fitted with radio transmitters, which had clearly demonstrated a tendency for the V-1 to fall short. Max Wachtel, commander of Flak Regiment 155(W), which was responsible for the V-1 offensive, compared the data gathered by the transmitters with the reports obtained through the double agents. He concluded, when faced with the discrepancy between the two sets of data, that there must be a fault with the radio transmitters, as he had been assured that the agents were completely reliable. It was later calculated that if Wachtel had disregarded the agents' reports and relied on the radio data, he would have made the correct adjustments to the V-1's guidance, and casualties might have increased by 50% or more.

The policy of diverting V-1 impacts away from central London was initially controversial. The War Cabinet refused to authorise a measure which would increase casualties in any area, even if it reduced casualties elsewhere by greater amounts. It was thought that Churchill would reverse this decision later (he was then away at a conference) but the delay in starting the reports to Germans might be fatal to the deception. So Sir Findlater Stewart of Home Defence Executive took responsibility for starting the deception programme immediately. His action was approved by Churchill when he returned

In 1943, an Argus pulse jet engine was shipped to Japan by German submarine. The Aeronautical Institute of Tokyo Imperial University and the Kawanishi Aircraft Company conducted a joint study of the feasibility of mounting a similar engine on a piloted plane. The resulting design was based on the Fieseler Fi-103 Reichenberg (Fi 103R, a piloted V1), and was named Baika ("ume blossom").

Baika never left the design stage but technical drawings and notes suggest that two versions were under consideration: an air-launch version with the engine mounted under the fuselage, and a ground-launch version that could take off without a ramp.

Intelligence reports of the new Baika weapon are rumored to be the source of the name given to the Yokosuka MXY-7, a rocket-propelled suicide plane better known as the "Baka Bomb". However, as baka means "fool" or "idiot" in Japanese, and the MXY-7 was officially designated the "Ohka", the true origin is unknown.[citation needed] The MXY-7 was usually carried by the G4M2e version of the Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" naval bomber, then the pilot lit the solid-fuel rockets and guided his flying bomb into a ship.

Another Japanese Fi 103 version was the Mizuno Shinryu, a proposed rocket-powered kamikaze aircraft design which was not built.


Messerschmitt Bf 109 shoots down barrage balloon - History


Messerschmitt Bf 109G-6. Luftwaffe photograph.

The Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter was flown by many of the top scoring Luftwaffe fighter pilots during WW II. The top fighter pilot of all time, Erich Hartmann (who flew 1,400 missions, shot down 352 enemy planes--mostly on the Eastern Front--and was proudest of the fact that he never lost a wingman), and the second highest scoring fighter pilot of all time, Gerhard Barkhorn (301 victories, all on the Eastern Front), both flew the Bf 109. So did the third highest scoring ace of all time, Gunther Rall (275 victories). The top scoring German ace of the Western front, Hans-Joachim Marseille (158 victories), also flew the Bf 109. As did the first "General of Fighters", Werner Molders (115 victories), and his famous successor in that job, Adolf Galland (104 victories).

Squadron Commander Heinz Knoke, who wrote the fascinating book I Flew For the Furher had 33 victories (plus 5 that were not confirmed before the end of the war), 19 of them 4-engine bombers. Knoke logged over 2,000 flights and over 400 combat missions, all in the Bf 109.

The prototype Messerschmitt Bf 109 first flew in 1935. It participated in trials to become the new fighter of the expanding Luftwaffe and won decisively. The successful new fighter prototype was a low wing, all metal monoplane with an enclosed cockpit and retractable landing gear the type of fighter that became the mainstay of all sides in WW II. But the Bf 109 was the first such fighter to appear in service.

Conceptually, the Bf 109 was basically the smallest airframe that Willy Messerschmitt could devise attached to the most powerful engine. This was intended to be the Daimler-Benz DB 600 series, but that great engine was not yet ready and Jumo 210 series engines were used in the initial Bf 109 production models. This concept proved to be a very successful formula that could be progressively upgraded. The Bf 109 remained a formidable air superiority fighter throughout WW II.

But the type was not without its flaws. Notable among these were its narrow track undercariage that made ground handling tricky. Its small cackpit was cramped, and the hood had too many metal braces and a poor field of view aft. (It was to be years before the "Galland" canopy solved that problem.) Another problem that plagued the type throughout its production life was that its control forces became progressively heavier as speed increased. Manuverability was very good at low and medium speed, but deteriorated greatly at high speed. And the type's short range was to prove its downfall on both the Western and Eastern Fronts, severely limiting its tactical utility.

In February 1937 the Messerschmitt Bf 109B, the first production version, started coming off the assembly line. About a year later the similar Bf 109C came into service. The B and C models were powered by a liquid-cooled, 720-730 h.p., inverted V-12 Jumo 210 engine. They had a top speed of about 290 m.p.h. at 14,765 feet. The 109B's armament was two 8mm machine guns mounted in the forward cowl above the engine. In the C model this was augmented by the addition of an additional 8mm MG in each wing.

The small, fast Messerschmitt fighter first proved its worth in Spain, during the Civil War. There the Condor Legion's 109B's quickly achieved air superiority over the Russian I-15 and I-16 fighters used by the other side. Werner Molders, the first German pilot to score over 100 victories, scored 14 victories during the Spanish Civil War.

By 1938, the "D" model had arrived. This model had a top speed of about 304 m.p.h. at altitude, still powered by the Jumo 210 engine. Armament was 4-8mm machine guns. Before the end of that year, the German fighter squadrons were entirely equipped with "D" models. During the Blitzkrieg across Poland, Belgium, Holland, and France in 1939-40, the 109D series bore the brunt of the air fighting, and proved more than a match for the first line fighters of those nations, quickly achieving aerial superiority. By then, the latest version of the 109D-1 had the superior DB 600 inverted V-12, 960 horsepower engine for which the ME 109 had been designed. The D-1 had a top speed of about 320 m.p.h.

In France, the 109D first met the Hurricane Mk. I of the British Royal Air Force, and serious opposition. The Hawker fighter suffered slightly on paper compared to the Messerschmitt 109D, but in actual combat the German fighter's margin of superiority was slender indeed. The Hurricane I had a top speed of about 316 m.p.h.

The Messerschmitt model that bore the brunt of the Battle of Britain was the Bf 109E. It started coming into service in 1939, and by 1940 was the first line Luftwaffe fighter. Power for the "E" model was the improved, fuel injected, supercharged, Daimler-Benz DB 601A engine. It developed 1,175 hp (at 2,400 r.p.m.). This was one of the finest engines of its time, and it gave the "E" a top speed of 354 m.p.h. and a best climb rate of 2,990 ft./min.

The 109E compared very closely in performance to the British Spitfire I and II, and was clearly superior to the Hurricane I and II, the principal fighters on the British side of the Battle of Britain. It was also usually better armed than the 8-gun British fighters, with two cowl mounted 8mm machine guns and a 20mm cannon in each wing. Its main drawback as a bomber escort was its limited range, which led directly to the British triumph in the Battle. Purely as a fighter, the Bf 109E was second to none.

Bf 109E variants included tropical, photo-recon, and fighter-bomber versions. The E-7 had provision for a 66 gallon external drop tank, but this appeared too late for the Battle of Britain, where it might have made all the difference. Horsepower was incrementally increased to 1,350 in the E-8, which used a DB601E engine.

The basic specifications of the Bf 109E follow (from The Fighter Aircraft Pocketbook by Roy Cross.


Diving the Lancaster Bomber

The well scattered remains of the Lancaster bomber were found by Exeter BSAC on 13th April 1975, on the south side of the Breakwater at the western end in a depth of 15m. On 22nd November 1975 the Devon Aircraft Research & Recovery Team (DARTT) assisted by local divers recovered one of the Alison Merlin Engines and one of the front oleo legs with an intact and inflated tyre.

The engines and pieces of airframe were visible in the sand amongst the boulders that make up the breakwater but are now mostly gone, some buried by the recent addition of more blocks used to reinforce the breakwater.

Any aircraft which has crashed during military service that is found in UK waters is covered by the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986.

Mallory and Peter are keen to hear from anyone who may have any information about the wreck, or any aircrafts which crashed in the sound.

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You can get in touch with The Ships Project, here.

What is the German ME-109?

The propeller is believed to be from the German ME-109.

Its proper name is the Messerschmitt Bf 109, which is a German World War II fighter aircraft, and was the main aircraft used by the Nazi air force.

It was one of the most advanced fighter aircrafts and was first brought into service in 1937 during the Spanish Cival War, and was still used until the end of World War II.

A website which details the history of shipwrecks and history in Plymouth Sound states: "On 16th May 1942 at 12:52 pm, six aircraft from 10/JG 2 made a low level attack on warships in Plymouth Sound.

"Two bombs near missed SS Torkel and one near missed BV 7. HMS Brocklesby was machine gunned and HMS Wolverine near missed by two bombs, one rating on the Wolverine was killed and three slightly injured on the Brocklesby.

"Cleveland, Brocklesby and Wolverine all opened fire and shot down one aeroplane which crashed into the sea in Cawsand Bay.

"The aircraft shot down was a Messerschmitt BF 109f-4 (13014) Blue 8 piloted by Lt. Hans-Joachim Schulz. The body of the pilot was recovered on 2nd June from the crashed aircraft and was buried with full military honours in Ford Park cemetery by RAF personnel from Mount Batten (1, 2).

"In 1959 the bodies of the majority of German servicemen who died on British soil were moved to the German CWGC cemetery at Cannock Chase in Staffordshire, where Lt Schulz is now buried in Block 7, Grave 117.

"A local Plymouth diver recovered the DB601D engine from this aircraft from Cawsand Bay in 1982 when working at RAF Mount Batten.

"The engine was later taken to Flambards amusement park where it became part of an aircraft exhibition, the engine was located in 2013 but has now disappeared."

The history website asks that if anyone has information about the wreck, please get in touch, here.


#8 – Hitler’s Revenge Bombing Took Focus Away from the Real Fight

The defeat of the Luftwaffe was sealed through a mixture of accident and Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s cunning.

On the 24 th of August, a German plane accidentally went off target and bombed civilian buildings in London. In response, Churchill ordered a retaliatory strike against Berlin. Of 81 bombers sent out by the British the next night, only 29 reached the German capital. They didn’t do much damage, but they didn’t need to.

The attack provoked Hitler, who had promised the Germans that no such thing would happen to them. Abandoning his focus on destroying the RAF, he turned his bombers on British cities. Starting on the 7 th of September, hundreds of tons of bombs were deliberately dropped on London and other cities in a series of raids known as the Blitz.

By taking pressure off the RAF, the Blitz gave them time to recover. Soon they were shooting down bombers faster than the Germans could make them. The work of the preceding weeks was undone. Though no-one knew it yet, the outcome of the Battle of Britain had been decided.


Gledaj video: Messerschmitt Bf-109 G14 Schwarze2 LOW u0026 LOUD (Studeni 2021).