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Dvorac Chester

Dvorac Chester


Prednja vrata web lokacije Pretražite Indeks web mjesta Pogledajte kartu rute Kratak uvod u Chester Northgate Sjeverni zid Toranj Phoenix Kaleyard vrata Katedrala Eastgate Newgate i pojačalo Wolfgate Amfiteatar / galerija Komentari amfiteatra Ivana "Rimski vrt" Park River Dee inc Grosvenor Bridgegate Dvorac Most Grosvenor Roodee Watergate Ambulanta Vodeni toranj Tower Wharf Martinova vrata Most uzdaha Posjetitelji Chestera kroz vrijeme Redovi Chestera Galerija Chester Stare karte i fotografije iz zraka Stare fotografije Chestera i pojačala Liverpool Nestali Chester pubovi / galerija Kina Chester Stara luka Chesterski kanal Kazalište Royalty Galerija Chris Langford Galerija Mystery Plays Chester anagrami! Šetnja željeznicom MickleTrafford Pisma o CDTS Buswayu Pisma o našoj web stranici Mjesto slike B & ampW Veze do zanimljivih mjesta Oglašavajte se s nama Pišite nam

napuštamo most Old Dee i tutnjavom bure iza nas, dolazimo do dijela drevnih gradskih zidina Chestera koji je kroz stoljeća doživio znatne promjene.

Bez sumnje, ovaj komad uzvišenja koji rijeka Dee prelazi u postupnu krivulju imao je stratešku važnost od najstarijih vremena, a oko 907. godine, Sasi Mercije pod Aethelfledom, kao dio njihove ponovne okupacije stare rimske tvrđave , podigli su ovdje utvrđenu bazu i uključili je u svoj produžetak do zidina, kako bi služili kao dio njihove obrane od Danaca, a zatim su istjerani iz Irske i tražili novu zemlju koju bi zauzeli.

Od ove saske tvrđave nije ostalo ni traga, a o mjestu se zna vrlo malo više sve do zime 1069.-70., Kada je vojska vojvode Williama od Normandije došla u Saski Chester, koji je postao posljednji preostali veliki grad u Engleskoj koji je pao Osvajačev mač tijekom posljednje faze Harrying of the North 1069.-70., Potpuno tri godine nakon bitke za Hastings.

Normanskom vojskom odavno su kružile brojne glasine o lošim cestama, položaju grada- okruženom gustim šumama i izdajničkim močvarama- njegovih brojnih stanovnika- te o njihovoj tvrdoglavoj hrabrosti i smrtonosnom poznavanju dugačkog luka. Mnogi Williamovi plemići, iscrpljeni borbama na sjeveru i uznemireni tim pričama, zahtijevali su njihovo otpuštanje. Neki su se zapravo povukli u Normandiju, napuštajući zemlje s kojima su već bili nagrađeni, ali su uvjerljive moći vojvode Williama prevladale- obećao im je velike nagrade i, budući da je osvajanje Chestera bio posljednji od njegovih projekata, da će pronaći odmor nakon ove konačne pobjede.

Kako se ispostavilo, kako je normanska vojska prevladala. Vjeruje se da je broj smrtnih slučajeva tijekom kampanje bio oko 150.000, s znatnom društvenom, kulturnom i ekonomskom štetom. Zbog nemilosrdne i nasilne politike "normirane zemlje", koju su Normani koristili, velik dio zemlje je opustošen i ispražnjen. U dijelovima sjevera šteta je bila takva da su preživjeli morali pribjeći kanibalizmu. Neizbježno je uslijedila kuga. Sve u svemu, oko petina stanovništva Engleske možda je umrla tijekom Normanskog osvajanja. Znamo malo o bitci za Chester ili broju žrtava, ali znamo da je vrlo velik dio kuća u gradu uništen.

William je dodijelio grof od Chestera najprije Walteru de Gherbaudu- koji se, međutim, ubrzo vratio lakom životu u Normandiji- a zatim i svom nećaku, Hughu D'Avranchesu- poznatom kao Lupus (vuk), ali u kasnijem životu, posebno od Velšana, kao Hugh Vras (Hugh debeli) - "Držati njega i njegove nasljednike jednako mačem kao što kralj drži englesku krunu".

Grof je postao vrlo moćan i praktički neovisan o kruni, grof je imao vlastiti parlament koji se sastojao od osam njegovih izabranih baruna i njihovih stanara, a na njih ni na koji način nisu bili vezani zakoni koje je donio engleski parlament, osim zakona izdaja.

Hugh je podigao tipično normansko drvo motte i bailey ovdje dvorac koji je uskoro obnovljen u trajnom kamenu. O sudbini saskog uporišta koje je ranije zauzimalo to mjesto ne znamo baš ništa, ali je njegov normanski nasljednik tijekom stoljeća prerastao u strašnu obrambenu strukturu od velike strateške važnosti.

Nakon što je Kruna pripojila grofovinu Chester 1237. godine, kada je posljednji normanski grof umro bez problema, Henrik III i Edward I uvelike su uvećali i ojačali, osobito u vanjskom dvorištu, gdje je palaču zamijenio veliki kamen zid u 1247-51.

Dvorac Chester bio je granična baza s koje je Sjeverni Wales napadnut i na kraju osvojen u 12. i 13. stoljeću, a tu su se nalazile državna blagajna, sudovi i zatvor, kao i garnizon.

1246. godine Owen ap Gruffydd (Owain Gwynneth) pobjegao je iz zatvora ovdje kako bi se pridružio svom bratu Llewelyn u borbi protiv Engleza, pod čijim su vodstvom 1257. god "opustošio zemlju do samih vrata grada".

U 1276-7 Edward je dva puta dolazio u Chester da pozove Llewellyn da sklopi mir, ali je svaki put odbijen, na temelju toga što se princ od Walesa "bojao za svoju sigurnost", nakon čega je kralj opsjedao Dvorac Rhuddlan, gdje je Llewellyn gladovao u pokornosti.

1397. zabilježeno je da je zamjenik policajca u dvorcu Chester, Thomas le Wodeward, preuzeo određene nove zalihe:

• 11 željeznih ogrlica i 2 bruto željeznog lanca.
• 2 para željeznih pojaseva s okovima
• 2 para željeznih lisica s 4 željezna okova
• 7 pari željeznih okova za stopala s 3 okova
• 1 hasp za dionice

Godine 1399 Henry Bolingbroke, Vojvoda od Lancastera, zauzeo je Chester, ubrzo nakon što je okupio svoje trupe pod zidinama i krenuo protiv Richarda II. Dvorac Flint. Vratio se u Chester sa nesretnim monarhom (odjeven u redovničku haljinu u kojoj je pokušao pobjeći) i grofom od Salisburyja "uzjašenim na dva mala bijela nageta vrijedna 40 franaka" i smjestio ih u Dvorac. Nakon što su se odmorili u tornju iznad vanjskog ulaza, otpraćeni su do Westminstera. Bolingbroke je svrgnuo Richarda, koji je sljedeće godine ubijen u zatvoru, a parlament ga je izabrao za kralja Henryja IV.

Te je velike događaje, naravno, ovjekovječio Shakespeare, i John Speed komentirao je Richarda: "Ako je poštedio ljutnju svojih ljudi, bio je tako skromno zadovoljan da je napustio kraljevsko pravo, ta činjenica ne samo da izgleda opravdljivo, već i veličanstveno, već ljudi radije misle da je to lijenost i uzaludno povjerenje u oponašanje njegovih neprijatelja odavno otkrio u njemu. "

Nakon stoljeća službe (od Saksonaca do Edvardijana 20. stoljeća, arhitekata izgrađenih zauvijek, a ne samo desetljeća kao sada), dvorac Chester pretrpio je ozbiljna oštećenja tijekom građanskog rata, a do 18. stoljeća bilo mu je dopušteno da padne u stanje napredno propadanje.

Poslije rata, Oliver Cromwell naredio mnoge dvorce- poput onog u blizini Liverpool- biti djelomično ili potpuno srušeni kako se ne bi mogli ponovno koristiti za ratovanje, ali ovdje su u Chesteru najmanje oštećeni dijelovi zgrade nastavili koristiti pisanje dvorca Chester u Vale Royal iz Engleske 1651. godine, Daniel King zabilježio da, "Dvorac je mjesto koje ima privilegije za sebe, a ima i policajca. Na prvom ulazu je Vrata-kuća, koja je zatvor za cijelu županiju, s različitim prostorijama i prenoćištem. A teško je unutar Vrata kuća , koja je nekad bila Državna blagajna, ali sada Carinarnica. Nedaleko odatle na Osnovnom sudu nalazi se duboki bunar, a samim tim i staje, te drugi uredski domovi. S lijeve strane nalazi se kapelica i tvrda tako da joj se pridružuju dobro pošteno i veliko Shire-Hall novo popravljeno gdje se čuju i sudski utvrđuju sve pravne stvari koje se tiču ​​županije Palatine. I na kraju hrabra nova državna blagajna za spomenutu županiju Palatine. Sve su to na Osnovnom sudu. Zatim u Unutarnji odjel nalazi se most za izvlačenje, gdje su ronioci dobri smještaj za suce, kada dođu: I ovdje stanuje sam pozornik. Lopovi i feloni raspoređeni su u spomenutu Shire-Hall i, osuđeni, pozornik dvorca ili njegov zamjenik y, isporučeno šerifima grada, na određenoj udaljenosti bez Vrata dvorca, kod kamena zvanog Kamen Glovers s kojeg mjesta ih navedeni šerifi prenose do mjesta pogubljenja, tzv. Boughton"

Drugi izvor bilježi da su ti zločinci predani "u Glovers Stouneu takvom časniku iz Cittieja Chestera, u i odatle da ih šiba kroz Cittie".

U godinama nakon toga, ono što se pretpostavlja da je stari Kamen Glovers koji je dugo označavao granicu ove 'ničije zemlje' između vlasti Crown i City-a izvan vrata dvorca premješteno je u mali vrtni prostor ispod gradskih zidina i blizu Vodeni toranj, gdje se može vidjeti i danas.

1696. u dvorcu Chester postavljena je kovnica novca. To je bio dio napora za potpuno obnavljanje nacionalne valute, a jedan od njih bio je zadužen u Londonu Isaac Newton (kasnije viteški za te napore, ali ne i za svoju znanost). Da preuzme odgovornost nad kovnicom novca Chester imenovao je velikog astronoma Edmund Halley (on je kometske slave), koji je ovdje proveo dvije godine. Mjesto kovnice označeno je na natpisima koje je postavila engleska baština, odmah iza Half Moon Towera- i možete pročitati neke od Halleyjevih sjećanja na njegovo vrijeme u Chesteru ovdje.

Danas se, usput rečeno, britanska valuta- kao i kovani novac i novčanice mnogih drugih zemalja- proizvodi samo na jednom mjestu, Kraljevskoj kovnici novca u Pontyclunu, Južni Wales.

Dva akvarela gore pored Moses Griffith (1747-1819) prikazuje dvorac Chester kakav se pojavio oko 1750. godine, trideset i kusur godina prije gotovo potpunog rušenja i obnove-kao što to čini i moderni crtež David Vale Vale koji se nalazi na višoj stranici. Kad pogledamo veličanstvene ostatke Dvorac Conwy i drugih velikih Edvardijanskih uporišta u susjednom Sjevernom Walesu, lako je osjetiti veliko žaljenje što više drevnog materijala dvorca Chester nije dopušteno preživjeti do danas.

Na ilustraciji možete vidjeti preko vanjske ograde do velikog vanjskog ulaza, izgrađenog oko 1292. godine, čija su dva visoka tornja s polu bubnjem okružena pokretnim mostom preko jarka prorezanog više od osam metara ispod moderne površine. S lijeve strane je Velika dvorana ili Shire Hall iz 1250-3 (obnovljena 1579-81) u kojoj su se nalazili sudovi županijskih sudaca, a na njezinom južnom kraju nalazio se Državni sud županijske palatine u Chesteru. Tu su 3. veljače 1646. građani Chestera dovršili kapitulaciju svog grada pred Parlamentom nakon duge i krvave opsade.

Desno: Dvorac Chester zapisan olovkom i tintom u Danielu Kingu u 'Vale Royal of England', 1656., desetljeće nakon završetka građanskog rata. Marije, stara Bridgegate a jasno su vidljiva i sada nestala utvrđenja na južnom kraju mosta Old Dee.

Također možemo vidjeti crkvu sv. Marije na brdu (normanski temelj, obnovljen u 16. stoljeću, koji je obnovio Harrison 1861-2, a opet Seddon 1891.), krajnje lijevo i iznad nje Stari most Dee prelazi rijeku Dee, što čini i do danas. Crkva je poznata i pod imenom Sveta Marija-unutar-zidova kako bi se razlikovala od prve crkve koja je sagrađena s druge strane rijeke, Sv. Marije-bez-zidova u Handbridgeu, čiji je fini visoki toranj jasno vidljiv sa svih strana. Izgrađen 1887., zauzimajući mjesto rimskog groblja, bio je dar gradu od vojvode od Westminstera.

Sveta Marija-unutar-zidova, međutim, ima daleko dublju povijest. Prvotna crkva na tom mjestu, koja datira s početka 12. stoljeća, bila je poznata kao Sveta Marija de Castro ('dvorca'). Trijem sadašnje građevine sadrži kamenje doneseno iz samostan sv. Marije, koji je nekoć stajao s pogledom na Roodee gdje je sada ružna zgrada sjedišta policije. Toranj je nekad bio mnogo niži nego što je danas- zbog predostrožnosti od napada bilo kojoj susjednoj zgradi bilo je zabranjeno gledati na zidine dvorca. Ukrašeno izrezbarene gornje dijelove tornja koje danas vidimo dodao je obnovitelj dvorca Thomas Harrison sredinom 19. stoljeća. Unutrašnjost crkve vrlo je fina i može se pohvaliti sjajnim unutarnjim krovom od engleskog hrasta, donesenim s Opatija Basingwerk (čije slikovite ruševine još uvijek preživljavaju u blizini Holywell u Sjevernom Walesu) kada su tu ustanovu raspustili agenti kralja Henrika VIII. Ovdje su pokopani mnogi od najvećih građana Chestera, a neki od njihovih spomenika vjerojatno će iznenaditi posjetitelja jer su obojeni jarkim bojama. Crkva je dekonsekrirana 1972. godine, a danas je u njoj obrazovni centar kojim upravlja Vijeće okruga Cheshire.

U 18. stoljeću u dvorcu Chester dogodio se izvanredan događaj u ranoj povijesti avance, koji je zabilježio godinu dana nakon što ga je poduzeo & lsquopilot & rsquo, Thomas Baldwin, u svojoj knjizi, AIROPAIDIJA: Sadrži pripovijest o IZLETU BALONOM iz CHESTERA.

Napisao je, & ldquoU četvrtak, 8. rujna 1785. godine, u šest ujutro, jedan od topova (šest metaka) prvi je put ispaljen u dvorištu Dvorca, kako bi obavijestio grad i susjedstvo da su potrebne pripreme za napuhavanje balona U točki xii top je pucao drugi put, objavljujući da je proces u odgovarajućem stupnju napredovanja.
Prije pola jedan, gospodin Lunardi je napuhao svoj balon na najfiniji način, a u 40. minuti jedan, balon koji je imao lakoću čija težina ne bi mogla biti manja od 20 kilograma, gospodin Baldwin je oslobođen rukama gosp. Lunardi, koji nije dopustio nikome da priđe automobilu.
Automobil je prvi put sletio u 28 minuta iza tri, na polje koje pripada farmi koja se zove Bellair, u općini Kingsley, blizu dvije milje istočno južno od grada Frodsham i dvanaest od Chestera. Sletio je točno u 7 minuta prije četiri, blizu sredine Rixton Mossa, a na povratku u Chester sljedećeg dana dočekala ga je grupa Militia Band i uz glasne zvukove uvela u svoj rodni grad. & Rdquo

Ovaj povijesni događaj zbio se manje od dvije godine nakon prvog leta s posadom na svijetu, leta Braća Montgolfier balonom u Parizu 21. studenog 1783.

Oko 1780., 100 godina nakon Vale Royal unos je napisan, staro kamenje srednjovjekovnog dvorca Chester odneseno je kako bi se napravilo mjesta za zgrade koje danas vidimo. Ovaj veliki kompleks Shire Hall-a, sudova, zatvora, oružarnice i vojarne dizajniran je, nakon što je pobijedio na natjecanju- i nagradu od 50 gvineja- Thomas Harrison- tada relativno opskurni arhitekt s vrlo malo zgrada na njegovo ime- a podignuti su između 1785. i 1822. godine.

Harrison (1744-1829) rođen je u Richmondu u Yorkshireu, sin stolara. Njegov rani talent za mehaniku, matematiku i crtanje stekao ga je pod pokroviteljstvom lokalnog plemića, koji mu je poslao to bitno iskustvo u obrazovanju privilegiranog mladića dana- Veliku turneju po Italiji, gdje- unatoč tome što nije imao formalnu arhitektonsku arhitekturu obukom- stekao je reputaciju temeljem svojih nacrta za brojne zgrade u Rimu- iako nijedna zapravo nije izgrađena.

Po povratku u Englesku, Harrison je radio na nekoliko manjih arhitektonskih komisija prije nego što je u dobi od 40 godina pobijedio na natječaju u Chesteru. Provizija je prvotno bila samo za novu zatvorsku sobu (vidi sljedeću stranicu), ali je kasnije proširena kako bi pokrila obnovu srednjovjekovnog Shirea Hall- na našu žalost: po svemu sudeći to je bila najljepša i najimpresivnija zgrada- a 1804. godine ponovno je proširena tako da uključuje nove vojarne i blokove oružarnice.

Kada je dovršen, kompleks je obuhvaćao mnogo veće područje od starog dvorca, protežući se daleko izvan srednjovjekovnih zavjesa. Kako bi dovršio svoju shemu, Harrison je projektirao impresivan novi ulaz u grčko-dorskom stilu, koji je podignut između 1810. i 1822. godine, samostojeće građevine slične poznatim berlinskim Brandenburškim vratima- izgrađenih dvadesetak godina ranije- i za koju se kaže da se temelji na Propilej Akropole u Ateni.

Središte novih pravnih zgrada bio je Assize Court sa svojim masivnim i impresivnim trijemom. Svaki od njegovih dvanaest dorskih stupova formiran je od jednog jedinog kamena visine 23 stope. Kad je prvi od njih podignut, uz veliku ceremoniju, unutar šupljine na postolju postavljena je olovna kutija, unutar koje se nalazila mala Wedgewoodova urna, koja je pak sadržavala nekoliko tadašnjih novčića. Ugravirana mjedena ploča pričvršćena je iznad šupljine prije nego što je stup povučen na mjesto.

Zbog toga što su se temelji suda nalazili iznad starog opkopa srednjovjekovnog dvorca, došlo je do znatnih strukturnih pukotina, a kada su 1920. godine poduzeti veliki popravci, ova je urna pronađena zajedno s, ispod drugog stupa, malim mjedenim sandukom od mesinga koji je pripadao admiralu Lord Nelson, koji je također sadržavao novčiće. Kad su stupovi ponovno podignuti 1922. godine, urna je zamijenjena in situ, dodani su novčići s datumom 1921-22. Burmutica je, međutim, dodana u zbirku relikvija Cheshire Pukovnije.

Unutrašnjost dvora izgrađena je u polukrugu s dvanaest jonskih stupova kao nosačima. Izvorno, soba za umirovljenike porote i loža po principu ključ u ruke nalazili su se lijevo od suda, kao i ulaz u ćelije, čiji su donji nivo zauzimali zločinci, a gornji dužnici. Gornje ćelije danas preživljavaju i koriste se za dnevni smještaj zatvorenika koji čekaju pojavljivanje na današnjem sudu Chester Crown Court. Ovdje su se tijekom godina dogodila mnoga poznata suđenja, nijedno ozloglašenije od onog Bradyja i Hindleyja, 'ubojica Moorsa' 1966. godine.

& quotHoćete li da sada odem u Chester i tamo radim? Ne sviđaju mi ​​se takve misli. Ako odem u Chester i tamo radim, ne mogu biti svoj čovjek, moram raditi pod gospodarom, a možda bi se on i ja trebali posvađati, a kad se posvađam, pogodim udariti ljude, a oni koji pogađaju ljude ponekad poslan u zatvor ne sviđa mi se ni pomisao na odlazak u Chester ili u zatvor u Chesteru. Što mislite da bih mogao zaraditi u Chesteru? & Quot
Tinker: & quotŠto se tiče jedanaest šilinga tjedno, ako bi vas itko zaposlio, što mislim da ne bi s tim vašim rukama. No, htjeli oni to ili ne, ako ste svadljive prirode, ne smijete ići u Chester, brzo biste bili u dvorcu & quot.
George Borrow: Lavengro (1851)


Gore lijevo: obnovljeni dvorac Thomasa Harrisona kakav vidimo danas. Desno: ono što bismo još mogli imati da se obnova nije dogodila- nevjerojatna rekreacija Martina Mossa u srednjovjekovnom dvorcu okruženom prometom i strukturama modernog Chestera. Dvorac ima još jedno Martinovo djelo- izvanredan pogled na Chester s druge strane Rijeka Dee oko 1750.

Sada prijeđite na dio II našeg istraživanja dvorca Chester.

    1637 Šerif Wilcock počinio je zatvorsku kaznu zbog hapšenja robe Roberta Greena s isukanim mačevima, po vlastitom odijelu, bez prethodnog sudskog postupka dvojici narednika u buzdovanima skinute su haljine. Prva javna autobusna služba započela je između Birminghama i Holyheada, preko Nantwicha i Chestera. U Engleskoj je ukinuto mučenje.

Pomozite da Chester Virtual Stroll raste i bude ažuran: molim vas donirajte!


Unutar dvorca Chester

Informativna ploča.

Agricolin toranj ili Julijev Cezar


Kongonci u sv. Pavlu

Chester i Clara smjestili su se u St. Paul - isprva u skromnim pansionskim sobama, a zatim u 65 Wilkin Street u Irvine Parku - i odmah počeli podizati obitelj. Walter Bannister Congdon, prvo od sedmero djece, rođen je u St. Paul u studenom 1882. Sljedećeg svibnja Congdoni su se nastanili u donjoj polovici dupleksa na 325 South Franklin Avenue, gdje je bio njihov drugi sin, Edward Chester rođene u svibnju 1885. i njihova prva kći, Marjorie, na svijet su došle u siječnju 1887. Obitelj se sljedeće godine ponovno preselila, na 546 Selby Avenue na blefu s pogledom na grad, a u veljači 1889. Chester i Clara dodali su Helen Clara svojoj leglo. Još jedno dijete, John Robert, rođeno je u svibnju 1891. godine.

Život u St. Paul za Congdons bio je isprekidan čestim posjetima Chesterove majke i brata, kao i Clarine obitelji, osobito njezine sestre Mary i Chesterovog starog prijatelja Harryja Heermansa. Velečasni Charles W. Bennet, koji je služio tijekom svadbene svečanosti Congdonovih, otputovao je iz Syracuse da krsti Edwarda, Marjorie i Helen. Bennetov brat Bill, još jedan blizak prijatelj, zapravo je živio s Congdonsima gotovo dvije godine. Klarin dnevnik ispunjen je zapisima majke, poput prvih riječi svakog djeteta (jedna od Walterovih bila je "maca") i brige svake majke: dječje bolesti. Edward je svojoj braći i sestrama donio kući ospice, Walter je na sve prenio svoje vodene kozice, a Helen je po kući širila hripavac.

Chester je zadržao svoj posao pomoćnika američkog okružnog tužitelja do 1884. godine, kada je dao otkaz da bi osnovao vlastitu tvrtku. Sljedećih šest godina Congdonov popis klijenata brzo se širio. Kako su njegova obitelj i bogatstvo rasli, Congdon je pronašao mogućnosti za putovanja i zainteresirao se za zapadne rudarske zalihe, čak je posjetio Butte, Montana, gdje je uložio u rudnik bakra Gold Flint. Također je otputovao na sjeverozapad Pacifika 1887. Congdon i Harry Heermans kupili su zemljište uz Puget Sound kako bi se razvili kao luka Grays. Congdon je također stekao zemljište u dolini Yakima za koje se nadao da će ga razviti za poljoprivredu.

Njegova radna putovanja često su ga dovodila i u Duluth, tada veliku metropolu. Tamo je posjetio svog starog prijatelja Williama Billsona, koji se sredinom 1880-ih preselio u "Zenith grad neslanih mora" i uspostavio svoju vrlo uspješnu privatnu praksu. Billson je uzbuđeno govorio o budućnosti grada i predložio da Congdon pređe u Duluth i postane partner u njegovoj pravnoj praksi. Congdon je prihvatio, a 1892. obitelj Congdon preselila se u Duluth.


Dvorac Chester: Toranj Agricola, Chester, Cheshire

Ova kapija iz 12. stoljeća jedini je preživjeli dio srednjovjekovnog dvorca Chester, osim ostataka tornja poznatog kao Zastava i tornja. Dvorac koji je sagradio William Osvajač 1070. godine postao je administrativno središte grofovije Chester. Hugh D’Avranches bio je prvi nositelj titule grofa od Chestera, a dvorac je postao krunsko vlasništvo 1237. Izvorni drveni mote i dvorac s dvorištem obnovljen je u kamenu u 12. stoljeću zajedno s vanjskim dvorištem. Također je dodan kameni ulaz u unutarnju ogradu. Ovo je danas poznato pod imenom Agricola Tower, a sadrži zasvođenu kapelicu s freskama iz 13. stoljeća.

Chester je bio strateški važan jer je bio mjesto otpora Williamu Osvajaču, koji ga je svladao 1070. Izvorna srednjovjekovna obrana bila je na mjestu ranije rimske utvrde. Tijekom trinaestog stoljeća gradske su zidine obnovljene, uvelike zbog prijetnje oživljenih Velšana pod njihovim vođama Llywelynom Velikim i Llywelyn Posljednjim. Međutim, nakon što je Edward I osvojio Wales, Chester je izgubio na važnosti. Tijekom građanskog rata Chester je bio uporište rojalista. Uz zemljanu obranu dodanu postojećoj, rojalisti su se uspjeli zadržati neko vrijeme protiv parlamentarnih snaga. 1793. veliki dio mjesta očišćen je za novu zgradu. Ostatak dvorca uništen je u požaru krajem 18. stoljeća.


Opis

Dvorac Chester nalazi se u jugozapadnom dijelu opasanog grada. U srednjem vijeku sastojao se od vanjskog obloga - preuređenog početkom 19. stoljeća - i unutarnjeg obloga. Svi preostali srednjovjekovni dijelovi leže u nekadašnjoj unutarnjoj dvorani, do koje se dolazi kroz luk u krajnjem desnom kutu paradnog prostora.

U unutarnjem dvorištu impozantna zgrada ispred vas je kuća Napier, sagrađena 1830. godine kao oružarnica i vojarna. S vaše lijeve strane nalazi se Stražarnica u kojoj se nalazi prikaz povijesti dvorca. Iza njega stoji kula Agricola iz 12. stoljeća, izvorni ulaz u dvorac, blokirani prolazni luk je još uvijek vidljiv.

Na prvom katu nalazi se kapela sv. Marije de Castro, u kojoj se nalaze ostaci nekih visokokvalitetnih zidnih slika iz oko 1240. godine. Teška, bakreno obložena vrata datiraju s početka 19. stoljeća, kada se kapela koristila kao barut dućan.

Napuštanjem tornja i uspinjanjem stepenicama na zidove možete cijeniti položaj dvorca u gradu. Dolje, s lijeve strane, nalazi se most Old Dee, tradicionalna ruta prema sjevernom Walesu, a s desne strane je Roodee, zamuljeno lučko područje Chestera. Iza Napier Housea nalazi se platforma za oružje, izgrađena za obranu 1745. godine kao odgovor na jakobitski ustanak Bonnie Prince Charlie. Zabilježite korake koji vode do sally porta.

Nastavite do vrha rampe koja vodi natrag dolje u dvorište unutarnje ograde. Ovo podignuto područje uključuje normanski "moto" ili nasip izvornog dvorca (najbolje ga je vidjeti izvan dvorca). S vaše lijeve strane, na mjestu izvorne kule, stoji četvrtasta srednjovjekovna kula sa zastavom. Bijela obojena zgrada pored nje je Frobisherova ili Furbisherova kuća, nazvana po časniku koji je zadužen za nadzor skladištenja oružja u dvorcu.


O Selu

Povijesna zaklada Chesterland započela je darom gospođe Stockton, kćeri Waltera Whitea, Clevelandskog industrijalca, darovanjem pet hektara zemlje na uglu Caves i Mayfield Roads. White's je imao dom u Chesteru, sada na mjestu Hawken School, i odlučila je da se treba sačuvati dio povijesnog okusa grada pa je 1973. darovala površinu na kojoj je stajala Škotska škola iz 1847. godine. odredbu da se zemljište koristi za očuvanje i prikazivanje povijesti grada.

Tijekom sljedeća tri desetljeća temelj je pribavio i obnovio pet velikih građevina, uz nekoliko manjih, a sve su zadržale povijesne značajke prisutne kada su izvorno izgrađene.

Na web mjestu zaklada održava…

  • Gradska vijećnica Chester. Izvorno izgrađen 1850. godine i smješten na uglu cesta Sherman i Chillicothe, premješten je na sadašnje mjesto 1981. Danas služi kao žarište zaklade s mjesečnim i godišnjim sastancima koji se održavaju u velikoj prostoriji otvorenog prostora.
  • Kuća Silasa Tannera. Izgrađena 1842. na uglu cesta Mayfield i Buckeye, premještena je na današnje mjesto 1. lipnja 1987. Veći dio ove kuće zadržava svoj izvorni povijesni izgled, s dijelom gornje dvorane uokvirenom kako bi se otkrila njezina izvorna gradnja ... i čak i neke originalne pozadine!
  • Kamena obiteljska staja. Donirano zakladi prije mnogo godina, djelomično je obnovljeno nakon rekonstrukcije na mjestu. Pogled na unutrašnjost otkriva originalnu konstrukciju stupova i greda.
  • T.J. Trgovina Thayer General. Izvorno smješten uz današnju Bloom Brothers na Mayfield Roadu, premješten je na sadašnje mjesto u kasnim 1990 -im, a obnova je dovršena 2009. Trgovina je izgrađena za T.J. Thayer, lokalni trgovac koji je imao trgovine na drugim lokacijama, od kojih je jedna bila u Mulberry Cornersu. Trgovao je nekoliko godina i nakon niza vlasnika postala je poznata kao Scotland Store. Nakon donacije zakladi i preseljenja, naziv je promijenjen u ono što je izvorno bio poznat. Unutrašnjost ima raspored vrlo sličan onome kako bi izgledao 1899. godine, godine otvaranja trgovine.
  • Škotska škola. Izvorno sagrađena 1847. godine, korištena je kao jednosobna školska zgrada do 1926. godine, kada se zatvorila. Kasnije se koristio za skladištenje poljoprivrednih traktora do 1975. godine kada je započela obnova zgrade. Danas škola izgleda isto kao i u 19. stoljeću, kada je bila poznata kao Područna škola #2.
  • Međugradska stanica. Početkom oko 1899. godine okrug Geauga opsluživan je električnom željeznicom iz istočne županije Cuyahoga. Usluga je prolazila kroz Chester i zapravo prešla stražnju stranu sela. Međugradska postaja premještena je na sadašnje mjesto 22. travnja 1987. godine, a nešto kasnije postavljen je dio kolosijeka radi poboljšanja lokacije.
  • Selo također ima malu drvarnicu i pomoćni objekt smješten iza školske zgrade, na približno istom mjestu kao i originali. Osim toga, još jedan pomoćni prostor, koji se izvorno nalazio na ulazu u odmaralište Chester Caves, preseljen je 2008. iza kuće Tanner, nadopunjujući dom.

Projekt obnove kamene obiteljske staje
Pomozite nam u obnovi naše staje na licu mjesta kupnjom obveznice za staju. Radovi su započeli, ali potrebna nam je vaša pomoć da posao obavimo. Vaša donacija koja se može odbiti od poreza, u obliku obveznice, otići će na plaćanje radova potrebnih za obnovu dijela povijesti Chesterlanda. I,#& 21217 dobit ćete mali poklon u znak naše zahvalnosti!

Više informacija o obveznicama i njihovoj kupnji možete pronaći ovdje.

Projekt Ball Walkway and Garden

Smješten ispred kuće Tanner iz 1842. godine, šetnica je obložena ciglama ispisanim imenima i porukama ljudi koji su odlučili podržati selo kupnjom spomen -opeke.

Srdačno vas pozivamo da se pridružite sve većem broju ljudi koji su nas odlučili podržati kupnjom cigle za 40 USD. Za više informacija o programu, kliknite ovdje.

Slike obnove trgovine u Škotskoj:

Evo nekoliko slika Škotske trgovine, nastalih kako je napredovala obnova opće trgovine s kraja 19. stoljeća. Ako želite više detalja, kliknite ovdje.

Opća trgovina iz 1899. kako je izgledala u proljeće 2006. godine.

Evo ga na dan otvorenja, 16. lipnja 2008. Vanjski je izgled dovršen, a unutrašnjost gotovo takva. Ostalo je samo napraviti malo uređenja okoliša!

Povijesna zaklada Chesterland
traži donacije predmeta iz razdoblja za izlaganje u trgovini. Kontaktirajte webmastera ako želite više informacija o donacijama!

Stara gradska vijećnica iz 1850., premještena s ugla cesta Sherman i Chillicothe.

Kuća Silasa Tannera iz 1842. preseljena s ugla Buckeye i Mayfield Roads.

Pozivamo vas i ohrabrujemo…

… Sudjelovati u održavanju povijesti živom pridruživanjem Povijesnoj zakladi Chesterland.

• Godišnje pristojbe:
• Jednokrevetna: 20,00 USD
• Obitelj: 30,00 USD
• Poslovni: 35,00 USD
• Pokrovitelj: 100,00 USD
• Vijek trajanja: 200,00 USD


Dvorac Chester

Dvorac Chester nalazi se na jugozapadnom kraju područja omeđenog gradskim zidinama i gleda na rijeku Dee. Dvorac je 1070. godine sagradio Hugh d’Avranches, drugi grof od Chestera, a ugostio je posjete mnogih moćnih ličnosti u srednjovjekovnom razdoblju, uključujući kraljeve Edwarda I. i Richarda II.

Izvorna građevina bila bi saksonski dvorac s drvenim tornjem, koji je u 12. stoljeću zamijenjen četvrtastom kamenom kulom, Kulom zastave. The walls of an outer bailey were built in the 13th century, during the reign of Henry III.

Prominent people held as prisoners in the crypt of the Agricola Tower were Richard II and Eleanor Cobham, and Andrew de Moray, hero of the Battle of Stirling Bridge. The Agricola Tower is a Grade I listed building. It is built in sandstone ashlar with a metal roof in three storeys.


THE HOUSE THAT LOVE BUILT

Thornewood Castle was built to the specifications of Mr. Chester Thorne and his wife, Anna. Chester, having been a successful financier and one of the founders of the Port of Tacoma, spared no expense when it came to the planning and construction of this unique country estate for his family.

The creation of Thornewood was truly a labor of love. In 1907, Mr. Thorne purchased a 400-year-old Elizabethan manor in England and had parts of it dismantled and shipped piece by piece to be included in the main house. Renowned architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter was in charge of this most interesting Tudor Gothic project.

Thornewood Castle is constructed with concrete and steel on a solid three-foot-thick foundation. Exterior walls are brick and concrete with steel reinforcement. The floors are ten inches of concrete. Construction took three years to complete, from 1908 to 1911, with many of the materials, including the front door, oak paneling, and oak staircase, coming from the castle in England. The red brick facing on the outside of the estate was imported from Wales. Three ships were commissioned to transport these building supplies around Cape Horn to the Pacific Northwest.


DVORAC

Founded by William I in 1070, the castle shortly afterwards came under the control of the earl of Chester and thereafter descended with the earldom. (fn. 1) It was temporarily in royal hands during the minorities of Earl Hugh II (1153–62) and Earl Ranulph III (1181–7), and passed permanently to the Crown with the earldom in 1237. (fn. 2) In 1254 it was granted to Henry III's son, the Lord Edward. (fn. 3) Acquired by Simon de Montfort after the battle of Lewes in 1264, (fn. 4) it was recovered by Edward in 1265 (fn. 5) and remained with the Crown until 1322, when it was granted to Edward II's favourite, Hugh Despenser the younger. (fn. 6) With Despenser's fall in 1326 it reverted to the king, and thereafter it continued Crown property until the Interregnum. (fn. 7) Although the Crown resumed control at the Restoration, thereafter upkeep of the shire hall and other county buildings increasingly devolved upon quarter sessions, and from 1690 became their responsibility alone. The Crown, however, continued to maintain the military buildings and fortifications. (fn. 8) Those ad hoc arrangements were formalized under Acts of 1788 and 1807 which vested new county buildings occupying roughly the site of the former outer bailey in the custos rotulorum of Cheshire. (fn. 9) The dual ownership thus established remained substantially unchanged in 2000.

Administrative And Military Functions

The castle was both the occasional residence of the Norman earls and their principal administrative centre, the base of such officials as the justice and chamberlain of Chester, their deputies and clerks. (fn. 10) Accounts were rendered at the exchequer there, and it was the location of the earl's chief court and prison. (fn. 11) Attached to it were certain lands. By the later 13th century, probably under an ancient arrangement, the castle demesne included 82 a. of land and 3 a. of meadow within the Earl's Eye, Handbridge, Brewer's Hall, Saltney, and Marlston cum Lache, all lying south of the Dee. (fn. 12)

After 1237 the castle remained the administrative centre of the palatinate, at first in the hands of royal keepers, later directly under the supervision of the Crown. (fn. 13) Daily administration was by a constable, first recorded c. 1216, (fn. 14) assisted by a staff generally including a keeper of the gaol, janitors of the upper and lower wards, serjeants, watchmen, chaplains, and clerks. (fn. 15)

An important base for royal operations against the Welsh, the castle was visited by Henry III in 1241 before he overran north Wales, and again in 1245. (fn. 16) The Lord Edward also used it as a base during the Welsh wars of 1256–67. (fn. 17) Its significance is reflected in his forceful action to recover it from Montfort's officials in 1265, when it was besieged for over 10 weeks by an army led by James of Audley and Urien of St. Pierre, and eventually surrendered to Edward in person. (fn. 18) After Edward's accession in 1272, the castle attained its greatest importance during the conquest of Wales. The king stayed there while fruitlessly awaiting Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's response to his summons to do homage in 1275 and again in 1277, (fn. 19) and in 1276 it was the supply base of William de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick. (fn. 20) In the second and third campaigns of 1282–3 and 1294 it was again the king's headquarters and an important military base. (fn. 21)

Though the castle's military importance declined after 1300, in the early 14th century it was relatively well maintained. In Edward I's later years it seems to have been well supplied with arms and provisions, and was the base of a craftsman engaged in making weaponry (attilliator). (fn. 22) Edward II also repaired the castle and provided it with stores and armour, though elsewhere his castles suffered from neglect. (fn. 23) There was still a resident staff of 12 in 1313. (fn. 24) The king ordered the castle to be put into a state of defence in 1317, (fn. 25) and after his fall in 1327 custody was granted to Thomas of Warwick and orders were issued for its provisioning and repair. (fn. 26) In 1329 a new attilliator was appointed. (fn. 27) By then, however, the castle seems to have served primarily as an administrative centre. (fusnota 28)

In the last years of Richard II's reign the castle again became a favoured royal base. In 1396 the office of master mason, which had lapsed in 1374, was reintroduced, and in 1397 the office of keeper of the king's artillery in Cheshire and Flintshire first appeared. (fn. 29) Bolingbroke stayed there twice in 1399, (fn. 30) and in 1400 the castle, then occupied by the chamberlain of Chester, the county sheriff, and the constable, was unsuccessfully besieged during the Earls' Rising. (fn. 31) The rebellion temporarily enhanced the castle's military importance: early in 1400 it was garrisoned by 8 men-at-arms and 35 archers, and even in 1404 it was still protected by 8 archers. It also contained considerable stores of weapons and supplies. (fn. 32)

The Lancastrians replaced senior officials, including the constable, but left undisturbed such lesser men as the keeper of the artillery and the master carpenter. (fn. 33) The castle became primarily an administrative centre and a place of storage for the palatinate records, (fn. 34) and its military and strategic role again declined. Even so, the charter granted to the mayor and citizens of Chester in 1506 maintained its independence of the city. (napomena 35)

The castle became a base of the county justices introduced in 1536, (fn. 36) and in the later 16th century remained the seat of the principal palatine officials, including the vice-chamberlain it also provided supplies and lodging for soldiers before they embarked for Ireland, especially during the revolt of 1579–81. (fn. 37) During the Civil War siege of Chester it was the royalist headquarters, with a garrison commanded from 1642 by a military governor. It escaped physical damage and in 1646 was surrendered with all its arms, ordnance, and ammunition intact, to become the headquarters of a parliamentary garrison under a new military governor. (fn. 38) During the Interregnum it remained a supply base for parliamentary troops in Ireland, (fn. 39) and the location of monthly courts held by the county sheriff in the shire hall. (fn. 40) In 1659 it was put into a state of defence during the rising of Sir George Booth, and shots were exchanged with the royalists who had entered the city. (fn. 41)

The Cromwellian governor, Robert Venables, was removed in 1660. (fn. 42) Thereafter there seems to have been no garrison until 1662, when Sir Theophilus Gilbey was granted a warrant to enlist, arm, and keep under array c. 60 foot soldiers. The castle, whose strategic importance on the route to north Wales and Ireland continued to be recognized, was then felt to be in need of defence against sedition aroused by dispossessed nonconformist ministers. Late in 1662 Sir Evan Lloyd was appointed governor and shortly afterwards Gilbey asked for provisions, weaponry, and soldiers (fn. 43) a garrison was then thought necessary to safeguard against the great numbers of Presbyterians in and around Cheshire. (fn. 44) After the 1660s, however, royal interest seems to have waned, though Chester remained one of the army's principal strongholds, under the command of a governor and much visited by dignitaries travelling to and from Ireland. (fn. 45)

In 1680 the governor, Sir Geoffrey Shakerley, was ordered to disband the foot company garrisoning the castle, and by 1681 there remained only three gunners. (fn. 46) At the time of the duke of Monmouth's visit in 1682 its undefended state caused the government alarm. New commissions to act as governor were issued to Shakerley and then to his son Peter, and a new garrison was installed. (fn. 47)

The castle retained its large garrison in James II's reign with men quartered in public houses and private dwellings (fn. 48) a Roman Catholic chaplain was appointed, and in 1687 the king worshipped there. (fn. 49) Just before the fall of James, it housed eight companies of soldiers from Ireland, (fn. 50) together with arms and ammunition, maintained by a newly appointed 'furbisher' and supplied to troops travelling through Chester. (fn. 51)

Peter Shakerley was replaced as governor in 1689 by Sir John Morgan, Bt. Alarmed about the security of the numerous Irish prisoners because of Roman Catholic infiltration of the soldiery, he requested two new companies of 100 men, and by 1690 was involved in transporting troops to Ireland to repress Jacobites there. (fn. 52) Under his successor, however, the castle seems to have been less heavily manned, and in 1694 a company of c. 90 invalids was drawn from Chelsea hospital to form the garrison. (fn. 53) In 1696 the castle became one of five provincial centres to receive a mint for the recoinage. Staffed by a deputy comptroller (the astronomer Edmund Halley), a warden, master, assayer, and five other officials, it followed the processes used in London, issuing half-crowns, shillings, and sixpences, but functioned only until 1698. (fn. 54)

In the 18th century the castle's military significance declined. In the reign of George I military stores and ordnance, dating perhaps from the Civil War, were removed to the Tower of London. By 1728, though still commanded by a governor with two companies of invalid soldiers, the castle was described as 'destitute of arms almost for common defence'. (fn. 55) In 1745 an attack by the Jacobites was feared and attempts were made to remedy the situation, but in the event the castle saw no action. (fn. 56) The two companies of invalids remained until 1801, when they were disbanded, (fn. 57) but the castle was still notionally a garrison until 1843, commanded by a high-ranking governor and lieutenant-governor. (fn. 58) The rebuildings of the early 19th century had included barracks for 120 men and an armoury capable of storing 30,000 stand of arms. (fn. 59)

By the 1860s the castle was garrisoned by a company from a regiment stationed in Manchester and there was no barrack master. It was thus relatively unguarded, and in 1867 the Liverpool Fenians planned an attack. The plot was discovered and the garrison of 65 soldiers and 27 militiamen was reinforced by three additional companies from Manchester, local Volunteers, and, eventually, several hundred men from London and Aldershot (Hants). Although over 1,300 suspects were believed to have gathered in the city, and arms and ammunition were discovered in the suburbs, no attack took place. (fn. 60)

In 1873 the castle became the depot for the 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment. (fn. 61) The former exchequer court, housed in a block designed as barracks until its abolition in 1836, was transferred to the War Department in 1892. (fn. 62) Part of the block was made into the regimental museum in 1972. (fn. 63) In 2000 the castle remained the home of the regiment and of the Crown courts, for which a new building was provided in 1993. A new magistrates' court, designed by the county architect, was opened in Grosvenor Street in 1992. (fn. 64)

Buildings

The complex no longer looks like a castle: the medieval remains are fragmentary and the site is dominated by buildings erected in the late 18th and the early 19th century. From the late 11th century there survives only the castle mound, part of a motte and bailey whose outer ward was probably co-extensive with the later inner ward. The earliest buildings, presumably of wood, were from the 12th century replaced in stone. There was building while the castle was in royal hands, and particularly heavy expenditure in 1159–60, when £102 was spent on works and fortifications and £20 on the castle bridge. There is, however, no reason to suppose that such activity was confined to periods of royal guardianship it is especially likely that there was building under Earl Ranulph III, who also established a new castle at Beeston in the 1220s. (fn. 65) The new defences, which incorporated an earlier keep and enclosed what became the inner ward, almost certainly consisted of a stone wall with square towers characterized by flat corner buttresses. (fn. 66) Two of the towers survived in 2000: the Flag Tower on the site of the early keep, and the Agricola Tower, built c. 1210 as the gatehouse and chapel. (fn. 67) Either may have been the 'keep' approached by a bridge mentioned in 1238. (fn. 68) The chapel in the Agricola Tower, the capitals and vaulting of which are closely related to those in the east chapel in the north transept of Chester abbey, was adorned with paintings soon after its completion. Not long afterwards, perhaps in the early years of Henry III's reign, they were replaced by a second decorative scheme, of very high quality and focused upon the Virgin. (fn. 69)

Chester castle from outer ward, 1777: great hall (left), inner ward (background), well house (right)

Before the mid 13th century the castle was greatly enlarged by the addition north-west of the inner ward of a spacious outer bailey fortified by wooden palisading (fn. 70) both enclosures seem to have contained halls from an early date. (fn. 71) From the early 12th century there was also a garden in the castle ditch, later reputed to contain Earl Ranulph III's 'resting-tree'. (fusnota 72)

Royal ownership conferred a new importance on the castle, reflected in improvements to the fabric. In 1241 Henry III's first visit occasioned the construction of an 'oriel' before the doorway of the king's chapel, (fn. 73) and in 1245 the king's apartments were repaired, the paintings in the queen's chamber were renewed, and a bridge was made from the castle into the orchard to enable the king and queen to take exercise. (fn. 74) More significant was a series of major works in the later 1240s and early 1250s, which marked the beginning of the removal of the principal apartments to the outer bailey. Between 1246 and 1248 a chamber over a cellar was erected at the considerable cost of nearly £220 and the wooden palisade of the outer bailey was replaced by a stone wall in 1249 the hall in the outer bailey was demolished and a new one, which was to cost over £350, was begun. (fn. 75) Though the work was still unfinished in 1253, (fn. 76) probably by then much had been achieved early to mid 13th-century features long survived in the south-west gable of the hall and inside the adjacent building, later known as the parliament chamber and originally perhaps a chapel. (fn. 77) Thereafter, the structure in the outer ward was designated the great hall and that in the inner ward the lesser hall. (fusnota 78)

Under Edward I the royal accommodation was further improved and enlarged. Repairs were undertaken in 1275, and in 1276 the 'king's houses' in the outer bailey were renovated for the earl of Warwick and given a new chapel. (fn. 79) In 1283 Edward I's visit necessitated further repairs to the hall and royal apartments, and to towers and domestic buildings in both wards. (fn. 80) New domestic buildings were begun in 1284, and between then and 1291 over £1,400 was spent. The major works, under the supervision of a Master William, included repairs to the king's houses, new chambers for the king and queen, and a stable, all probably in the outer bailey north and east of the great hall. (fn. 81) Further work in 1292–3 included a new gatehouse to the outer ward which cost over £318 and eventually comprised twin drum towers, a vaulted passageway with two portcullises, and extensive accommodation, including a prison. The master of works was William of Marlow, presumably the mason engaged at the castle in 1284–91. (fn. 82) Either then or a little earlier, a new inner gatehouse was built west of the Agricola Tower, which was blocked and given a new staircase, presumably in preparation for the conversion of its chapel into a treasury in 1301. (fn. 83) The decorative scheme in the tower chapel was then covered with limewash, removed only in the 1990s. (fn. 84)

By 1294 the castle comprised an inner bailey with hall, chapel, and apartments, and an outer bailey with great hall, exchequer, and further apartments for the king and queen, including separate chapels. (fn. 85) The decoration of the chapels and living quarters continued into the 14th century. Ten ceiling corbels in the king's great chamber were coloured c. 1299, and shortly afterwards William of Northampton adorned the 'lesser chapel near the great hall' with a depiction of the murder of Thomas Becket. By then, too, glass windows had been installed in the 'greater' and 'lesser' chapels. (fn. 86)

All such work was under the control of Richard the engineer, perhaps as early as the 1270s and certainly by 1300. A royal architect much involved in the construction of the Welsh castles and a local man of substance, he retained the post of engineer until his death in 1315. After 1325 the office was discontinued and work was in the hands of master carpenters and masons, assisted by a small permanent staff. (fn. 87)

The castle's principal officials resided in the inner ward, where in 1328 the justice of Chester's deputy had his hall, chamber, and a new kitchen, and where Damory's Tower contained the former chamber of the justice himself. The constable also then had his lodgings in the inner ward. (fn. 88) The main administrative buildings, the shire hall and exchequer, were for long in the outer bailey, but in 1310 the shire hall was removed to a new position just outside the main gate. (fn. 89) A new exchequer was built within the castle in 1355, but in 1401 it too was moved outside to a building adjoining the shire hall. (fn. 90)

Although large sums were spent on repairs in the early years of Edward II's reign, especially to the outer gatehouse, (fn. 91) after 1329 the fabric suffered long periods of neglect, punctuated by occasional, often inadequate, refurbishments. In 1337, when over 100 yd. of wall had to be rebuilt, repairs were needed to the constable's hall and other buildings in the inner ward, and to the bridges leading to the two gatehouses. (fn. 92) By 1347 the Gonkes Tower, Chapel Tower, and Damory's Tower, the great chapel, the great chamber at the east end of the hall, the earl's smaller chamber and its chapel, and the great hall itself were all in disrepair. (fn. 93) Large sums were spent on the inner ward in the mid 1350s, (fn. 94) and further repairs were ordered by Richard II in the 1390s. (fn. 95) In Henry VI's reign expenditure on maintenance was generous, averaging £25 a year. (fn. 96) Work continued under the control of a master mason and master carpenter, of whom the latter at least had a house within the castle. Under the Yorkists, however, the office of master mason lapsed. (fn. 97)

Henry VII, who appointed a master mason in 1495, continued to spend c. £25 a year on maintenance, higher than average for such buildings but still inadequate. (fn. 98) In 1511 repairs costing over £272 were made to the great hall, the gatehouses, and the shire hall outside the gate. (fn. 99) The Half Moon Tower in the inner ward may also have been built then. (fn. 100) By the 1530s, however, the great hall was in ruins, and between 1577 and 1582 it was almost completely rebuilt at a cost of £650 to house the shire court. (fn. 101) At the same time the 'parliament chamber', immediately south of the great hall, was reconditioned to accommodate the exchequer court. (fn. 102) No other repairs were made, and by the early 17th century the whole castle, including the prison, was in very poor condition. (fn. 103) Despite the expenditure of 500 marks in 1613, a survey undertaken in 1624 for the county justices, on whom the cost of maintenance increasingly devolved, found much of the castle in a bad state. The shire hall was very ruinous, the bridge into the castle so dangerous as to be unusable, and the castle chapel 'much more ruinous than heretofore' other dilapidated buildings included the judges' and constable's lodgings, the protonotary's office, and the gatehouse prison. Although the royal earl's representatives felt that costs should be borne by the county authorities, they themselves reluctantly paid for repairs in 1627–8, including a new bridge. (fn. 104) The results were probably not entirely satisfactory: though earlier described as 'habitable', in 1636 the castle was condemned as 'old and ruinous'. (fusnota 105)

Although the castle suffered no damage during the Civil War siege, (fn. 106) after the Restoration the fabric was far out of repair. Early in 1661 much of the outer gatehouse fell down, and the county surveyor, John Shaw, estimated the cost of restoring it and other buildings as at least £860. (fn. 107) Shaw began repairs, but work was delayed by his failure to obtain adequate authorization. In 1662, after a further survey, the cost of repairs was put at £5,000. In the event, between 1660 and 1664 only just over £546 was spent on repairs to the grand jury's chamber, the constable's lodgings, and the protonotary's office. Shaw himself was paid only with reluctance in 1663. (fn. 108)

In 1666 fears of a rising of disaffected parliamentarians stimulated further action. The king ordered that the proceeds of the local mize, a county-wide tax, be paid to the governor, but seems to have overestimated the money available and work on the fabric proceeded very slowly. (fn. 109) In 1687 the castle received a new armoury in the west range of the inner ward, and an armourer's workshop, the Frobisher's Shop, behind the Half Moon Tower. (fn. 110) New fortifications, including a gun platform, were built in 1689, and further work was carried out on the armoury and barracks in 1691. (fn. 111) The county buildings, however, remained ruinous, the roof of the exchequer court and much of the protonotary's office having collapsed. They were repaired in 1685 and 1690, when £420 paid to the master masons Thomas and Peter Whitley proved to be the Crown's final expenditure upon them. (fn. 112)

The mint of 1696 was housed in the new extension to the Half Moon Tower. (fn. 113) Its installation involved the construction of mint ovens and chimneys and other alterations to the Frobisher's Shop, and after its closure in 1698 an estimate was ordered for the cost of restoring the shop to its former condition. (fn. 114) In 1699 the London mint paid £2,000 to the governor for the use of buildings within the castle. (fusnota 115)

In 1745, with the rebellion of the Young Pretender, the lord lieutenant, George, earl of Cholmondeley, was zealous in putting Chester in a state of defence. He repaired the castle's decayed fortifications and added raised batteries in the inner and outer wards and a platform with a parapet south-east of the great hall. The military architect Alexander de Lavaux was engaged to draw up a plan to strengthen the fortifications, but his scheme, which consisted of four bastions joined by outworks flanking the ancient defences, was never carried out. (fusnota 116)

Thereafter the castle was so neglected that in the 1760s a large portion of the curtain wall of the inner ward behind the armoury fell down. The breach was probably repaired in the 1770s, and further work was done in 1786, when Lord Cholmondeley's battery was reconstructed or refaced. Then or later the front of the curtain wall was cut back and the Flag Tower stripped of its external buttresses. (fusnota 117)

When in 1785 quarter sessions ordered the rebuilding of the county gaol, a competition was held and won by Thomas Harrison, whose plans also involved the demolition and replacement of many buildings in the outer bailey, including the exchequer, grand jury room, protonotary's office, and eventually the shire hall. (fn. 118) In 1788 an Act of Parliament was obtained authorizing the scheme and setting up commissioners drawn from local gentry, clergy, and J.P.s to supervise its execution. (fn. 119) Harrison's early designs comprised a single block with a recessed portico and wings housing the shire hall, a room to serve both as grand jury room and exchequer, and other offices (fn. 120) behind was the prison. (fn. 121) The main buildings, in the neo-classical style of which the architect was a master, were faced with Manley stone, while Runcorn stone and local red sandstone were used inside and in the foundations. (fn. 122) Harrison began in 1788 by demolishing the exchequer and the constable's house, and then moved on to build the prison and the southern parts of the main block. (fn. 123) As work proceeded he and the commissioners grew more ambitious. In 1789 a passage with a new gateway was opened into the upper ward, and the consent of the Board of Ordnance was obtained for the removal of the outer gatehouse, to be replaced by a new arch and guard rooms. (fn. 124) By 1791 the exchequer and grand jury room, the protonotary's office, and the prisoners' wards had all been finished, and the commissioners were anxious to proceed with the new shire hall. Harrison, however, submitted his plans only in 1792. (fn. 125) He continued to revise the scheme as late as 1793, some time after the demolition of the old shire hall the portico seems to have caused him especial trouble, and went through several phases before achieving the imposing final design, with its double row of giant Doric columns. (fn. 126) Further difficulties arose from the discovery in 1794 that William Bell, the superintendent of works since 1788, had wasted stone and embezzled funds and materials. Bell was dismissed, and Harrison, who seems to have been responsible for his exposure, replaced him as surveyor. (fn. 127) Examination of the work supervised by Bell revealed that the pillars in the prison chapel would not support the planned superstructure and there were additional delays while the foundations were relaid. (fn. 128) A new contractor, William Cole the elder, was appointed in 1797. By then the shire hall was substantially complete, except for the roof, finished in 1799: a 'magnificent hall of justice', it comprised a large semi-circular, semi-domed court room ringed with an Ionic colonnade. The main block seems to have been completed shortly after, for in 1800 the finishing touches were put to the portico and prison chapel. (fn. 129) In the form finally executed it had a facade of 19 bays, with a projecting portico of ashlar and rusticated wings on either side.

Chester castle: Harrison's completed scheme for outer ward

From 1795 the commissioners had been anxious to buy adjoining land to permit the enlargement of the castle yard and provide a suitable setting for the new buildings, and in 1803 they purchased all the buildings in Gloverstone. (fn. 130) Plans to enlarge the castle yard and build a new armoury, uniform with the main block, received the consent of the Board of Ordnance in 1804 the new building, which necessitated the demolition of the inner gatehouse, the Square Tower, and part of the curtain wall of the inner ward, was paid for partly by the Crown and partly by the county, which was responsible for the end walls and the front of nine bays with its attached Ionic half-columns. (fn. 131) A corresponding block, housing the barracks, military cells, and exchequer court, was begun in 1806 north of the outer ward, on the site of the old cells and barracks, after similar arrangements to share the cost had been agreed between the county and the Barrack Master General. (fn. 132) Such major departures from the original plan required a new Act of Parliament, obtained in 1807. (fn. 133)

In 1810, though the barrack block was probably still incomplete, the final phase of the rebuilding began. A ditch faced with a stone wall was constructed round the castle yard and a new entrance was planned. Harrison's original scheme for a Doric gateway was altered in 1811 and made more elaborate in 1813, when four columns were added to the west side of the entrance. The completed 'propylaeum' comprised two pedimented lodges with east-facing porticoes and a central entrance block with columns projecting to the west, (fn. 134) the first use of the primitive Doric order in England. (fusnota 135)

Harrison was perhaps also responsible for alterations to the inner bailey, including rebuilding the front wall of the armoury and refacing and refenestrating the old mint building and the Half Moon Tower. (fn. 136) His pupil, William Cole the younger, continued to work at the castle, and designed the military hospital, a plain brick building erected in 1826 in Castle Street. (fn. 137)

Further changes, begun in 1831, involved the demolition of the officers' barracks and judges' lodgings in the south-east range of the inner ward, to make way for a new armoury, and the conversion of the old armoury, Harrison's southern wing, into accommodation for officers and judges. The new works cost a little under £7,000, of which £1,000 was provided by the county. Among those who were then paid substantial sums was the Chester architect James Harrison, and it is possible therefore that he was responsible for the design of the new armoury, a plain rectangular freestanding building faced in local stone. (fn. 138) With the completion of the work in 1836 all that remained of the ancient castle was the Agricola Tower and the much altered Half Moon and Flag Towers.

County gaol from east (left centre)

There were important alterations to the south-west corner of Harrison's main block in the lower ward in the late 19th century. In 1875–7 a new nisi prius (civil) court was built, to designs by T. M. Lockwood, and in 1891 the protonotary's office was converted into a council chamber for the new county council. (fn. 139) The interior of the shire hall was rearranged c. 1881 and in 1895–6. (fn. 140) Harrison's barrack block was restored in 1922. (fn. 141)

After 1892 the site of the prison became a drill ground for the local Volunteer artillery. It was eventually occupied by a new county hall built between 1939 and 1957. (fn. 142) A new militia barracks for the permanent staff of the 1st Regiment of the Royal Cheshire Militia was built by the county authorities outside the castle precinct in Nuns' Gardens to designs by T. M. Penson in 1858–9. In an extravagant 13thcentury castellated style with many towers and turrets and a gateway with a portcullis, it was sold to the War Department in 1874 and after 1882 housed married non-commissioned officers of the regimental depot. The building was repurchased by the county council in 1963 and demolished in 1964. (fn. 143)

County gaol

The castle was used as a gaol by 1241, when Welsh hostages were confined there. (fn. 144) Under Edward I prisoners included local notables, (fn. 145) hostages taken from Prince Llywelyn in 1277, (fn. 146) and Llywelyn's brother Dafydd with five of his squires in 1283. (fn. 147) In 1294–5, when the gaol probably occupied the rebuilt outer gatehouse, it again received many Welsh hostages, (fn. 148) a few of whom were detained until c. 1300 and the last until the 1330s. (fn. 149) Besides the Welsh there were also six Scots, taken at Dunbar in 1296, and in 1301–2 still at the castle, which by then contained four prisons. (fn. 150) The castle was again briefly filled with hostages taken from the citizens at the time of Edward II's murder (fn. 151) and from the Welsh during Glyn Dwr's revolt. (fusnota 152)

By the 16th century the county gaol was situated in the outer gatehouse and the adjoining former exchequer. (fn. 153) It became a detention centre for recusants in the 1580s and 1590s, its importance enhanced by its position on the Irish route. (fn. 154) In 1648 it was refurbished and restored to use after the discovery of a royalist plot to recover castle and city. (fn. 155) The castle was again full of prisoners after the royalist defeat at the battle of Worcester in 1651, and was later the scene of the trial of notables. (fn. 156) It still contained prisoners, including a number of Scotsmen, in 1653. (fn. 157) The numbers detained rose again after the repression of Booth's rebellion in 1659. (fn. 158)

By 1681 the prison was in great decay. Although the Crown met the heavy costs of renovation, thereafter its maintenance was left to the county authorities, who by the 1690s were raising levies for further repairs. (fn. 159) In 1715, after the government's victory at Preston, c. 500 Jacobite prisoners were brought to the castle. Because of a quarrel between the governor and Chester corporation they were held there until 1717 in crowded conditions, and disease spread from them to the soldiers. (fn. 160)

By the 1770s the prison in the north-east corner of the castle was clearly unsatisfactory cramped and airless, it was compared by the reformer John Howard to the Black Hole of Calcutta, (fn. 161) and in 1784 it was presented at the assizes as out of repair and insufficient. (fn. 162) In 1785 the Cheshire quarter sessions ordered its rebuilding. (fn. 163) Thomas Harrison's new prison, opened in 1793, was designed according to the enlightened principles advocated by Howard. Although planned before the publication of Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon, it was 'panoptic' in the sense that, as in Bentham's scheme, the gaoler's house overlooked the felons' yards. (fusnota 164)

The prison, which had been found inadequate by the visiting justices in 1865, was transferred from county control to the Crown in 1877 and closed to civil prisoners in 1884, though there continued to be a small military prison in the castle until 1893. The gaol buildings were purchased by the county council in 1894 and demolished in 1900–2, (fn. 165) the site being used later for a new county hall.


Chester Castle - History

Whitehead County Antrim Northern Ireland

Whitehead is a Victorian Railway Town built on the site of a former hamlet around Castle Chichester. Much of its history can be found in the book "Whitehead: The Town with no Streets" by P J O'Donnell.

Some other information can be found in several sources available in Whitehead Library or elsewhere. A few extracts, fully credited, are given here and more will be added.

Castle Chichester, a ruin, which lies on private land and which cannot be accessed, can still be seen in Chester Avenue, opposite the junction with the King's Road, Whitehead, or from Marine Parade. “ Its square form, the style of its construction, particularly in its secret stairs constructed in its walls, suggest the idea that its erection took place in the 12th or 13th century….. . Its name, however, would imply otherwise, as the Chichesters were not possessed of any property in this country until the conclusion of the 16th century …… .

There was, until about the middle of the 17th century, a considerable village or town at Castle Chichester. It possessed a harbour or quay, of which the remains are still to be seen. It had a considerable trade with Scotland, and was the station from whence the mails were dispatched to that country. The castle may probably have been for some time occupied by some of the Chichesters, or from some other cause or motive have received its present name on becoming their property.” Taken from “ Ordnance Survey Memoirs of Ireland Parishes of County Antrim III 1833, 1835, 1839 - 40 Larne and Island Magee Vol.10 Edited by Angelique Day and Patrick McWilliams The Institute of Irish Studies The Queen's University of Belfast ”

“Upwards of 100 years ago a packet boat used to call at Castlechichester from Scotland to discharge its cargo and deliver letters. A small boat used to attend the Parish to convey the letters to Belfast from Castlechichester for which it received £100 per annum. At that time an agent resided at Castlechichester.” Taken from “ N.I Public Record Office Parish of Island Magee 1830 - 1840 Island Magee Parish Box 11 Antrim XI by James Boyle 1840 ”

Do you have reminiscences about Whitehead or old photographs you think others would like to see? You story and photographs could be included on these pages.


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