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Za vrijeme Katarine Velike svi su časnici bili imenovani na pet godina?

Za vrijeme Katarine Velike svi su časnici bili imenovani na pet godina?


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Primijetio sam da su glavni zapovjednici Kamčatke izgledali kao da služe otprilike pet godina (Koselev 1802-1807, Petrovskii 1807-1813, Rudakov 1813-1817). Njihov čin (IV) kvalificirao ih je za regionalnog zapovjednika, a ja nemam pojma koliko su dugo proveli u činu IV, ali proveli su pet godina na dužnosti.

Mnogi izvori opisuju desetljeća potpunog služenja vojske, ali nisam našao ništa o konkretnim postavljenjima koja čine časničku karijeru. Nekoliko godina ranije, Katarina Velika ustanovila je pravilo da će državni službenici dobivati ​​automatsko napredovanje svakih sedam godina.

Jesu li dužnosnici carske vojske bili imenovani u određene garnizone ili tvrtke svih pet godina?


Griješite u trajanju staža (u ovom slučaju 25 godina) s odsluženim vremenom u određenom činu (5 godina, ovdje).

Vremena su se promijenila, ali da biste postali generalni časnik potrebno je puno vremena, prakse i iskustva. Obično više od 20 godina. O vojsci cursus honorum * mora se služiti u svakom činu određeni broj godina, prije nego što se promakne u sljedeći čin. Čovjek jednostavno ne može postati general u tih 25 godina. (Osim ako netko - u ovom razdoblju - plemenitog roda, nema veze itd.)

U mnogim današnjim vojskama točka prekida je čin majora. Relativno je lako postati natporučnik i kapetan. Sljedeći korak je daleko teži. Samo nekoliko kapetana stiže do bojnika. Mnogi kapetani ostaju u tom činu sve dok se ne povuku ili daju ostavku (jako ovisi o razdoblju - ovo je općenito).

Sljedeća velika prepreka je od pukovnika do generala. Samo nekoliko pukovnika promaknuto je u generale. Opet, mnogi pukovnici (razdoblje na čekanju) ostaju pukovnici ili daju ostavku ako ih se proslijedi radi unapređenja.

Pretpostavimo 2-10 godina u svakom rangu. 2 čina poručnika, kapetana, majora, ltn-col, col, brig-gen. Zbrojite to: trebat će vam tih 25 godina da postanete general.

*= cursus honorom ovdje je uobičajen put za promicanje


Zbrkana istina o Katarini Velikoj

Katarina II, ili Katarina Velika kako je danas najpoznatija, zaslužila je svoje mjesto u povijesti kao jedna od najbolje pamćenih vladarki Rusije i jedna od najutjecajnijih svjetskih kraljica. Nikad nije trebala ni vladati - to je trebao biti njezin suprug, car Petar III. Međutim, pukom inteligencijom i lukavošću, Catherine ne samo da je uspjela pobjeći iz bijednog političkog braka, već je uspješno otrgla moć svom mužu i za sebe preuzela rusko prijestolje. Držala je vlast u Rusiji sljedećih 35 godina-sve do svoje smrti-što ju je učinilo najdugovječnijom vladarkom u ruskoj povijesti.

Catherine je zaslužna za premještanje Rusije iz provincijske, rustikalne zemlje u uzor europskog sjaja i moći. Bilo je mnogo priča o legendarnom monarhu, a novo zanimanje za zloglasnu rusku caricu izazvano je zahvaljujući Huluovoj novoj seriji, Veliki - labavo temeljeno na monarhovim ranim godinama. No, prava priča o Katarini Velikoj pokazuje da istina može biti čudnija od fikcije.


Umjetnice

Katarinina vladavina donijela je nešto zlatno razdoblje za umjetnice. Dok je Petar I (vladavina 1682-1725) donio reforme koje su ženama dale veću slobodu u obrazovanju, to je bilo sredinom 18. stoljeća, u vrijeme kada je Katarina Velika došla na vlast, a umjetnice su se također uzdigle u Rusiji.

"Uzdižući svoju tek stečenu pismenost, ruske spisateljice i pjesnikinje, praćene pomno ruskim skladateljicama, počele su sredinom 1700-ih olovkom", napisala je Anne Harley, profesorica glazbe na koledžu Scripps, u članku objavljenom u 2015. u "Journal of Singing".

Ove su umjetnice bile iz aristokratske klase, ali su slijedile vodstvo Katarine II ("velike") i drugih žena koje su imale vlast u Rusiji u 18. stoljeću. "Ove žene aristokratkinje slijedile su novi model osnažene i iznimno kulturne žene, po uzoru na četiri žene koje su vladale ruskim carstvom više od dvije trećine 18. stoljeća: Catherine I, Anna, Elisabeth i Catherine II", napisala je Harley u njezin papir.

Među najplodnijim ruskim umjetnicama bila je princeza Natalia Ivanovna Kurakina (živjela 1768-1831) koja je napisala najmanje 45 pjesama. "Kurakine pjesme bile su toliko popularne da je Breitkopf (Petersburg) 1795. objavio zbirku od osam svojih francuskih romansi", napisao je Harley.


2 Podjela Poljske

Rusija, Pruska i Austrija videle su Poljsku kao problem. Utisnuta između tri sile, inzistiranje zemlje na neovisnosti postalo je trn razdora. 1763. Katarina je pomogla Stanislavu Poniatowskom, bivšem ljubavniku, da postane poljski kralj. Mislila je da će je zahvalni kralj nagraditi tako što će postati marioneta ruskih interesa. Umjesto toga, Poniatowski je uveo reforme s ciljem da Poljsku učini neovisnijom od susjeda. 1772. frustrirana Katarina, zajedno s Pruskom i Austrijom, zauzela je znatne dijelove poljskog teritorija. Tri su države 1772., 1793. i 1795. postigle sporazume o međusobnoj podjeli Poljske, što je rezultiralo eliminacijom Poljske kao neovisne nacije. Proći će 1918. prije nego što će Poljska vratiti suverenitet.


Vladavina (1762–96)

Krunidba (1762)

Dana 28. lipnja 1762., uz pomoć svog ljubavnika Grigorija Orlova, Katarina je okupila trupe Sankt Peterburga da joj pruži podršku i proglasila se Katarinom II, suverenom vladarkom Rusije, a kasnije je za nasljednika imenovala svog sina Pavla. Ona je dala uhititi Petra i natjerati ga da potpiše čin abdikacije. Kad je tražio dopuštenje za napuštanje zemlje, ona ga je odbila namjeravajući ga doživotno držati u zatočeništvu. Imao je samo nekoliko dana života, iako su ga, ubrzo nakon uhićenja, zadavili Katarinini pristaše, ali nitko ne zna koji je dio Katarine imao Petrove smrti. [27] Okrunjena je u katedrali Uznesenja u Moskvi 22. rujna 1762. [28] Katarinina krunidba označava stvaranje jednog od glavnih blaga dinastije Romanov, Carske krune Rusije, koju je dizajnirao švicarsko-francuski dvorski draguljar Jérémie Pauzié. Nadahnuta dizajnom Bizantskog carstva, kruna je izgrađena od dvije zlatne i srebrne polovine sfera, koje predstavljaju istočno i zapadno rimsko carstvo, podijeljene lisnatim vijencem i pričvršćene niskim obručem. Kruna sadrži 75 bisera i 4936 indijskih dijamanata koji tvore lovorovo i hrastovo lišće, simbole moći i snage, a nadvišen je rubinskim spinelom od 398,62 karata koji je prije pripadao carici Elizabeti, te dijamantnim križem.

Kruna je proizvedena u rekordna dva mjeseca i težila je samo 2,3 kg. [29] Od 1762. Velika carska kruna bila je krunidbena kruna svih careva Romanova, sve do ukidanja monarhije i smrti posljednjeg Romanova, Nikole II, 1918. To je jedno od glavnih blaga dinastije Romanov, i sada izložena u Oružanom muzeju Moskovskog Kremlja u Rusiji. [30]

Vanjski poslovi

Tijekom svoje vladavine, Katarina je proširila granice Ruskog Carstva prema jugu i zapadu kako bi apsorbirala Novorusiju, Krim, Sjeverni Kavkaz, desnu obalu Ukrajine, Bjelorusiju, Litvu i Courland na račun, uglavnom, dviju sila-Osmanskog Carstva i poljsko -litvanske zajednice. Sve u svemu, dodala je ruskom teritoriju nekih 20000 kvadratnih milja (520.000 km 2).

Katarinin ministar vanjskih poslova Nikita Panin (na dužnosti 1763. -81.) Imao je značajan utjecaj od početka svoje vladavine. Pametan državnik, Panin je uložio mnogo truda i milijune rubalja u postavljanje "Sjevernog sporazuma" između Rusije, Pruske, Poljske i Švedske, kako bi se suprotstavio moći Bourbonsko -habsburške lige. Kad je postalo očito da njegov plan ne može uspjeti, Panin je pao u nemilost i Catherine ga je zamijenila Ivanom Ostermanom (na dužnosti 1781–97).

Katarina je 1766. pristala na trgovački ugovor s Velikom Britanijom, ali nije uspjela doći do potpunog vojnog saveza. [31] Iako je mogla vidjeti prednosti britanskog prijateljstva, bila je oprezna zbog povećane moći Britanije nakon njezine pobjede u Sedmogodišnjem ratu, koji je ugrozio europsku ravnotežu snaga.

Rusko-turski ratovi

Dok je Petar Veliki u azovskim pohodima uspio samo steći uporište na jugu na rubu Crnog mora, Katarina je dovršila osvajanje juga. Katarina je učinila Rusiju dominantnom silom u jugoistočnoj Europi nakon svog prvog rusko-turskog rata protiv Osmanskog Carstva (1768–74), koji je doživio neke od najtežih poraza u turskoj povijesti, uključujući bitku za Chesmu (5-7. Srpnja 1770) ) i bitku kod Kagula (21. srpnja 1770.).

Ruske pobjede omogućile su Katarininoj vladi pristup Crnom moru i uključivanje današnje južne Ukrajine, gdje su Rusi osnovali nove gradove Odessu, Nikolajev, Jekaterinoslav (doslovno: "slava Katarine" budući Dnepropetrovsk), i Herson. Küçük Kaynarca ugovorom, potpisanim 10. srpnja 1774., Rusi su dobili teritorije Azov, Kerch, Yenikale, Kinburn i mali pojas Crnomorske obale između rijeka Dnjepar i Bug. Ugovorom su također uklonjena ograničenja ruskog pomorskog ili trgovačkog prometa u Azovskom moru, Rusiji je dodijeljen položaj zaštitnika pravoslavnih kršćana u Osmanskom carstvu, a Krim je postao protektorat Rusije.

Katarina je pripojila Krim 1783. godine, devet godina nakon što je Krimski kanat stekao nominalnu neovisnost - koju je jamčila Rusija - od Osmanskog Carstva kao rezultat svog prvog rata protiv Turaka. Palača krimskih kanova prešla je u ruke Rusa. 1787. Katarina je izvela trijumfalnu povorku na Krimu, što je pomoglo izazvati sljedeći rusko -turski rat.

Osmanlije su ponovno pokrenule neprijateljstva u drugom rusko-turskom ratu (1787–92). Ovaj rat, katastrofalan za Osmanlije, završio je Jasijskim ugovorom (1792.), kojim je ozakonjeno rusko potraživanje na Krim, a regija Yedisan dodijeljena Rusiji.

Rusko-perzijski rat

U skladu s Georgievskim ugovorom (1783.) Rusija je potpisala s Gruzijcima kako bi ih zaštitila od svake nove invazije njihovih perzijskih suzerena i daljnjih političkih težnji, Katarina je 1796. vodila novi rat protiv Perzije nakon što su oni, pod novim kraljem Aghom Mohammadom Khan, ponovno je napao Gruziju i 1795. uspostavio vlast nad njom te je protjerao novoosnovane ruske garnizone na Kavkazu. Krajnji cilj ruske vlade bio je, međutim, srušiti antiruskog šaha (kralja) i zamijeniti ga polubratom, naime Mortezom Qoli Khanom, koji je prebjegao u Rusiju, pa je stoga bio proruski orijentiran. [32] [33]

Općenito se očekivalo da će ruski korpus s 13.000 vojnika voditi iskusni general (Gudovich)-no carica je poslušala savjet svog ljubavnika, kneza Zubova i povjerila zapovjedništvo svom mlađem bratu, grofu Valerijanu Zubovu. Ruske trupe krenule su iz Kizlyara u travnju 1796. i 10. svibnja upale u ključnu tvrđavu Derbent. Događaj je proslavio dvorski pjesnik Derzhavin u svojoj čuvenoj odi, a kasnije je gorko komentirao Zubov neslavni povratak s ekspedicije u drugoj izuzetnoj pjesmi.

Do sredine lipnja Zubovove su trupe bez ikakvog otpora pregazile većinu teritorija današnjeg Azerbajdžana, uključujući tri glavna grada-Baku, Shemakha i Ganja. Do studenog su bili stacionirani na ušću rijeka Araks u Kura, spremni napasti kontinentalni Iran.

U tom mjesecu umrla je carica Rusije, a njezin nasljednik Pavao, koji je mrzio Zubove i imao druge planove za vojsku, naredio je trupama da se povuku u Rusiju. Ovaj preokret izazvao je frustraciju i neprijateljstvo moćnih Zubova i drugih časnika koji su sudjelovali u kampanji: mnogi od njih bili bi među zavjerenicima koji su dogovorili Pavlovo ubojstvo pet godina kasnije.

Odnosi sa Zapadnom Europom

Katarina je čeznula za priznanjem kao prosvijetljena vladarka. Ona je za Rusiju bila pionir uloge koju je Britanija kasnije imala kroz veći dio 19. i početka 20. stoljeća kao međunarodni posrednik u sporovima koji su mogli, ili jesu, dovesti do rata. Djelovala je kao posrednik u ratu za bavarsko nasljedstvo (1778–79) između njemačkih država Prusije i Austrije. Godine 1780. osnovala je Ligu oružane neutralnosti, osmišljenu za obranu neutralnog brodarstva od britanske kraljevske mornarice tijekom Američke revolucije.

Od 1788. do 1790. Rusija je vodila rat protiv Švedske, sukob koji je potaknuo Katarinin rođak, švedski kralj Gustav III., Koji je očekivao da će jednostavno prestići ruske vojske koje su još bile u ratu protiv Osmanskih Turaka i nadao se da će izravno udariti u Sankt Peterburg. No, ruska Baltička flota provjerila je kraljevsku švedsku mornaricu u izjednačenoj bici kod Hoglanda (srpanj 1788.), a švedska vojska nije uspjela napredovati. Danska je objavila rat Švedskoj 1788. (Kazališni rat). Nakon odlučujućeg poraza ruske flote u bitci kod Svensksunda 1790. godine, strane su potpisale Väräläski ugovor (14. kolovoza 1790.), vraćajući sva osvojena područja svojim vlasnicima i potvrđujući Ugovor od Åbo. Uslijedio je mir 20 godina, potpomognut ubojstvom Gustava III 1792. godine.

Podjele Poljske

1764. Katarina je na poljsko prijestolje postavila svog bivšeg ljubavnika Stanisława Augusta Poniatowskog. Iako je ideja o podjeli Poljske došla od pruskog kralja Fridrika II., Katarina je preuzela vodeću ulogu u njezinoj provedbi 1790 -ih. Godine 1768. službeno je postala zaštitnica Poljsko-litvanske zajednice, koja je izazvala antiruski ustanak u Poljskoj, Konfederaciju Bara (1768–72). Nakon što se ustanak slomio zbog unutarnje politike u Poljsko -Litavskoj zajednici, osnovala je u Rzeczpospolita, sustav vlasti koji je u potpunosti kontrolirano od Ruskog Carstva putem Stalnog vijeća, pod nadzorom njezinih veleposlanika i izaslanika.

Nakon Francuske revolucije 1789. Katarina je odbacila mnoga načela prosvjetiteljstva na koja je nekad gledala blagonaklono. Uplašena da bi svibanjski Ustav Poljske (1791.) mogao dovesti do ponovnog oživljavanja moći Poljsko -litvanske zajednice, a rastući demokratski pokreti unutar Commonwealtha mogli bi postati prijetnja europskim monarhijama, Katarina je odlučila intervenirati u Poljskoj. Pružala je podršku poljskoj antireformskoj skupini poznatoj kao Konfederacija Targowica. Nakon poraza lojalnih snaga Poljske u Poljsko -ruskom ratu 1792. i ustanku Kościuszko (1794.), Rusija je dovršila podjelu Poljske, podijelivši sav preostali teritorij Commonwealtha s Pruskom i Austrijom (1795.).

Odnosi s Japanom

Na Dalekom istoku Rusi su postali aktivni u hvatanju krzna na Kamčatki i Kurilskim otocima. To je potaknulo interes Rusije da otvori trgovinu s Japanom na jugu za zalihe i hranu. Godine 1783. oluje su izbacile japanskog kapetana Daikokuyu Kōdayūa na obalu na Aleutskim otocima, u to doba ruskom teritoriju. Ruske lokalne vlasti pomogle su njegovoj stranci, a ruska ga je vlada odlučila upotrijebiti kao trgovinskog izaslanika. 28. lipnja 1791. Katarina je Daikokuyi dala audijenciju u Carskom Selu. Nakon toga, 1792. godine, ruska vlada poslala je trgovačku misiju u Japan, koju je vodio Adam Laxman. Shokunat Tokugawa primio je misiju, ali pregovori nisu uspjeli.

Ekonomija i financije

Gospodarski razvoj bio je znatno ispod standarda u zapadnoj Europi. Povjesničar Francois Cruzet kaže da njena Rusija:

nije imao ni slobodno seljaštvo, ni značajnu srednju klasu, niti pravne norme gostoljubive za privatno poduzetništvo. Ipak, došlo je do početka industrije, uglavnom tekstila oko Moskve i željezare u Uralskim planinama, s radnom snagom uglavnom kmetova, vezanih za radove. [34]

Katarina je snažno poticala migraciju Nijemaca s Volge - poljoprivrednika iz Njemačke koji su se nastanili uglavnom u regiji doline rijeke Volge. Oni su doista pomogli modernizaciju sektora koji je potpuno dominirao ruskim gospodarstvom. Uveli su brojne inovacije u vezi s proizvodnjom pšenice i mljevenjem brašna, kulturom duhana, ovčarstvom i malom proizvodnjom. [35] [36]

Banka za dodjelu dobila je 1768. zadatak izdati prvi državni papirnati novac. Otvorena je u Sankt Peterburgu i Moskvi 1769. Poslije je osnovano nekoliko poslovnica banaka u drugim gradovima, nazvanim vladinim gradovima. Papirnate novčanice izdane su nakon uplate sličnih iznosa u bakrenom novcu, koje su također vraćene nakon predočenja tih novčanica. Pojava ovih rubalja dodjele bila je neophodna zbog velikih državnih izdataka za vojne potrebe, što je dovelo do nedostatka srebra u riznici (transakcije, osobito u vanjskoj trgovini, obavljale su se gotovo isključivo srebrnim i zlatnim novčićima). Rublje dodjele koje su ravnopravno cirkulirale sa srebrnom rubljom, u tijeku je bio tržišni tečaj za ove dvije valute. Korištenje ovih bilješki nastavilo se do 1849. [37]

Umjetnost i kultura

Catherine je imala reputaciju zaštitnice umjetnosti, književnosti i obrazovanja. Muzej Ermitaž, koji sada zauzima čitavu Zimsku palaču, započeo je kao Katarinina osobna zbirka. Na poticaj njezina factotuma, Ivana Betskoya, napisala je priručnik za obrazovanje male djece, oslanjajući se na ideje Johna Lockea, te osnovala (1764.) poznati Smolny Institute, koji je primao mlade djevojke iz plemstva.

Pisala je komedije, beletristiku i memoare, a njegovala je Voltairea, Diderota i d'Alemberta - sve francuske enciklopediste, koji su joj kasnije učvrstili ugled u svojim spisima. Vodeći ekonomisti njezinog doba, poput Arthura Younga i Jacquesa Neckera, postali su strani članovi Slobodnog ekonomskog društva, osnovanog na njezin prijedlog u Sankt Peterburgu 1765. godine. Angažirala je znanstvenike Leonharda Eulera i Petera Simona Pallasa iz Berlina i Andersa Johana Lexella od Švedske do glavnog grada Rusije.

Catherine je angažirala Voltairea za svoju stvar i s njim se dopisivala 15 godina, od njezina pristupanja do njegove smrti 1778. Pohvalio je njezina postignuća, nazivajući je "Zvijezdom Sjevera" i "Semiramidom Rusije" (u odnosu na legendarna babilonska kraljica, tema na kojoj je objavio tragediju 1768.). Iako ga nikad nije srela licem u lice, gorko ga je oplakala kad je umro. Zbirku njegovih knjiga stekla je od njegovih nasljednika i smjestila ih u Nacionalnu knjižnicu Rusije.

U roku od nekoliko mjeseci od njezina pristupanja 1762., nakon što je čula da je francuska vlada zaprijetila da će zaustaviti objavljivanje slavnih Francuza Enciklopedija zbog njezinog nereligioznog duha, Catherine je predložila Diderotu da dovrši svoje veliko djelo u Rusiji pod njezinom zaštitom.

Četiri godine kasnije, 1766., nastojala je u zakonodavstvo utjeloviti načela prosvjetiteljstva koja je naučila proučavajući francuske filozofe. U Moskvi je sazvala Veliko povjerenstvo - gotovo konzultativni parlament - sastavljeno od 652 člana svih klasa (dužnosnici, plemići, mještani i seljaci) i različitih nacionalnosti. Komisija je morala razmotriti potrebe Ruskog Carstva i načine njihovog zadovoljenja. Carica je sama pripremila "Upute za vođenje skupštine", pljačkajući (kako je iskreno priznala) filozofe zapadne Europe, osobito Montesquieua i Cesarea Beccaria.

Budući da su mnogi demokratski principi uplašili njezine umjerenije i iskusnije savjetnike, suzdržala se od toga da ih odmah primijeni u praksi. Nakon održanih više od 200 sjednica, takozvano Povjerenstvo se raspustilo ne izlazeći iz područja teorije.

Unatoč tome, Catherine je počela izdavati kodove za rješavanje nekih trendova modernizacije predloženih u svom Nakazu. Carica je 1775. godine donijela Statut o upravljanju provincijama Ruskog Carstva. Statut je nastojao učinkovito upravljati Rusijom povećanjem broja stanovnika i podjelom zemlje na pokrajine i okruge. Do kraja njezine vladavine stvoreno je 50 provincija i gotovo 500 okruga, više nego dvostruko imenovani vladini dužnosnici, koji su trošili šest puta više nego prije na lokalnu upravu. Godine 1785. Katarina je plemstvu dodijelila Povelju plemstvu, dodatno povećavajući moć zemljišnih oligarha. Plemići u svakom okrugu izabrali su maršala plemstva, koji je u njihovo ime razgovarao s monarhom o pitanjima koja su ih se ticala, uglavnom ekonomskim. Iste godine Katarina je izdala Povelju o gradovima u kojoj su svi ljudi podijeljeni u šest skupina kao način da se ograniči moć plemića i stvori srednji posjed. Katarina je također izdala Zakonik o trgovačkoj plovidbi i trgovini solju iz 1781., Policijski pravilnik iz 1782. i Statut nacionalnog obrazovanja iz 1786. Carica je 1777. opisala Voltaireu svoje pravne inovacije u zaostaloj Rusiji kako napreduju "malo po malo" malo".

Tijekom Katarine, Rusi su uvozili i proučavali klasične i europske utjecaje koji su inspirirali rusko prosvjetiteljstvo. Gavrila Derzhavin, Denis Fonvizin i Ippolit Bogdanovich postavili su temelje za velike pisce 19. stoljeća, posebno za Aleksandra Puškina. Katarina je postala velika zaštitnica ruske opere.

Kad je Aleksandar Radishchev objavio svoj Putovanje od Sankt Peterburga do Moskve 1790. (godinu dana nakon početka Francuske revolucije) i upozorila na ustanke zbog žalosnih društvenih uvjeta seljaka koji su držani kao kmetovi, Katarina ga je prognala u Sibir.

Catherine je također primila Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun (bivša dvorska slikarica Marie Antoinette) u svojoj rezidenciji Tsarskoye Selo u Sankt Peterburgu, koju je naslikala neposredno prije smrti. Madame Vigée Le Brun živopisno opisuje caricu u svojim memoarima: "prizor te slavne žene toliko me se dojmio da mi je bilo nemoguće smisliti bilo što: mogao sam samo buljiti u nju. Prvo sam bio jako iznenađen njezinim malim stasom koji sam imao zamišljao je da je vrlo visoka, velika koliko i njezina slava. Također je bila vrlo debela, ali lice joj je i dalje bilo lijepo, a bijelu je kosu nosila gore, savršeno je uokvirivši. Činilo se da joj je genij počivao na čelu, što je visoke i široke. Oči su joj bile meke i osjetljive, nos prilično grčki, visoka boja i izrazite crte lica. Odmah mi se obratila glasom punim slatkoće, pomalo grleno: "Drago mi je što vas mogu pozdraviti ovdje, madam , vaš ugled je ispred vas. Jako volim umjetnost, osobito slikarstvo. Nisam poznavalac, ali sam veliki ljubitelj umjetnosti. "

Madame Vigée Le Brun također opisuje caricu na svečanosti: "Dvokrilna vrata su se otvorila i carica se pojavila. Rekao sam da je bila prilično mala, a ipak u danima kada se javno pojavljivala, uzdignute glave, orlovski pogled i lice naviknuto zapovijedati, sve joj je to davalo takav dašak veličanstvenosti da je za mene možda bila kraljica svijeta nosila je krila tri reda, a kostim joj je bio jednostavan i kraljevski muslinska tunika izvezena zlatom pričvršćena dijamantnim pojasom, a puni rukavi presavijeni unatrag u azijskom stilu. Preko ove tunike nosila je dolman od crvenog baršuna s vrlo kratkim rukavima. , ali s najljepšim dijamantima. "

Obrazovanje

Catherine joj je bila bliska zapadnoeuropska filozofija i kultura i htjela se okružiti istomišljenicima u Rusiji. [38] Vjerovala je da bi se "nova vrsta osobe" mogla stvoriti uvođenjem ruske djece u europsko obrazovanje. Catherine je vjerovala da obrazovanje može promijeniti srca i umove ruskog naroda i odvratiti ga od zaostalosti. To je značilo razvoj pojedinaca intelektualno i moralno, pružanje znanja i vještina te njegovanje osjećaja građanske odgovornosti. [39]

Catherine je imenovala Ivana Betskoya za svog savjetnika za obrazovna pitanja. [40] Preko njega je prikupljala podatke iz Rusije i drugih zemalja o obrazovnim ustanovama. Osnovala je i povjerenstvo u sastavu T.N. Teplov, T. von Klingstedt, F.G. Dilthey i povjesničar G. Muller. Konzultirala se s britanskim pionirima obrazovanja, osobito velečasnim Danielom Dumaresqom i dr. Johnom Brownom. [41] Godine 1764. poslala je Dumaresqa u Rusiju, a zatim ga imenovala u obrazovno povjerenstvo. Povjerenstvo je proučilo reformske projekte koje je prethodno instalirao I.I. Šuvalov pod Elizabetom i pod Petrom III. Podnijeli su preporuke za uspostavu općeg sustava obrazovanja za sve ruske pravoslavne predmete od 5 do 18 godina, isključujući kmetove. [42] Međutim, ništa nije poduzeto po bilo kojim preporukama koje je povjerenstvo iznijelo zbog poziva Zakonodavnog povjerenstva. U srpnju 1765. Dumaresq je pisao dr. Johnu Brownu o problemima komisije i primio dugačak odgovor koji je sadržavao vrlo općenite i opsežne prijedloge za obrazovne i društvene reforme u Rusiji. Brown je ustvrdio da bi u demokratskoj zemlji obrazovanje trebalo biti pod državnom kontrolom i temeljeno na obrazovnom kodeksu. Također je stavio veliki naglasak na "pravilno i učinkovito obrazovanje ženskog spola" prije dvije godine, Catherine je naručila Ivana Betskoya da izradi Opći program obrazovanja mladih oba spola. [43] Ovaj rad je naglasio poticanje stvaranja 'nove vrste ljudi' podignute izolirano od štetnog utjecaja zaostalog ruskog okruženja. [44] Osnivanje Moskovske kuće za pronalaženje djece (Moskovsko sirotište) bio je prvi pokušaj postizanja tog cilja. Optužena je za prihvaćanje siromašne i izvanbračne djece da ih obrazuju na bilo koji način koji država smatra sposobnim. Budući da Moskovska udruga za osnivanje nije osnovana kao institucija koju financira država, predstavljala je priliku za eksperimentiranje s novim obrazovnim teorijama. Međutim, Moskovski dom za pronalaženje djece bio je neuspješan, uglavnom zbog iznimno visokih stopa smrtnosti, što je spriječilo mnoga djeca da žive dovoljno dugo da se razviju u prosvijetljene subjekte kakve država želi. [45]

Nedugo nakon Moskovske kuće za pronalaženje, Catherine je osnovala Smolny Institut za plemenite djevojke za obrazovanje žena. Smolny Institute bio je prvi te vrste u Rusiji. U početku je Institut primao samo mlade djevojke iz plemićke elite, ali je na kraju počeo primati i djevojke iz malograđanštine. [46] Djevojke koje su pohađale Smolny Institute, Smolyanki, često su bile optuživane da ne znaju ništa što se događa u svijetu izvan zidova Smolny zgrada. Unutar zidina Instituta učili su ih besprijekornom francuskom, sviranju, plesu i potpunom strahopoštovanju prema Monarhu. U Institutu je provođenje stroge discipline bilo središte njegove filozofije. Trčanje i igre su bili zabranjeni, a zgrada je bila posebno hladna jer se smatralo da previše topline šteti tijelu u razvoju, kao i višak igre. [47]

Tijekom 1768. -1774. Nije postignut napredak u uspostavi nacionalnog školskog sustava. [48] ​​Catherine je nastavila istraživati ​​obrazovnu teoriju i praksu drugih zemalja. Napravila je mnoge obrazovne reforme unatoč nedostatku nacionalnog školskog sustava. Preuređenje kadetskog zbora 1766. pokrenulo je mnoge obrazovne reforme. Tada je počela uzimati djecu od najranije dobi i obrazovati ih do 21. godine. Nastavni plan i program proširen je iz profesionalnog vojnog kurikuluma tako da uključuje znanosti, filozofiju, etiku, povijest i međunarodno pravo. Ta je politika u kadetskom korpusu utjecala na nastavu u mornaričkom kadetskom zboru te u inženjerijskim i topničkim školama. Nakon rata i poraza Pugačeva, Catherine je postavila obvezu osnivanja škola pri gubernija- provincijski pododjel Ruskog carstva kojim vlada guverner - u odborima za socijalnu skrb uspostavljenim uz sudjelovanje izabranih predstavnika s tri slobodna imanja. [49]

Do 1782. godine Katarina je organizirala još jedno savjetodavno povjerenstvo za proučavanje prikupljenih podataka o obrazovnim sustavima mnogih različitih zemalja. [50] Posebno se istaknuo sustav koji je proizveo matematičar Franz Aepinus. Bio je snažno za prihvaćanje austrijskog troslojnog modela trivijalnih, stvarnih i normalnih škola na razini sela, grada i provincije. Osim savjetodavnog povjerenstva, Katarina je osnovala Povjerenstvo nacionalnih škola pod vodstvom Petra Zavadovskog. Ova je komisija bila zadužena za organiziranje nacionalne školske mreže, obuku učitelja i osiguravanje udžbenika. Dana 5. kolovoza 1786. objavljen je Ruski statut nacionalnog obrazovanja. [51] Statutom je uspostavljena dvoslojna mreža srednjih škola i osnovnih škola u gubernija glavni gradovi koji su bili besplatni, otvoreni za sve besplatne razrede (ne kmetove) i suobrazovni. Također je detaljno regulirao nastavne predmete u svakoj dobi i način poučavanja. Osim udžbenika koje je komisija prevela, nastavnici su dobili i „Vodič za učitelje“. Ovaj se rad, podijeljen u četiri dijela, bavio metodama poučavanja, predmetima koji se predaju, ponašanjem učitelja i vođenjem škole. [51]

Presuda 19. stoljeća bila je općenito kritična, tvrdeći da Catherine nije osigurala dovoljno novca za uzdržavanje svog obrazovnog programa. [52] Dvije godine nakon provedbe Katarininog programa, član Nacionalnog povjerenstva pregledao je uspostavljene institucije. U cijeloj Rusiji inspektori su naišli na neujednačen odgovor. Dok je plemstvo ulagalo znatne novčane iznose za te institucije, radije je slalo svoju djecu u privatne, prestižnije ustanove. Također, građani su se skloni okrenuti protiv mlađih škola i njihovih pedagoških metoda. Procjenjuje se da se 62.000 učenika školovalo u nekih 549 državnih institucija pred kraj Katarinine vladavine. To je bio samo mali broj ljudi u usporedbi s veličinom ruskog stanovništva. [53]

Vjerski poslovi

Catherinino očito svesrdno usvajanje svega ruskog (uključujući pravoslavlje) možda je potaknulo njezinu osobnu ravnodušnost prema religiji. Nacionalizirala je svu crkvenu zemlju, kako bi pomogla u plaćanju svojih ratova, uvelike je ispraznila samostane i prisilila većinu preostalih svećenika da prežive kao poljoprivrednici ili od pristojbi za krštenja i druge usluge. U Crkvu je ušlo vrlo malo pripadnika plemstva, što je postalo još manje važno nego prije. Nije dopuštala neistomišljenicima da grade kapele, a vjersko je neslaganje potisnula nakon početka Francuske revolucije. [54]

Međutim, Catherine je promicanjem kršćanstva u svojoj protuosmanskoj politici promicala zaštitu i njegovanje kršćana pod turskom vlašću. Stavila je stroge mjere na rimokatolike (ukaz od 23. veljače 1769.), uglavnom poljski, te je pokušao uspostaviti i proširiti državnu kontrolu nad njima nakon podjela Poljske. [55] Ipak, Katarinina Rusija pružila je azil i bazu za ponovno okupljanje isusovaca nakon potiskivanja isusovaca u većem dijelu Europe 1773. [55]

Islam

Katarina je tijekom svoje vladavine zauzela mnogo različitih pristupa islamu. Između 1762. i 1773. muslimanima je aktivno zabranjeno posjedovanje pravoslavnih kmetova. Na njih je također vršen pritisak u pravoslavlje putem novčanih poticaja. [56] Katarina je obećala više kmetova svih religija, kao i amnestiju za osuđenike, ako muslimani odluče preći na pravoslavlje. [57] Međutim, Zakonodavna komisija iz 1767. ponudila je nekoliko mjesta ljudima koji ispovijedaju islamsku vjeru. This commission promised to protect their religious rights, but did not do so. Many Orthodox peasants felt threatened by the sudden change, and burned mosques as a sign of their displeasure. [57] Catherine chose to assimilate Islam into the state rather than eliminate it when public outcry against equality got too disruptive. After the "Toleration of All Faiths" Edict of 1773, Muslims were permitted to build mosques and practise all of their traditions, the most obvious of these being the pilgrimage to Mecca, which had been denied previously. [58] Catherine created the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly to help regulate Muslim-populated regions, as well as regulate the instruction and ideals of mullahs. The positions on the Assembly were appointed and paid for by Catherine and her government, as a way of regulating the religious affairs of her nation. [59]

In 1785, Catherine approved the subsidisation of new mosques and new town settlements for Muslims. This was another attempt to organise and passively control the outer fringes of her country. By building new settlements with mosques placed in them, Catherine attempted to ground many of the nomadic people who wandered through southern Russia. [60] In 1786, she assimilated the Islamic schools into the Russian public school system, to be regulated by the government. The plan was another attempt to force nomadic people to settle. This allowed the Russian government to control more people, especially those who previously had not fallen under the jurisdiction of Russian law. [61]

Judaism

Russia often treated Judaism as a separate entity, where Jews were maintained with a separate legal and bureaucratic system. Although the government knew that Judaism existed, Catherine and her advisers had no real definition of what a "Jew" is, since the term meant many things during her reign. [62] Judaism was a small, if not nonexistent, religion in Russia until 1772. When Catherine agreed to the First Partition of Poland, the large new Jewish element was treated as a separate people, defined by their religion. In keeping with their treatment in Poland, Catherine allowed the Jews to separate themselves from Orthodox society, with certain restrictions. She levied additional taxes on the followers of Judaism if a family converted to the Orthodox faith, that additional tax was lifted. [63] Jewish members of society were required to pay double the tax of their Orthodox neighbours. Converted Jews could gain permission to enter the merchant class and farm as free peasants under Russian rule. [64] [65]

In an attempt to assimilate the Jews into Russia’s economy, Catherine included them under the rights and laws of the Charter of the Towns of 1782. [66] While this presented some benefits for Jews—they received recognition as equals to any Orthodox citizen—many people attempted to take advantage of this equality. Orthodox Russians disliked the inclusion of Judaism, mainly for economic reasons many Jews were bankers and merchants. Catherine tried to keep the Jews away from certain economic spheres, even under the guise of equality in 1790, she banned Jewish citizens from Moscow’s middle class. [67]

In 1785, Catherine declared Jews to be officially foreigners, with foreigners’ rights. [68] This re-established the separate identity that Judaism maintained in Russia throughout the Jewish Haskalah. Catherine’s decree also denied Jews the rights of an Orthodox or naturalised citizen of Russia. Taxes doubled again for those of Jewish descent in 1794, and Catherine officially declared that Jews bore no relation to Russians.

Russian Orthodoxy

In many ways, the Orthodox Church fared no better than its foreign counterparts during the reign of Catherine. Under her leadership, she completed what Peter III had started the church's lands were expropriated, and the budget of both monasteries and bishoprics were controlled by the College of Economy. [69] Endowments from the government replaced income from privately held lands. The endowments were often much less than the original intended amount. [70] She closed 569 of 954 monasteries and only 161 got government money. Only 400,000 rubles of church wealth were paid back. [71] While other religions (such as Islam) received invitations to the Legislative Commission, the Orthodox clergy did not receive a single seat. [70] Their place in government was restricted severely during the years of Catherine's reign. [54]

In 1762, to help mend the rift between the Orthodox church and a sect that called themselves the Old Believers, Catherine passed an act that allowed Old Believers to practise their faith openly without interference. [72] While claiming religious tolerance, she intended to recall the Believers into the official church. They refused to comply, and in 1764, she deported over 20,000 Old Believers to Siberia on the grounds of their faith. [72] In later years, Catherine amended her thoughts. Old Believers were allowed to hold elected municipal positions after the Urban Charter of 1785, and she promised religious freedom to those who wished to settle in Russia. [73] [74]

Religious education was also strictly reviewed. At first, she simply attempted to revise clerical studies, proposing a reform of religious schools. This reform never progressed beyond the planning stages. By 1786, Catherine excluded all religion and clerical studies programmes from lay education. [75] By separating the public interests from those of the church, Catherine began a secularisation of the day-to-day workings of Russia. She transformed the clergy from a group that wielded great power over the Russian government and its people to a segregated community forced to depend on the state for compensation. [70]

Personal life

Catherine, throughout her long reign, took many lovers, often elevating them to high positions [76] for as long as they held her interest, and then pensioning them off with gifts of serfs and large estates. The percentage of state money spent on the court increased from 10.4% in 1767 to 11.4% in 1781 to 13.5% in 1795. Catherine gave away 66,000 serfs from 1762–72, 202,000 from 1773–93, and 100,000 in one day: 18 August 1795. [77] :119 Just as the church supported her, hoping to get their land back, Catherine bought the support of the bureaucracy. From 19 April 1764, any bureaucrat holding the same rank for seven years or more got instantly promoted. On 13 September 1767, Catherine decreed that after seven years in one rank, civil servants would be automatically promoted regardless of office or merit. [78]

After her affair with her lover and adviser Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin ended in 1776, he allegedly selected a candidate-lover for her who had the physical beauty and mental faculties to hold her interest (such as Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov and Nicholas Alexander Suk [79] ). Some of these men loved her in return, and she always showed generosity towards them, even after the affair ended. One of her lovers, Pyotr Zavadovsky, received 50,000 rubles, a pension of 5,000 rubles, and 4,000 peasants in Ukraine after she dismissed him in 1777. [80] The last of her lovers, Prince Zubov, was 40 years her junior. Her sexual independence led to many of the legends about her. [81]

Catherine kept near Tula, away from her court, her illegitimate son by Grigori Orlov, Alexis Bobrinskoy (later created Count Bobrinskoy by Paul).

Poniatowski

Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, the British ambassador to Russia, offered Stanisław Poniatowski a place in the embassy in return for gaining Catherine as an ally. Poniatowski, through his mother's side, came from the Czartoryski family, prominent members of the pro-Russian faction in Poland. Catherine, 26 years old and already married to the then-Grand Duke Peter for some 10 years, met the 22-year-old Poniatowski in 1755, therefore well before encountering the Orlov brothers. In 1757, Poniatowski served in the British forces during the Seven Years' War, thus severing close relationships with Catherine. She bore him a daughter named Anna Petrovna in December 1757 (not to be confused with Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, the daughter of Peter I's second marriage).

King Augustus III of Poland died in 1763, so Poland needed to elect a new ruler. Catherine supported Poniatowski as a candidate to become the next king. She sent the Russian army into Poland to avoid possible disputes. Russia invaded Poland on 26 August 1764, threatening to fight, and imposing Poniatowski as king. Poniatowski accepted the throne, and thereby put himself under Catherine's control. News of Catherine's plan spread and Frederick II (others say the Ottoman sultan) warned her that if she tried to conquer Poland by marrying Poniatowski, all of Europe would oppose her. She had no intention of marrying him, having already given birth to Orlov's child and to the Grand Duke Paul by then. She told Poniatowski to marry someone else to remove all suspicion. Poniatowski refused.

Prussia (through the agency of Prince Henry), Russia (under Catherine), and Austria (under Maria Theresa) began preparing the ground for the partitions of Poland. In the first partition, 1772, the three powers split 20,000 square miles (52,000 km 2 ) between them. Russia got territories east of the line connecting, more or less, Riga–Polotsk–Mogilev. In the second partition, in 1793, Russia received the most land, from west of Minsk almost to Kiev and down the river Dnieper, leaving some spaces of steppe down south in front of Ochakov, on the Black Sea. Later uprisings in Poland led to the third partition in 1795, one year before Catherine's death. Poland ceased to exist as an independent nation until 1918, in the aftermath of World War I.

Orlov

Grigory Orlov, the grandson of a rebel in the Streltsy Uprising (1698) against Peter the Great, distinguished himself in the Battle of Zorndorf (25 August 1758), receiving three wounds. He represented an opposite to Peter's pro-Prussian sentiment, with which Catherine disagreed. By 1759, Catherine and he had become lovers no one told Catherine's husband, the Grand Duke Peter. Catherine saw Orlov as very useful, and he became instrumental in the 28 June 1762 coup d’état against her husband, but she preferred to remain the Dowager Empress of Russia, rather than marrying anyone.

Grigory Orlov and his other three brothers found themselves rewarded with titles, money, swords, and other gifts, but Catherine did not marry Grigory, who proved inept at politics and useless when asked for advice. He received a palace in Saint Petersburg when Catherine became Empress.

Orlov died in 1783. Their son, Aleksey Grygoriovich Bobrinsky (1762–1813), had one daughter, Maria Alexeyeva Bobrinsky (Bobrinskaya) (1798–1835), who married in 1819 the 34-year-old Prince Nikolai Sergeevich Gagarin (London, England, 12 July 1784 – 25 July 1842) who took part in the Battle of Borodino (7 September 1812) against Napoleon, and later served as ambassador in Turin, the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Potemkin

Grigory Potemkin was involved in the državni udar of 1762. In 1772, Catherine's close friends informed her of Orlov's affairs with other women, and she dismissed him. By the winter of 1773, the Pugachev revolt had started to threaten. Catherine's son Paul had also started gaining support both of these trends threatened her power. She called Potemkin for help—mostly military—and he became devoted to her.

In 1772, Catherine wrote to Potemkin. Days earlier, she had found out about an uprising in the Volga region. She appointed General Aleksandr Bibikov to put down the uprising, but she needed Potemkin's advice on military strategy. Potemkin quickly gained positions and awards. Russian poets wrote about his virtues, the court praised him, foreign ambassadors fought for his favour, and his family moved into the palace. He later became the de facto absolute ruler of New Russia, governing its colonisation.

In 1780, the son of Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa, Emperor Joseph II, toyed with the idea of determining whether or not to enter an alliance with Russia, and asked to meet Catherine. Potemkin had the task of briefing him and travelling with him to Saint Petersburg. Potemkin also convinced Catherine to expand the universities in Russia to increase the number of scientists.

Potemkin fell very ill in August 1783. Catherine worried he would not finish his work developing the south as he had planned. Potemkin died at the age of 52 in 1791.

Serfs

According to a census taken from 1754 to 1762, Catherine owned 500,000 serfs. A further 2.8 million belonged to the Russian state. [82]

Rights and conditions

At the time of Catherine’s reign, the landowning noble class owned the serfs, who were bound to the land they tilled. Children of serfs were born into serfdom and worked the same land their parents had. The serfs had very limited rights, but they were not exactly slaves. While the state did not technically allow them to own possessions, some serfs were able to accumulate enough wealth to pay for their freedom. [83] The understanding of law in imperial Russia by all sections of society was often weak, confused, or nonexistent, particularly in the provinces where most serfs lived. This is why some serfs were able to do things such as accumulate wealth. To become serfs, people would give up their freedoms to a landowner in exchange for their protection and support in times of hardship. In addition, they would receive land to till, but would be taxed a certain percentage of their crops to give to their landowners. These were the privileges a serf was entitled to and that nobles were bound to carry out. All of this was true before Catherine’s reign, and this is the system she inherited.

Catherine did initiate some changes to serfdom, though. If a noble did not live up to his side of the deal, then the serfs could file complaints against him by following the proper channels of law. [84] Catherine gave them this new right, but in exchange they could no longer appeal directly to her. She did this because she did not want to be bothered by the peasantry, but did not want to give them reason to revolt, either. In this act, though, she unintentionally gave the serfs a legitimate bureaucratic status they had lacked before. [85] Some serfs were able to use their new status to their advantage. For example, serfs could apply to be freed if they were under illegal ownership, and non-nobles were not allowed to own serfs. [86] Some serfs did apply for freedom and were, surprisingly, successful. In addition, some governors listened to the complaints of serfs and punished nobles, but this was by no means all-inclusive.

Other than these, the rights of a serf were very limited. A landowner could punish his serfs at his discretion, and under Catherine the Great gained the ability to sentence his serfs to hard labour in Siberia, a punishment normally reserved for convicted criminals. [87] The only thing a noble could not do to his serfs was to kill them. The life of a serf belonged to the state. Historically, when the serfs faced problems they could not solve on their own (such as abusive masters), they often appealed to the autocrat, and continued doing so during Catherine’s reign, though she signed legislation prohibiting it. [88] Although she did not want to communicate directly with the serfs, she did create some measures to improve their conditions as a class and reduce the size of the institution of serfdom. For example, she took action to limit the number of new serfs she eliminated many ways for people to become serfs, culminating in the manifesto of 17 March 1775, which prohibited a serf who had once been freed from becoming a serf again. [89] However, she also restricted the freedoms of many peasants. During her reign, Catherine gave away many state-owned peasants to become private serfs (owned by a landowner), and while their ownership changed hands, a serf’s location never did. However, peasants owned by the state generally had more freedoms than those owned by a noble.

While the majority of serfs were farmers bound to the land, a noble could also have his serfs sent away to learn a trade or be educated at a school, in addition to employing them at businesses that paid wages. [90] This happened more often during Catherine’s reign because of the new schools she established. Only in this way could a serf leave the farm for which he was responsible.

Attitudes towards Catherine

The attitude of the serfs towards their autocrat had historically been a positive one. However, if the tsar’s policies were too extreme or too disliked, he was not considered the true tsar. In these cases, it was necessary to replace this “fake” tsar with the “true” tsar, whoever he may be. Because the serfs had no political power, they rioted to get their message across. But usually, if the serfs did not like the policies of the tsar, they saw the nobles as corrupt and evil, preventing the people of Russia from communicating with the well-intentioned tsar and misinterpreting his decrees. However, they were already suspicious of Catherine upon her accession, because she had annulled an act by Peter III that had essentially freed the serfs belonging to the Orthodox Church. [91] Naturally, the serfs did not like it when Catherine tried to take away their right to petition her because they felt as though she had severed their connection to the autocrat, and their power to appeal to her. Far away from the capital, they were also confused as to the circumstances of her accession to the throne. [92]

The peasants were discontented because of many other factors, as well, including crop failure, and epidemics, especially a major epidemic in 1771. The nobles were also imposing a stricter rule than ever, reducing the land of each serf and restricting their freedoms further beginning around 1767. [93] Their discontent led to widespread outbreaks of violence and rioting during Pugachev's Rebellion of 1774. The serfs probably followed someone who was pretending to be the true tsar because of their feelings of disconnection to Catherine and her policies empowering the nobles, but this was not the first time they followed a pretender under Catherine’s reign. [94] Pugachev had made stories about himself acting as a real tsar should, helping the common people, listening to their problems, praying for them, and generally acting saintly, and this helped rally the peasants and serfs, with their very conservative values, to his cause. [95] With all this discontent in mind, Catherine did rule for 10 years before the anger of the serfs boiled over into a rebellion as extensive as Pugachev’s. Under Catherine’s rule, though, despite her enlightened ideals, the serfs were generally unhappy and discontented.


3. Elizabeth had become Empress after deposing Ivan IV, who was Emperor at the time – and an actual baby.

We see him as a child on The Great – one who is never Emperor, and who is murdered by Elizabeth. But the real Ivan became Emperor at only two months old, was deposed by Elizabeth just over a year later, and was imprisoned until the age of 23, when he was murdered by his guards during the reign of Catherine the Great.


5# The Spanish problem

Napoleon’s need to control all the European coastline led him to set his eyes on the Spanish Bourbons, whom he despised as much as he did their Neapolitan cousins. Initially such animosity didn’t stop him to deal with Carlos IV of Spain, with whom he accorded the division of neutral Portugal, suspecting the country to be a depot for British products into the continent. Carlos IV agreed for French soldiers under Murat to pass through his kingdom on their way to Portugal, but their presence upset the Spaniards, who already preferred Carlos’ son, the future Ferdinand VII, and wished him to take over his father and dismiss the hated Manuel Godoy, the king’s chief minister and the main architect behind the dealings with the French.

On 18 th March 1808 this boiling hatred for Godoy erupted and his palace, and that of Carlos IV in Aranjuez were ransacked. Murat briskly proposed that Napoleon should mediate between father and son, and both agreed to meet him in Bayonne. The French Emperor had had plans to remove them both from the picture however, and carted them both away after Bayonne, while Joseph Bonaparte was extirpated from Naples and given the kingdom of Spain in return. Murat and his wife Caroline (Napoleon’s sister) were given Naples.

Needless to say, the Spaniards, already fed up with the French garrisons in their country, seethed with indignation at the removal of their beloved Ferdinand, and on 2 nd of May 1808, with Joseph barely unpacking his suitcase in Madrid, a massive revolt broke out, known as the Dos de Mayo Uprising. In Madrid the revolt was quickly crushed by French muskets, which provided inspiration to Goya for his famous painting.

El Tres de Mayo, painting by Goya, 1814. It depicts the French repression to the rising. Izvor

It was only the beginning of major troubles for Napoleon. The countryside rose in arms and soon the few French soldiers in Spain (together with Joseph) were forced to retreat north, to Burgos, and later to Catalonia, to dig up behind the River Ebro. In Portugal things got out of hand real quick too, when British regulars led by Arthur Wellesley (Future Duke of Wellington) landed to support Portugal and the Central Junta that took charge of Spanish resistance.

The failure of the Central Junta to establish a proper military command, and the broken quality of Spanish regiments was a factor that ironically played to their advantage, for time and again the French would be denied a decisive battle like those of Austerlitz, Auerstedt, or Friedland. Irregular terrain and lack of proper roads (even for the low standards of the time) would play against the French regulars, who despite counting on better discipline and skills than their foes, found it hard to counter their guerrilla tactics.


NOTE ON NOBLE FAMILIES

In the memoirs, Catherine often mentions a person&rsquos relatives to draw a quick portrait, to indicate his or her significance, and to explain a situation. These connections constitute the warp and woof of the Russian court, the government, and the military in the eighteenth century, and they are often unspoken because everyone knew them and took their importance for granted. While the index presents individuals, this note provides some background on the history of the complex interrelationships of noble families, which provides an essential window into the world of Catherine&rsquos memoirs.

In this memoir Catherine makes particular mention of the importance of Mme. Vladislavova, appointed by Empress Elizabeth in 1748 as head of Catherine&rsquos personal court.

Her name was Praskovia Nikitichna. She got off to a very good start she was sociable, loved to talk, spoke and told stories with intelligence, knew all the anecdotes of past and present times by heart, knew four or five generations of all the families, had the genealogies of everyone&rsquos fathers, mothers, grandfathers, grandmothers, and paternal and maternal great-grandparents fixed in her memory, and no one informed me more about what had happened in Russia over the past hundred years than she.

The essential lore of the history of kinship relations of noble families at the Russian court proved invaluable to Catherine, who was an outsider. Armed with this information, she could better understand and use the women and men around her.

Individual families formed noble patronage networks through marriage, especially with the czars. Through their marriages and official and unofficial positions, families fought for prestige and power, or access to the ruler and to the distribution of patronage. Most important for Catherine&rsquos purposes, they intrigued in succession struggles to promote their candidates and bring down their opponents. Thus in this memoir, Catherine takes a great personal interest in Mme. Vladislavova&rsquos knowledge.

The wives of the seventeenth-century czars created two major extended families, the Naryshkins and the Saltykovs. Peter the Great&rsquos mother was Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina (1651&ndash94), and the extended Naryshkin clan included the Streshnevs (Peter&rsquos grandmother) and the Lopukhins (Peter&rsquos first wife), and came to include the Golitsyns and the Trubetskois. Peter the Great&rsquos half brother and co-ruler, Ivan V, married Praskovia Fedorovna Saltykova (1664&ndash1723) their daughter Anna, Duchess of Courland, became Empress. The Saltykov clan included the Dolgorukovs and Apraksins. 1 As Catherine writes in this memoir, &ldquothe Saltykov family was one of the oldest and most noble of this empire. It was related to the Imperial house itself by the mother of Empress Anna, who was a Saltykov.&rdquo When Peter the Great&rsquos daughter Elizabeth succeeded Anna in a coup in 1741, the Naryshkins defeated the Saltykovs by adding several members to Elizabeth&rsquos senate, in particular Vice Chancellor (later Chancellor) Count Bestuzhev-Riumin and Prince Alexander Kurakin (1697&ndash1749). 2 The prestige, power, and collective fortunes of these two clans changed, but they remained the two most powerful groups throughout Catherine&rsquos reign and into the nineteenth century. 3

The ruthless competition between these two families during the succession struggles after Peter the Great&rsquos death abated under Elizabeth. 4 The Saltykovs expanded to include the Trubetskois (through three marriages), and the Naryshkins added the Kurakins and the Golitsyns. 5 In addition, Elizabeth&rsquos mother&rsquos family, the Skavronskys, provided a way to advance politically and themselves needed to solidify their power with status. Elizabeth married her niece Anna Skavronskaia to Mikhail Vorontsov (from an old noble family). Vorontsov continued his ascent by plotting with the family of Elizabeth&rsquos favorite, the Shuvalovs, against Chancellor Count Bestuzhev-Riumin, and succeeded him after his arrest in 1758, where Catherine&rsquos memoir ends. Two husbands of two other Skavronsky nieces likewise succeeded to important posts at this time, as did relatives of the Naryshkins, thus leaving the Saltykovs in the background. 6 Under Peter III, the Vorontsovs placed Elizabeth Vorontsova as his mistress, but Catherine cut short their hopes in 1762 with her coup. However, Vorontsova&rsquos sister, Princess Ekaterina Dashkova, was at Catherine&rsquos side during the coup, and the family continued to prosper under Catherine.

To maintain the balance of power between rival clans, Elizabeth went outside Russia to choose her own candidate as a wife for her nephew Grand Duke Peter. However, she turned to the two main families ten years later. Elizabeth responded to Peter and Catherine&rsquos failure to consummate their marriage and have children with a plan so sensitive that it was left out of the Russian Academy edition of Catherine&rsquos final memoir. In 1753, Elizabeth&rsquos niece Mme. Choglokova proposed that Catherine take a lover and offered her &ldquoL.N.&rdquo or &ldquoS.S.&rdquo Given the central importance of the Naryshkins and the Saltykovs to the ruling Romanov family, Elizabeth had found a respectable and reasonable, albeit unorthodox, solution to dynastic instability by proposing an affair with either Lev Naryshkin or Sergei Saltykov. Thus Elizabeth could accept Paul as a possibly illegitimate future heir. (Elizabeth herself was illegitimate, which had been an impediment to a royal marriage.) Catherine recalls the affair with Saltykov as a matter of necessity in the account of her lovers that she wrote for Potemkin. 7

In this memoir, Catherine demonstrates how she understood and used this system of relationships in which women as well as men played potentially important roles. Thus in 1757 Catherine arranged a marriage that improved her relations with the Razumovskys, the family of Elizabeth&rsquos favorite and secret husband, at the expense of the family of Elizabeth&rsquos other favorite, the Shuvalovs. These two families opposed each other in the succession struggle.

The marriage of Lev Naryshkin linked me more strongly than ever in friendship with the Counts Razumovsky, who were truly grateful to me for having procured such a good and advantageous match for their niece, nor were they at all upset to have gotten the upper hand over the Shuvalovs, who were not even able to complain about it and were obliged to conceal their mortification. This was yet one more advantage that I had obtained for them.

Catherine leaves the obvious unsaid: both the Razumovskys and the Shuvalovs needed to solidify their relatively recent ascents as favorites&rsquo families, and the Razumovskys gained more prestige and power from a connection with the Naryshkins than with almost any other family, thus significantly outdoing their rivals. The Shuvalovs later married into the Saltykovs. Catherine too does not explain that in return for her support, Kirill Razumovsky was instrumental in organizing her coup. Thus, noble family relations provide an essential key to understanding the dramas at court and continuous rise and fall of Catherine&rsquos position in the evolving succession struggle that forms the background for the final memoir.

John P. LeDonne, &ldquoRuling Families in the Russian Political Order, 1689&ndash1825,&rdquo Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique 28.3&ndash4:233&ndash322 ( July&ndashDecember 1987). He includes charts of the major families.

Bestuzhev-Riumin&rsquos brother Mikhail was married to Anna Gavrilovna Golovkina (died 1751), whose father, Gavriil Golovkin, was the second cousin of Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina. Kurakin&rsquos mother, Kseniia Fedorovna Lopukhina (1677&ndash98), was the younger sister of Peter the Great&rsquos first wife, Evdokiia. LeDonne, &ldquoRuling Families,&rdquo 298&ndash99 V. Fedorchenko, Imperatorskii dom: Vydaiushchiesia sanovniki, 2 vols. (Moscow: Olma-Press, 2000).

Neither Elizabeth nor Catherine, once widowed, officially married, but their favorites performed a similar function for the ruling class. John LeDonne, Ruling Russia: Politics and Administration in the Age of Absolutism, 1762&ndash1796 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984), 4.

LeDonne, &ldquoRuling Families,&rdquo 301.

Ivan Glebov and Nikolai Korf. LeDonne, &ldquoRuling Families,&rdquo 300.

Catherine to Potemkin, February 21, 1774. Smith, Love and Conquest, 9&ndash11.


Paul I (1796-1801)

Reigning for only 5 years, Paul spent much of his life overshadowed by his mother. Their relationship deteriorated badly once Paul hit his teenage years as he believed his mother should abdicate for him to assume his rightful position as king. As a result, one of his first actions on ascending the throne was to pass the Pauline Laws, which sought to enforce primogeniture.

Much of his foreign policy was also a direct reaction against Catherine’s, recalling almost all of the troops she had sent to the edges of the empire in order to facilitate expansion. He was vehemently anti-France, particularly following the revolution, and raised troops to participate in the French Revolutionary Wars. Paul’s attempts to reform the army were deeply unpopular, despite his apparent enthusiasm for doing so.

His behaviour did much to antagonise the nobility: he tried to tighten up the rampant corruption in the treasury, forced nobles at court to adopt a code of chivalry and implemented policies which gave peasants and serfs more rights and better working conditions.

He was assassinated by a group of army officers in March 1801 – it is said his son, Alexander, knew of the conspiracy and had tacitly sanctioned it. Paul’s official cause of death was recorded as apoplexy.


Marriage to the heir of the Russian throne

In 1743, she was introduced into the Lutheran Church at the desire of her mother, though she easily changed her religion to the Russian Orthodox faith right before her marriage to the Russian Prince Peter. Her parents were very concerned that their daughter marry and make a good match.

In 1744 Catherine’s mother received an invitation from Empress Elizabeth of Russia to visit the country with her daughter, which meant she was planning to marry the heir to the Russian throne, Peter, to Catherine. However, Catherine had already met her husband to-be, who was one of her cousins. He was only 11 when they were introduced, but he was already reputed to be addicted to alcohol. Catherine didn’t experience any affection for her cousin, but was ready to obey her parents’ decision. Moreover, she realized that marrying the heir to the Russian throne would open the door to a most brilliant life, so coveted by the young and ambitious princess. Sophia and her mother made a journey to Russia in the winter of 1744, where she was converted to Orthodoxy and renamed Catherine. She was one year younger than Peter Fedorovich, the nephew of Elizabeth, the then reigning monarch of Russia. Their marriage was decided upon by their respective families.

Image from www.dic.academic.ru

The two were absolutely incompatible with each other. Still, Catherine tried to keep up appearances in front of the court and was patient with her silly and eccentric husband, as long as such pretence served her ambitious purposes. These two people unfortunately brought together by circumstances were destined to break up. Catherine, unlike her husband, was a woman of great talent, intelligence and ambition. Her strong and masculine mind, so eager to learn, had been trained and developed with all the learning and accomplishments of the age. She came to Russia with the intention of achieving a memorable career. Her husband, on the contrary, had an unstable personality, tempestuous, devoid of talent, and his education had been totally neglected. His disposition was good, but his mind was uncultivated. He constantly felt the superiority of his more gifted spouse. To add to this, Catherine had a graceful and beautifully proportioned figure. Peter’s inferiority was the first step to their mutual dislike, which led to fatal results for Peter.

Peter soon started cheating on Catherine, and she repaid in kind having her own favorites. Whether Peter was the father of Paul and Anna, the two children recorded as their offspring, remains a murky question, as five years of marriage brought no pregnancy and some said Peter could not have children.


5.02 World History.

The Palace of Versailles is located outside of Paris, France. King Louis XIV of France expanded this building, which was originally a hunting lodge, into a mansion in 1661.

The Royal Seat of San Lorenzo de El Escorial , located northwest of Madrid, Spain, home to Spanish royalty. Construction on this mansion began in 1559.

This is an image of Buckingham Palace, located in London, England. This is the official residence and office of the reigning British monarch. Construction on this palace began in 1705.

This image shows Catherine Palace, in the town of Tsarskoye Selo, south of St.
Petersburg, Russia. This mansion was the summer residence of the Russian czars . The construction on this mansion began in 1717 under Catherine the Great.

Absolute Monarchy: Is one where the monarch has supreme or absolute power over their country.

Constitutional monarchy: The monarch is not the head of state when it comes to government power. That role is usually given to an elected official such as a prime minister.

Divine right: A divine right is a right given to them by God to rule.

Royal Absolution: Which meant that royalty had all the power and all the control.

English Civil War: This war took place over seven years between 1642 and 1649. In the end, Oliver Cromwell’s forces were victorious, and King Charles I was executed.

In Eastern Europe, absolute monarchies developed because of the need for a strong central government.

Why did some countries make the shift from absolute to constitutional monarchies?:


Gledaj video: Katarina II -Radostan dan spot (Srpanj 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Konnyr

    U njemu je nešto i meni je tvoja ideja ugodna. Predlažem da se iznese na opću raspravu.

  2. Golkree

    Ispričavam se, ali, po mom mišljenju, pogriješili ste. Razgovarajmo o tome. Piši mi na PM pa ćemo razgovarati.

  3. Robbie

    And why is it so exclusively? I think why not clarify this hypothesis.



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